Bully, The White Cavalier, Gladiator, and English Bull Terrier.
|Country of origin||England|
|Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)|
The Bull Terrier's most recognizable feature is its head, described as 'egg-shaped' when viewed from the front; the top of the skull is almost flat. The profile curves gently downwards from the top of the skull to the tip of the nose, which is black and bent downwards at the tip, with well developed nostrils. The under-jaw is deep and strong. The unique triangular eyes are small, dark, and deep-set. Bull terriers are the only dogs that have triangular eyes. The body is full and round, with strong, muscular shoulders. The tail is carried horizontally. They are generally white in colour, walk with a jaunty gait, and are popularly known as the 'Gladiator of the canine race'.
Bull Terriers can be both independent and stubborn and for this reason are not considered suitable for an inexperienced dog owner. A Bull terrier has an even temperament and is amenable to discipline. Although obstinate, they are particularly good with people. Early socialisation will ensure that the dog will get along with other dogs and animals. Their personality is described as courageous, full of spirit, with a fun-loving attitude, a children-loving dog and a perfect family member. A 2008 study in Germany shows that Bull terriers have no significant temperament difference from a Golden retrievers in overall temperament researches.
All puppies should be checked for deafness, which occurs in 20.4% of pure white Bull Terriers and 1.3% of colored Bull Terriers and is difficult to notice, especially in a relatively young puppy. Many Bull Terriers have a tendency to develop skin allergies. Insect bites, such as those from fleas, and sometimes mosquitoes and mites, can produce a generalised allergic response of hives, rash, and itching. This problem can be stopped by keeping the dog free of contact from these insects, but this is definitely a consideration in climates or circumstances where exposure to these insects is inevitable. A UK breed survey puts their median lifespan at 10 years and their mean at 9 years (1 s.f., RSE = 13.87% 2 d. p.), with a good number of dogs living to 10–15 years.
Early in the mid-19th century the "Bull and Terrier" breeds were developed to satisfy the needs for vermin control and animal-based blood sports. The "Bull and Terriers" were based on the Old English Bulldog and one or more of Old English Terrier (now extinct). This new breed combined the speed and dexterity of lightly built terriers with the dour tenacity of the Bulldog, which was a poor performer in most combat situations, having been bred almost exclusively for fighting bulls and bears tied to a post. Many breeders began to breed bulldogs with terriers, arguing that such a mixture enhances the quality of fighting. Despite the fact that a cross between a bulldog and a terrier was of high value, very little or nothing was done to preserve the breed in its original form. Due to the lack of breed standards—breeding was for performance, not appearance—the "Bull and Terrier" eventually divided into the ancestors of "Bull Terriers" and "Staffordshire Bull Terriers", both smaller and easier to handle than the progenitor.
About 1850, James Hinks started breeding "Bull and Terriers" with "English White Terriers" (now extinct), looking for a cleaner appearance with better legs and nicer head. In 1862, Hinks entered a dam called "Puss" sired by his white Bulldog called "Madman" into the Bull Terrier Class at the dog show held at the Cremorne Gardens in Chelsea. Originally known as the "Hinks Breed" and "The White Cavalier", these dogs did not yet have the now-familiar "egg face", but kept the stop in the skull profile. The dog was immediately popular and breeding continued, using Dalmatian, Greyhound, Spanish Pointer, Foxhound and Whippet to increase elegance and agility; and Borzoi and Collie to reduce the stop. Hinks wanted his dogs white, and bred specifically for this. The first modern Bull Terrier is now recognised as "Lord Gladiator", from 1917, being the first dog with no stop at all.
Due to medical problems associated with all-white breeding, Ted Lyon among others began introducing colour, using Staffordshire Bull Terriers in the early 20th century. Coloured Bull Terriers were recognised as a separate variety (at least by the AKC) in 1936. Brindle is the preferred colour, but other colours are welcome.
Along with conformation, specific behaviour traits were sought. The epithet "White cavalier", harking back to an age of chivalry, was bestowed on a breed which while never seeking to start a fight was well able to finish one, while socialising well with its "pack", including children and pups. Hinks himself had always aimed at a "gentleman's companion" dog rather than a pit-fighter—though Bullies were often entered in the pits, with some success.
A Bull Terrier and a miniature Bull Terrier
In popular culture
- General Patton owned one and it is featured in the 1970 movie Patton.
- The two Tim Burton films Frankenweenie (1984) and Frankenweenie (2012) feature a bull terrier named "Sparky".
- From 1987 to 1989, Budweiser's beer commercials featured a female bull terrier named "Spuds Mackenzie"
- The 1995 film Toy Story features a mean bull terrier named "Scud".
- Target's mascot, named "Bullseye", is a bull terrier.
- 'Chico', a Bull Terrier was the pet dog of Craig in the films Next Friday and Friday After Next.
- Rocky Top's Sundance Kid won Best in Show at the Westminster Dog Show in 2006. The first colored Bull Terrier to do so.
- P.B., a bad dog turned good in Babe: Pig in the City was a Bull Terrier (though incorrectly called a Pit Bull in the film).
- The album cover for Working Class Dog by singer Rick Springfield is of his own pet Bull Terrier named Ronnie.
- Famed hockey coach and commentator Don Cherry always has a Bull Terrier named Blue with him on book and album covers
- Chris Van Allsburg, writer of books such as Jumanji and The Polar Express includes a Bull Terrier named 'Fritz' in each book he writes.
- The mascot for Hiram College is a Bull Terrier.
- 'Grimm' from the syndicated comic strip Mother Goose and Grimm is a yellow, cartoon Bull Terrier.
- In the book and film of Oliver Twist, Bill Sikes dog 'Bullseye' is a Bull Terrier.
- A formerly abandoned deaf Bull Terrier named 'Patsy Ann' from 1929-1942, would greet new ships coming into the harbor in Juneau, Alaska. She was dubbed the "Official Greeter of Juneau, Alaska" in 1934. A statue in Juneau was erected in her honor in 1992.
- CKC Breed Standards, ckc.ca, archived at the Wayback Machine, 20 February 2008.
- Breeder Retriever. "Bull Terrier Temperament".
- Ott, Stefanie A.; Schalke, Esther; von Gaertner, Amelie M.; Hackbarth, Hansjoachim (May - June 2008). "Is there a difference? Comparison of golden retrievers and dogs affected by breed-specific legislation regarding aggressive behavior". Journal of Veterinary Behavior. Volume 3, Issue 3, Elsevier Inc. pp. 134–140
- Breed-Specific Deafness Prevalence In Dogs (percent). LSU.edu
- Richards, Michael. Skin Disorders and Problems of Dogs, vetinfo4dogs.com
- "Individual Breed Results for Purebred Dog Health Survey".
- Canterbury Bull Terrier Club
- The Bull Terrier Ring, ringsurf.com
- The Bulldog & Terrier crosses, moloss.com
- The Canine Information Library:Bull and Terrier Breeds, bulldoginformation.com
- The Canine Information Library:Bull and Terrier Breeds:Bull Terrier, bulldoginformation.com
- (Bull Terrier) The History of the breed, molossermania.com
- American Kennel Club:Bull Terrier History, akc.org
- ANKC: Extended Breed Standard of The Bull Terrier & Bull Terrier (Miniature), ankc.org.au
- South African Bull Terrier Club: Are We Breeding Wimps Or Gladiators?, sabullterriers.com
- T.W. Hogarth published The Coloured and Colour Breeding, Galashiels: A Walker & Son in 1932, which included chapters – 'Colour Breeding in Bull Terriers' by Major T Grahame and Captain J.N. Ritchie and 'Colour Inheritance in Bull-terriers' by Dr F Fraser Darling
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