It is considered that German Pinscher is a prototypical Pinscher and one of the oldest German breeds, more closely related to the Schnauzer (once known as Wire-Haired Pinscher) than the Dobermann and other Pinschers. Since the mid-19th-century breeders stopped to crossbreed these coat types, and with the formation of German Pinscher-Schnauzer-Club (PSK) in 1895, were advanced distinct breed varieties.
There are several theories on the etymology of the word Pinscher; that it derives from French "pincer", meaning "to seize" and "to nip", or "to bite" and "to grip" which are possibly related to their function of catching vermin on the farm, that it derives from English "pinch" referring to their clipped ears, "fox terrier" type of dog (considered that it was a descriptive term meaning "settler" or "terrier" dog method of working, and not heritage), or biter, although the verb "pinch" has the same early 13th century Old North French *pinchier derivation, which itself possibly originates from Vulgar Latin.
The Fédération Cynologique Internationale recognizes the following pinscher breeds in Group 2, Section 1: Pinschers and Schnauzers, Section 1.1 Pinscher:
- Austrian Pinscher (Österreichischer Pinscher, no. 64)
- Dobermann (no. 143)
- German Pinscher (Deutscher Pinscher, no. 184)
- Miniature Pinscher (Zwergpinscher, no. 185)
- Affenpinscher (no. 186)
- Danish Swedish Farmdog (Dansk-svensk gårdshund, no. 356)
- In addition, the Harlequin Pinscher was earlier accepted by the FCI, but it was officially removed after its extinction.
There may be other related hunting dogs called pinscher that are not recognized breeds. In addition, individual breeders often attempt the creation of new breeds which they may call pinschers. One example of these is the Carlin Pinscher, which has been developed by crossing the Pug with the Miniature Pinscher, or other similar breeds. There are a nearly infinite number of sporting clubs, breed clubs, and internet-based breed registries and businesses in which dogs may be registered under whatever name the owner or seller wishes.
- "German Pinscher". American Kennel Club. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
The German Pinscher is among its homeland’s oldest breeds. As the progenitor of the Miniature Pinscher and the ever-popular Doberman, among other German breeds, it can be said to be the prototypical pinscher. (A helpful historian tells us that “ ‘pinscher’ appears to be a Germanic form of the French word ‘pincer,’ meaning to seize or to nip.”) And seizing and nipping are apt descriptions of how GPs originally earned a living: rat killing... The German Pinscher originated in Germany and is more closely associated to the Schnauzer than the Doberman and other Pinschers.
- "Miniature Pinscher History & Characteristics: History of the Breed". Miniature Pinscher Club of America. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
Part of the confusion in origin comes from the word “pinscher”, which is a descriptive term like “settler” or “terrier” that denotes the dog’s method of working, not his heritage. “Pinscher” refers to a dog’s habit of jumping on, and fiercely biting its quarry. A definition in Henne’s Dictionary of the German Language indicates that Pinscher is “borrowed from the English word pincher, meaning one who pinches, nips or tweaks.”
- "German Pinscher: Description". The Kennel Club. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
The word pinscher means 'to bite' or 'to grip' and it was used to describe the breed's original function as a killer of rats and other vermin.
- "Pinscher". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- "Dobermann Pinscher". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- Lee Parker. "What Is the Origin of the Word Pinscher?". Daily Puppy. Leaf Group. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- "Pinch". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- "Group 2 : Pinscher and Schnauzer - Molossoid and Swiss Mountain and Cattledogs". FCI. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- Fédération Cynologique Internationale Breeds Provisionally Accepted
- Dog Breed Registries in North America Archived 2005-12-20 at the Wayback Machine.
- Top Pinscher is a Hall of Fame to Champions ( FCI, AKC, AUS ) Pinscher around of the world.