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CRRES (P86-1)
Operator NASA / STP
COSPAR ID 1990-065A
SATCAT no. 20712
Mission duration 1 year and 3 months
Spacecraft properties
Manufacturer Ball Aerospace
Launch mass 4,383 kilograms (9,663 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date 25 July 1990, 19:21 (1990-07-25UTC19:21Z) UTC
Rocket Atlas I AC-69
Launch site Cape Canaveral LC-36B
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime GSO
Semi-major axis 23,198.0 kilometers (14,414.6 mi)
Eccentricity 0.7101031
Perigee 347.0 kilometers (215.6 mi)
Apogee 33,293 kilometers (20,687 mi)
Inclination 18.150°
Period 613.4 minutes
RAAN 78.3921°
Argument of perigee 251.6790°
Mean anomaly 24.3699°
Mean motion 2.45705642
Epoch 31 May 2016, 23:13:47 UTC[1]

The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) was launched on July 25, 1990 into a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) for a nominal three-year mission to investigate fields, plasmas, and energetic particles inside the Earth's magnetosphere. As part of the CRRES program, the SPACERAD (Space Radiation Effects) project, managed by Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, investigated the radiation environment of the inner and outer radiation belts and measured radiation effects on state-of-the-art microelectronics devices.

Other magnetospheric, ionospheric, and cosmic ray experiments were also included onboard CRRES and supported by NASA or the Office of Naval Research. The chemical release project was managed by NASA/MSFC and utilized the release of chemicals from onboard canisters at low altitudes near dawn and dusk perigee times and at high altitudes near local midnight. The chemical releases were monitored with optical and radar instrumentation by ground-based observers to measure the bulk properties and movement of the expanding clouds of photo-ionized plasma along field lines after the releases occurred. In order to study the magnetosphere at different local times during the mission, the satellite orbit was designed to precess with respect to the Earth-Sun line such that the local time at apogee decreased by 2.5 minutes/day from 08:00 (LT) just after launch and returned to this position in nineteen month cycles.

The CRRES spacecraft had the shape of an octagonal prism with solar arrays on the top side. The prism is 1 m high and 3 m between opposite faces. Four of the eight compartments were for the chemical canisters and the other four housed the SPACERAD and other experiments. The spacecraft body was spun at 2.2 rpm about a spin axis in the ecliptic plane and kept pointed about 12 degrees ahead of the Sun's apparent motion in celestial coordinates. Pre-launch and in-flight operations were supported by the Space Test and Transportation Program Office of the U.S. Air Force Space Division. Contact with the CRRES spacecraft was lost on October 12, 1991 and was presumed to be due to onboard battery failure.

Taken From NASA.


  1. ^ CRRES - Orbit. Heavens Above. Retrieved 02 June 2016.

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text in the public domain from the National Space .html J-Track Live view of satellites