Catoctin Furnace

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Catoctin Furnace Historic District
Catoctin Furnace.jpg
Catoctin Furnace is located in Maryland
Catoctin Furnace
Catoctin Furnace is located in the US
Catoctin Furnace
Location Catoctin Furnace, Maryland
Coordinates 39°34′35″N 77°26′2″W / 39.57639°N 77.43389°W / 39.57639; -77.43389Coordinates: 39°34′35″N 77°26′2″W / 39.57639°N 77.43389°W / 39.57639; -77.43389
Built 1774
NRHP reference # 72000578
Added to NRHP February 11, 1972[1]

Catoctin Furnace (also known as Catoctin Iron Furnace) is a historic iron forge located on Route 15 between Frederick and Thurmont in Catoctin Furnace, Maryland. The smelting blast furnace is shown. No forge is at the site now. Forges were present when the ironworks was operational.


Catoctin Furnace was constructed in 1774 by four brothers Thomas, Baker, Roger and James Johnson to produce pig iron from locally mined hematite.[2][3] In blast by 1776, the furnace provided ammunition (cannonballs) for the American Revolutionary War. Some sources state that it also provided cannon.[4][5][6] They also state that iron from this furnace was (much later of course) used to make plates for the USS Monitor; however that is considered unlikely by researchers.[7] The Johnson brothers owned the furnaces at the site at first collectively, and after 1793 singly, until 1811.[8]

Ultimately, three furnaces were built at the site, each named for the site. The first Catoctin Furnace was rebuilt a short distance away in 1787.[8] The second, named Isabella was built in the 1850s by Jacob Kunkel (references give dates from 1853 to 1867). It still stands, within Cunningham Falls State Park.[9]

The first two furnaces burned charcoal.[10] The third, which opened in 1873, burned coke[11] (some sources say anthracite coal, though this would be more costly[3][12]). The entire complex closed in 1903 (attributed to rising costs and the too-late introduction of a rail link).[6][13][14]

Present day[edit]

The furnace's remains are located in Cunningham Falls State Park. A walking-tour handout is available in the park's visitor center.

In 1973, the Catoctin Furnace Historical Society, Inc. was formed by G. Eugene Anderson, Clement E. Gardiner, J. Franklin Mentzer, and Earl M. Shankle to “foster and promote the restoration of the Catoctin Furnace Historic District…and to maintain the same exclusively for educational and scientific purposes…to exhibit to coming generations our heritage of the past…” The Catoctin Furnace Historical Society, Inc., celebrates, studies, and preserves the rich history of this pre-revolutionary industrial village, including the architecture, cultural landscapes, lifeways, and foodways of the workers.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ National Park Service (2008-04-15). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
  2. ^ "Records Relating to Pre-National Zoological Park Purchases". Smithsonian Institution. 
  3. ^ a b T. J. C. Williams (1979). History of Frederick County, Maryland. Genealogical Publishing Com. 
  4. ^ George Ernest Barnett (1902). State Banking in the United States Since the Passage of the National Bank Act. Johns Hopkins Press. p. 46. 
  5. ^ "Catoctin Iron Furnace". Greater Emmitsburg Area Historical Society. 
  6. ^ a b George Wireman. "Gateway to the Mountains — Chapter 3: The Catoctin Iron Works". Greater Emmitsburg Area Historical Society. 
  7. ^ Edmund F. Wehrle (March 2000). "Catoctin Mountain Park Historic Resource Study — Chapter Three: Civil War and Decline of Industry". U. S. National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-09-30. 
  8. ^ a b James Moore Swank (1884). History of the Manufacture of Iron in All Ages. p. 194. 
  9. ^ "Catoctin Furnace at Cunningham Falls State Park". The Journey Through Hallowed Ground. Archived from the original on 2007-07-23. Retrieved 2007-09-27. 
  10. ^ "Catoctin Iron Furnace". U. S. National Park Service. 
  11. ^ Directory of Iron and Steel Works of the United States and Canada. American Iron and Steel Institute. 1890. 
  12. ^ Maryland Board of World's Fair Managers (1893). Maryland, Its Resources, Industries and Institutions. Sun job office. 
  13. ^ "Catoctin Furnace at Cunningham Falls State Park". Maryland Department of Natural Resources. 2002-08-28. Archived from the original on 2007-09-25. 
  14. ^ "Civil Engineering in Maryland — Catoctin Furnace". The Johns Hopkins University. Archived from the original on 2007-07-16. 

External links[edit]