Charles Jencks

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Charles Jencks, photograph by Colin Hattersley 2016
Charles Jencks at the Garden of Cosmic Speculation in Scotland
Jencks' Cells of Life at Jupiter Artland, near Edinburgh

Charles Alexander Jencks (born June 21, 1939) is a renowned cultural theorist, landscape designer, architectural historian, and co-founder of the Maggie’s Cancer Care Centres. His best-selling books include The Language of Post-Modern Architecture, Adhocism, The Architecture of the Jumping Universe and The Architecture of Hope (on Maggie’s Centres). His recent landscape work is summarised in The Universe in the Landscape. Scotland is home to several of his most exciting landscapes including The Garden of Cosmic Speculation and Jupiter Artland, outside Edinburgh. His continuing project The Crawick Multiverse, 2015, commissioned by the Duke of Buccleuch, culminates annually in a three day festival of performance art and public debates with the world leading cosmologists and scientists.

A short narrative of related ideas[edit]

Post-Modernism Charles Jencks has held simultaneous jobs over his seventy-plus years: architectural critic and historian, cultural theorist, designer of cosmic landscapes, co-founder of the Maggie Cancer Care Centres and what he is best known for – becoming the protagonist and definer of Post-Modernism.

Combining opposite roles is itself a goal of the postmodern agenda, and Jencks was one of the first to define it positively as an umbrella movement. This primary definition occurred because architecture, like opera, is a hybrid artform necessarily mixing fast-changing technologies and slow-changing values. It is the perfect subject to cCharles Jencks onfront the problems of modernity, and thus the nascent movement helped lead worldwide shifts in the other arts and sciences. Every field soon adopted a pluralist approach and, in a globalised world, defined its particular version of the new philosophy – under such rubrics as “postmodern dance” and “complexity science.” Not since the modern world view was adopted centuries ago has such a seismic shift occurred, and it continues to fluctuate in fortune along with its parent, modernity.

Jencks' Landform at the Scottish National Gallery of M
Charles Jencks infront of his black hole painting, photograph by Colin Hattersley
odern Art

Born in Baltimore Maryland on June 21, 1939, Charles Alexander Jencks followed his parents – the composer Gardner Platt Jencks and Ruth DeWitt Pearl – to Connecticut and Cape Cod. Summers in this idyllic refuge of dissident artists and intellectuals had a strong influence on his outlook. After getting degrees at Harvard, in English literature and architecture, he moved to the UK in 1965 where he has lived ever since. In 1970 Jencks received a PhD in architectural history, studying under the radical modernist Reyner Banham, from whom he learned much especially how to enjoy disagreements. The fruits of this confrontation turned into his pluralist critique of the reigning dogma, Modern Movements in Architecture, published by Penguin books 1973, which became a best-selling textbook for fifteen years. It criticised the suppression of the outlying modernists – the Expressionists, Constructivists, Organicists who did not fit the party line – and showed how Modernists had collaborated with Vichy, Mussolini and Hitler. In short, the book revealed the dark sides of Modernism without either supporting a return to the past or a single style. This ‘criticism from within’ led directly to Jencks’ The Language of Post-Modern Architecture, 1977, and seven later editions continuing into the 21st century. The new PM movement was defined as based on pluralism and hybridity, combining opposite codes of architecture that could adequately express the contradictory requirements and tastes of a global society. It was defined variously as ‘the loyal opposition to modernism’, ‘the continuation of Modernism and its transcendence,’ and ‘the double-coding of modernism with other codes’ – or, in 2007, ‘Critical Modernism,’ the fifth edition of his What is Post-Modernism?

Charles Jencks

Complexity science first mooted in the 1960s by Jane Jacobs, Rachel Carson and Robert Venturi, became in the 1980s at the Sante Fe Institute, the intellectual foundation of what they predicted as ‘the sciences of the 21st century.’ These nonlinear sciences touched all aspects of life, and self-organising systems, a perfect foil to the modernist sciences of simplicity stemming from Descartes, Newton and Darwin. Chaos science, fractals, and present-day cosmology all derive from this new paradigm. It was summarised in Jencks’ the Architecture of the Jumping Universe, 1995, the title which expresses the dynamic and emergent world view of a self-organising cosmos. By the late 1990s it had become the orientation of many creative disciplines.

Jencks’ own designs experiment with these ideas, as a provocation to a developing Post-Modern tradition. First was his studio in the woods, a cheap mass-produced garage structure of $5,000 – titled polemically The Garagia Rotunda, where he spent part of the summers with his family. The ad hoc use of readymade materials, and a basic garage, meant that the savings could be used on symbolic ornament: such things as the one-inch rotunda, the eleven shades of blue that bring out the Cape Cod landscape and metaphors of the body. His polemical text with Nathan Silver defined Adhocism – the Case for Improvisation in 1971 and 2013. Adhocism became one of the several strands of Post-Modernism that waxed and waned, as it has done over the centuries.

The question of expressing content in contemporary life was one of the pressing issues of the 1960s: who is the ultimate user of architecture; what values should be crystallised in architecture, above all what is public architecture to represent? These issues were addressed in Meaning in Architecture, 1969, co-edited with George Baird, a hypertext of leading architects and theorists commenting on each other’s texts. This was followed by other anthologies on semiotics, the theory of signs. Then Jencks’ Towards a Symbolic Architecture, 1985, focussed on today’s agnosticism and neutrality and how they led to a pervasive abstraction and architectural malapropism. His London house, designed with Maggie Keswick and a host of Postmodern architects including Terry Farrell and Michael Graves, was based on explicit and implicit signs and symbols. They referred to cosmic meanings that remain eternal – black holes and whirlpool galaxies – or to local nature, the sun, the moon and changing seasons. And they depicted self-organising patterns that might become the iconology for a Post-Christian architecture, rather than the gratuitous ornament being tacked onto buildings, or the empty neutrality, the default mode of so much Modernism.

Three years later Jencks switched to landscape design as a site for symbolic exploration, particularly the hybrid landforms that mix sculpture and epigraphy. The great outdoors became the focus for symbolism when Maggie asked Charles to design in the family home and garden in Scotland. The result in 2003, after many vicissitudes, was The Garden Of Cosmic Speculation, a series of twenty areas designed around various metaphors such as the DNA garden, Quark Walk, Fractal terrace and Comet Bridge. A “landscape of waves” was the underlying grammar that pulled the landforms and planting together, the idea that wave-forms were just as significant as particle-forms, the latter which had dominated Modernist physics since Isaac Newton, and architecture since Le Corbusier. Further hybrid landforms and symbolic sculptures were built in Edinburgh, Milan, Long Island, Cambridge, Suncheon South Korea (with Lily Jencks), and other countries, some of which was published in The Universe in The Landscape, 2011. Writing and design informed each other.

After Maggie died in 1995, Jencks helped co-found and further the Maggie Cancer Caring Centres, twenty of which were built in twenty years. Architects who had become friends were asked in the first instance to design these small havens, close to a mega-NHS-hospital. Complementing the primary with secondary therapies, these Centres grew out of Maggie and Charles’ experience with cancer, the idea of self-help guided by professionals – and changes in lifestyle that could extend life and improve the quality of living with cancer. Above all was the idea that cancer needs the care of a friend, a relation or attentive companion, someone that can help you navigate the difficult route through over-choice and pain. Major architects took up the challenge, and produced strikingly different icons to the same programme, a demonstration of the pluralist paradigm.

By the year 2000 a conjecture became current among scientists that we inhabit a Multiverse, an ensemble of universes. This speculation explains a lot, is reinforced by theories such as inflation and some evidence. It presumes that the parameters and laws are set slightly differently, as one universe grows from another, illuminating why ours is so miraculously fine-tuned for life and basic qualities. From 2010, Jencks started work on The Crawick Multiverse, a fifty-five acre site in southwest Scotland. This project developed for Richard Buccleuch, along with scientists, artists, Charles’ co-worker Alistair Clark, opened in 2015. It remains a site where every summer new cosmic installations and performances take place. Galaxies and black holes are celebrated by landforms and local red sandstone. The mythic center of the earth is an Omphalos of boulders; several agencies that affect life – such as the Solar Flare-Earth Shield – are dramatized. The multiverse carries forward ideas first developed in Jencks’ Pluriverse (a chapter in Adhocism) where the plurality of the cosmos and the city is the theme.

Greater complexity, greater meaning? The story of the universe shows the evolution of ever-greater complexity punctuated by catastrophic setbacks and moments of devolution towards simplicity. This mixed message – benign at the large scale with gratuitous suffering at the small – is oxymoronic. It led Jencks to define the Postmodern Agenda in 1992 as ‘tragic optimism,’ and pursue a zigzag course of public and private work, the co-creation of cancer caring centres and the symbolic landscapes and architectures that have some explicit public meaning. His idea that greater meaning emerges over time assumes that positive evolution also entails greater sensitivity and organisation, more of the qualities that makes life worth living. The PIC (inscribed at the top of the Multiverse) is the principle of increasing complexity at work. The growth of many cultures, and the cultivation of better wine, are typical positives that do not deny their opposite, mass-cult and the proliferation of plonk. But they put the race to the bottom in perspective. Global culture may homogenise the landscape, but materialists cannot deny the continuous evolution over three billion years, that ever-more crystals and beautiful minerals have emerged and continue to do so. The Metaphysical Landscape, an exhibition of sculpture at Jupiter Artland 2011, presented the mixed world view. Jencks’ later exhibit at the Merz Gallery, Sanquhar 2016 continued with this Metaphysical Realism, the idea of an art constrained by cosmic reality, but still transcendent of nature and culture. The value of imagination and imagination of values see to that.

Early years[edit]

Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Jencks spent his childhood in New England. His father was the pianist and composer Gardner Jencks. Jencks received his Bachelor of Arts degree in English literature at Harvard University in 1961 and a Master of Arts degree in architecture from the Harvard Graduate School of Design in 1965. In the mid-sixties, Jencks moved to the United Kingdom, where he now has houses in Scotland and London. He took his studies even further in 1970, receiving his PhD in Architectural History from University College, London. He has lived in the UK ever since.

He has two sons by his first marriage; one works as a landscape architect in Shanghai, while the other works for Jardines in Vietnam. He has two children by Maggie Keswick: John Jencks, a London-based filmmaker, married to Amy Agnew and Lily Clare Jencks, who in 2014 wed Roger Keeling.[1] Jencks married Louisa Lane Fox as his third wife in 2006, and is thus the stepfather of her son Henry Lane Fox and daughter Martha Lane Fox, Baroness Lane-Fox of Soho.

Landscape architecture and landforms[edit]

The Garden of Cosmic Speculation, designed in part by Jencks and begun in 1988, was dedicated to Jencks' late wife Maggie Keswick Jencks. Jencks, his wife, scientists, and their friends designed the garden based on natural and scientific processes. Jencks' goal was to celebrate nature, but he also incorporated elements from the modern sciences into the design. The garden contains species of plants that are pleasurable to the eye, as well as edible. Preserving paths and the traditional beauty of the garden is still his concern, but Jencks enhances the cosmic landscape using new tools and artificial materials. Just as Japanese Zen gardens, Persian paradise gardens, and the English and French Renaissance gardens were analogies for the universe, the design represents the cosmic and cultural evolution of the contemporary world. The garden is a microcosm - as one walks through the gardens they experience the universe in miniature. According to Jencks, gardens are also autobiographical because they reveal the happiest moments, the tragedies, and the truths of the owner and family.

As the garden developed starting in 1988, so too did such sciences as cosmology, and this allowed a dynamic interaction between the unfolding universe, an unfolding science, and a questioning design. Jencks believes that contemporary science is potentially a great moving force for creativity, because it tells us the truth about the way the universe is and shows us the patterns of beauty. As explained in his recent book, The Universe in the Landscape (2011), his work is content-driven. His many landforms are based on the idea that landforming is a radical hybrid activity combining gardens, landscape, urbanism, architecture, sculpture, and epigraphy. Thus the landforms often include enigmatic writing and complex symbolism. Landforms provoke the visitor to interpret landscape on the largest and smallest scale.

Jencks has become a leading figure in British landscape architecture. His landscape work is inspired by fractals, genetics, chaos theory, waves and solitons. In Edinburgh, Scotland, he designed the landform at the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art in collaboration with Terry Farrell and Duncan Whatmore of Terry Farrell and Partners. Other works include the Garden of Cosmic Speculation, at Portrack House near Dumfries; Designs for Black Hole Landscape, IUCAA, Pune, India, 2002; Portello Park, Milan 2002-7 (Time Garden 2004-7); Two Cells – Inverness Maggie's Centre, 2003-5; Northumberlandia Landform, 2004; Cells of Life, Jupiter Artland, Bonnington House 2003-2010; Crawick Multiverse, 2006- ; Memories of the Future landform and reclamation project, Altdobern, Germany; Wu Chi, Black Hole Oval Terrace, Beijing Olympic Park, 2008; and The Scottish World, St. Ninians, Kelty, 2003, 2010+.

He is also a furniture designer and sculptor, completing DNA sculptures at Kew Gardens in 2003 and Cambridge University in 2005.

Other works[edit]

  • Symbolic Furniture, exhibition, Aram Designs, London, 1985.
  • Garagia Rotunda, Truro, Massachusetts, 1976-77.
  • The Elemental House (with Buzz Yudell), Los Angeles.
  • The Thematic House (with Terry Farrell), London, 1979-84.
  • DNA Sculpture for James Watson at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories, Long Island.
  • Landform Ueda, Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh, 1999-2002.
  • Matt Ridley, Centre for Life, Newcastle, May 2000.
  • The Cell and DNA, Maggie's Centre (Gatehouse), Glasgow, 2002-2003.
  • Dividing Cells, Maggie's Centre, Inverness, 2003-2005.
  • Wu Chi, Olympic Forest Park, Beijing, 2008.
  • Rail Garden of Scottish Worthies, Portrack, Dumfries, 2003-2006.
  • Spirals of Time, Parco Portello, Milan, 2002-2012.
  • Cells of Life, Jupiter Artland, Bonnington House, Kirknewton, nr Edinburgh, 2003-2010.
  • Cosmic Rings of Cern, Cern, Geneva, In Development 2008+ (with Jencks2 ).
  • The Scottish World, St Ninians, Kelty, Construction 2010+.
  • DoubleWalk, Midpark Hospital, Dumfries, 2010-2012 (with Jencks2 ).
  • Northumberlandia, The Lady of the North, Cramlington, 2005-2012.
  • Gretna Landmark, Gretna, In Development 2011+ (with Cecil Balmond).
  • Holding The Eco-line, Suncheon City, Korea, Construction 2012+ (with Jencks2 ).
  • The Crawick Multiverse, Scotland 2015

Maggie's Centres[edit]

With his late wife, Maggie Keswick Jencks, he was the co-founder of Maggie's Cancer Caring Centres. There are thirteen Maggie's Centres up and running, designed by some of the world's most renowned architects. Based on the notion of self-help and the fact that cancer patients are often involved in a long, drawn-out struggle, the Centres provide social and psychological help in an attractive setting next to large hospitals. Their architecture, landscape, and art are designed to support both patients and caregivers and to give dignity to those who, in the past, often hid their disease. Maggie Keswick Jencks is the author of the book The Chinese Garden (on which her husband also worked).

Architectural writing[edit]

Jencks is synonymous with his writings on postmodernism in architecture. He discusses his theories of postmodern architecture in his best-selling book The Language of Post-Modern Architecture (1977). Jencks discusses the paradigm shift from modern to postmodern architecture. Modern architecture concentrates on univalent forms such as right angles and square buildings often resembling office buildings. However, postmodern architecture focuses on forms derived from the mind, body, city context, and nature.

His book The Iconic Building examines trend setting and celebrity culture. He writes that the reason that our culture seeks the "iconic building" is because it has the possibility of reversing the economic trend of a flagging “conurbation”. An iconic building is created to make a splash, to generate money, and the normal criteria of valuation do not apply. He says that “enigmatic signifiers” can be used in an effective way to support the deeper meaning of the building.

His book Critical Modernism - Where is Post-Modernism Going? came out in 2007. It is an overview of postmodernism in which Jencks argues that postmodernism is a critical reaction to modernism that comes from within modernism itself.[2][3][4] On March 26, 2007, the Royal Academy hosted a debate between Jencks and John N. Gray centered around the book.[5]

The Story of Post-Modernism, Five Decades of the Ironic, Iconic and Critical in Architecture, 2011, summarises the history of the movement since its origins in the 1960s.

Jencks has lectured at over forty universities throughout the globe, including in Beijing, Shanghai, Tokyo, Milan, Barcelona, and in the US at Harvard, Columbia, Princeton, and Yale.

Other critical remarks[edit]

On January 13, 2012, Jencks offered a critical analysis, called "Notes on the Complexities of Post-Modernism", of the V&A's definitive 2011 exhibition, "Postmodernism: Style and Subversion 1970-1990," in The Fortnightly Review.[6] Although Jencks was represented in the exhibition, he criticised the curators for trying to "tell the story of Post-Modernism with objects and style alone."


He has appeared on television programmes in the US and UK, and he has written two feature films for the BBC (on Le Corbusier, and on Frank Lloyd Wright and Michael Graves).

  • Kings of Infinite Space, 1983.
  • Symbolic Architecture, 1985.
  • Space on Earth, 1986.
  • Battle of Paternoster Square, 1987.
  • Pride of Place, 1988.
  • A Second Chance, 1989.
  • Let the People Choose, 1990. BBC Late show.
  • New Moderns, 1990.
  • La Villette, 1991.
  • Tokyo, 1991 (1992 BP Arts Journalism TV Award).
  • Libeskind, Jewish Museum, Berlin, 1991.
  • Culture Debate, 1991.
  • Frank Gehry and Los Angeles, 1992.
  • Philip Johnson, The Godfather 1994.
  • BBC: Gardens of the Mind. Television programme and conference organised around work-in-progress, New World View, Tokyo and Kyoto, May 1991.
  • "The Garden of Cosmic Speculation" (TV Film: 50 minutes) 1998.
  • Richard Meier The Frame; Daniel Libeskind; The Spiral, 1999.
  • Rebuilding the Palace; Frank Lloyd Wright - Tin Gods, 2002.
  • Opening of Scottish Parliament for BBC Scotland, October 9, 2004.
  • Melvyn Bragg, The South Bank Show, March 2005.
  • John Soane, American TV (Murray Grigor) (USA), May 2005.

Select bibliography[edit]

  • The Architecture of Hope: Maggie's Cancer Caring Centres, 2nd edition, by Charles Jencks, Frances Lincoln, 2015
  • The Story of Post-Modernism: Five Decades of the Ironic, Iconic and Critical in Architecture, Wiley, London, 2011.
  • The Universe in the Landscape, Landforms by Charles Jencks, Frances Lincoln, London, 2011.
  • The Architecture of Hope - Maggie's Cancer Caring Centres, Frances Lincoln, London, 2010.
  • Critical Modernism - Where is Post Modernism Going?, Wiley Academy, London, 2007.
  • The Iconic Building - The Power of Enigma, Frances Lincoln, London, 2005.
  • The Garden of Cosmic Speculation, Frances Lincoln Limited, London, October 2003.
  • The New Paradigm in Architecture, (seventh edition of The Language of Post-Modern Architecture), Yale University Press, London, New Haven, 2002.
  • Le Corbusier and the Continual Revolution in Architecture, The Monacelli Press, 2000
  • Architecture 2000 and Beyond, (Critique & new predictions for 1971 book), Academy, Wiley, May 2000
  • The Architecture of the Jumping Universe, Academy, London & NY, 1995. Second Edition Wiley, 1997.
  • Heteropolis - Los Angeles, The Riots & Hetero-Architecture, Academy, London & NY, 1993.
  • The New Moderns, Academy London, Rizzoli, NY 1990.
  • The Prince, The Architects and New Wave Monarchy, Academy, London and Rizzoli, NY 1988.
  • Post-Modernism, The New Classicism in Art and Architecture, Rizzoli, NY and Academy, London 1987; German edition, 1987, reprinted 1988.
  • What is Post-Modernism?, St Martins Press, NY 1986, Academy, London 1986. Second Edition 1988. Third Edition 1989. Fourth Edition 1996.
  • Towards A Symbolic Architecture, Rizzoli, NY; Academy, London 1985.
  • Kings of Infinite Space, St. Martins Press, NY; Academy, London 1983.
  • Abstract Representation, St. Martins Press, NY 1983, Architectural Design monograph, London 1983.
  • Current Architecture (UK edition), Architecture Today (US edition), Academy Editions, London, 1982.
  • Skyscrapers - Skycities, Rizzoli, NY 1980, Academy, London 1980.
  • Signs, Symbols and Architecture, edited with Richard Bunt and Geoffrey Broadbent, John Wiley, NY and London 1980.
  • Late-Modern Architecture, Rizzoli, NY 1980, Academy, London 1980. Translated into German and Spanish.
  • Bizarre Architecture, Rizzoli, NY 1979 and Academy, London 1979.
  • The Language of Post-Modern Architecture, Rizzoli, NY 1977, revised 1978, Third Ed. 1980, Fourth Ed. 1984, Fifth Ed. 1988, Sixth Ed. 1991, Academy Editions London 1977, 1978, 1980, 1984, 1991.
  • Modern Movements in Architecture, Anchor Press, NY 1973.
  • Adhocism, with Nathan Silver, Doubleday, NY 1972; Reprinted with a new Introduction and new Post-Script, MIT Press, 2013.
  • Architecture 2000: predictions and methods. Londres, Studio Vista, 1971


  1. ^ Grant, Jackie. 'Dumfries Big Bang Theory Solved', Daily Record. Aug 26 2014.
  2. ^ Wiley, Publisher
  3. ^ Amazon Books
  4. ^ TVO, Big Ideas Talk: Charles Jencks
  5. ^ "RA Forum Debate with Charles Jencks: Critical Modernism". Retrieved March 4, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Notes on the Complexities of Post-Modernism". Retrieved February 2, 2012. 


  • "Cv." Index. Web. December 1, 2010. <>.
  • "Charles Jencks, Esq." Web. July 29, 2011. <>.
  • "Designs." Index. Web. December 1, 2010. <>.
  • Jencks, Charles. Modern Movements in Architecture. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973. Print.Jencks, Charles. Post-modern Classicism: the New Synthesis. London: Architectural *Design, 1980. Print.
  • Jencks, Charles. The New Paradigm in Architecture: the Language of Post-modernism. NewHaven, CT: Yale UP, 2002. Print.
  • Jencks, Charles. The Garden of Cosmic Speculation. London: Frances Lincoln, 2005. Print.
  • Jencks, Charles. The Iconic Building. New York, NY: Rizzoli, 2005. Print.
  • Jencks, Charles. The Post-modern Reader. London: Academy Editions, 1992. Print.

External links[edit]

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