Chiara Lubich

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Servant of God
Chiara Lubich
Chiara Lubich.JPG
Laywoman; Founder
BornSilvia Lubich
(1920-01-22)22 January 1920
Trento, Italy
Died14 March 2008(2008-03-14) (aged 88)
Rocca di Papa, Italy
Venerated inRoman Catholic Church

Chiara Lubich (born Silvia Lubich ; January 22, 1920, Trento – March 14, 2008, Rocca di Papa) was an Italian bestselling author and spiritual leader, founder, and president of the worldwide Focolare Movement,[1] which works to foster unity and universal fraternity at all levels of society. Lubich is considered one of the most remarkable women in the Roman Catholic Church[2] and one of the most significant leaders in ecumenical, interreligious and intercultural dialogue.[3]

Because of her lifelong commitment to build bridges of peace and unity among individuals, generations, nations and social and cultural groups, involving people of all ages, cultures, and beliefs, she received numerous awards, including the UNESCO Prize for Peace Education (Paris 1996)[4] and the Human Rights Award of the Council of Europe (Strasbourg 1998).

The name “Chiara Lubich” has entered the history of spirituality of the 20th and 21stcenturies[5] and is included among spiritual masters and mystics.[6][7] Countless people continue to follow her way of life because of its genuine evangelical message, universal dimension, and cultural and social impact.[8] She created “an example of a new planetary, prophetic and emancipatory humanism,”as recognized by the numerous honorary doctorates conferred on her by universities in various parts of the world.[9]

Origins[edit]

Chiara Lubich was baptized with the name of Silvia. She took the name “Chiara” when she entered the Franciscan Third Order (1942-1949). She was the second of four children. Her mother, Luigia Marinconz, was a fervent Catholic, her father, Luigi,was a socialist and convinced anti-fascist.[10]

Piazza Cappuccini - Primo Focolare

Childhood and adolescence[edit]

Luigi Lubich worked as a typesetter for the socialist newspaper,Il Popolo, directed by Cesare Battisti. After the suppression of the newspaper by the Italian fascist regime, he opened an export business of Italian wines into Germany, but due to the crisis of 1929, he was forced to close it. Having refused to become a member of the National Fascist Party, he found it impossible to get work and had to resort to doing odd jobs to support his family. Thus, the family livedin financial hardship for years, and from an early age, Silvia gave private lessons to contribute to the family budget.[11] Her mother and the local Sisters of the Child Mary provided her with a solid formation in the Christian faith. From her father, her brother Gino, who was also a socialist, and the family's life of poverty, she developed a strong sense of social justice, becoming very sensitive to the needs of the poor. At the age of 15,she joined the ranks of Catholic Action in Trent and some became a diocesan youth leader[12]

Education and teaching career[edit]

Even as a child, Chiara had a great desire to know the truth about life and began to look for God at a very early age. She attendeda teachers’ college and became a passionate student of philosophy. Her great desire was to attend the Catholic University of Milan,where she hoped to learn the truth about God, but she failed by only one point to win the competition for a scholarship. Initially deeply distressed, she suddenly felt consoled by the inner certainty: "I [God] will be your teacher."[13] As soon as she graduated, she took jobs teaching in elementary schools in the valley regions around Trent (1938–39) and then in Cognola (1940-1943), a town close to Trent, in a school for orphans run by the Capuchin Fathers. In the autumn of 1943, she left teaching and enrolled at the Ca'Foscari University of Venice, continuing to give private lessons. However, due to the circumstances of the war, at the end of 1944, she had to interrupt her studies.

Founding period: 1942-1951[edit]

“A decisive discovery”[edit]

The founding is against the backdrop of the horrors of World War II, with its millions of victims, mass deportations and the atrocity of the Holocaust, a huge setback for humanity that caused people to question the meaning of life, the world and God. In the midst of this, Chiara discovered a strong and life-giving alternative: God who is Love. This was also the inspiring spark of a movement for peace and unity that would later emerge.[14] In autumn of 1942, in the wake of a simple conversation about the love of God with a Capuchin friar, Casimiro Bonetti. He proposed that Silvia enter the Franciscan Third Order "to help revive and rejuvenate it".[15] Attracted by St. Clare of Assisi's radical choice of God, she took the name “Chiara,” Italian for “Clare”. Her experience of God's love was the topic of the conferences she gave to the young women of the Third Order. Among them, Natalia Dallapiccola, at the age of eighteen, was the first to follow her[16]

The lesson of the war[edit]

On September 2, 1943, a first bombing by the Anglo-American forces took Trent by surprise. Following the armistice between Italy and the Allies, the territory around Trent was occupied by Nazi forces and annexed to the Third Reich. Her brother Gino joined the communist partisans and fought against the Nazi-fascist regime. In the summer of 1944, he was arrested and tortured. Amidst the uncertainty about the future and fear for life itself caused by the war, Chiara realized how everything is passing, everything collapses, everything is “vanity of vanities” (Eccl 1:1), “only God remains” and she had discovered that God is Love.[17] She became convinced that “the salvation of the twentieth century is love”.[18] She shared this great news with “letters of fire” that she wrote to her relatives, to the young women of the Third Order, to her colleagues. Soon other young women were attracted to live this “divine adventure”[19]

The call[edit]

Two months later, at the end of November 1943, she felt a strong inner call to choose God as the only ideal of her life. On December 7, in the chapel of the Capuchin College, she pronounced her total “yes, forever” with a vow of perpetual chastity. That “personal and secret” act would mark the beginning of something new in the Church, the Focolare Movement.[20]

A revolution born from the Gospel[edit]

As she and her first companions ran to the air-raid shelters, she took only a copy of the Gospel. They read it and thentried to put it into practice immediately. Those words become their code of life. They realized that it taught them how to respond to the Love of God, who is the Truth that so many were looking for. It was the new medicine that could heal the wounds of individuals and society as a whole. This experience would multiply in the lives of all those who followed her. In 1948 she wrote: “

We have understood that the world needs to be healed by the Gospel because only the Good News can give back to the world the life it lacks. This is why we live the Word of Life (…). We have no other book except the Gospel, no other science, no other art. That is where life is!”[21]

Among the poor[edit]

War brings destruction, hunger, and misery. Chiara and her first companions dedicated themselves to the people in the poorest sections of Trent, recognizing in them the presence of Jesus (cf Matt 18:20). They shared with them what few they had. Thanks to the involvement in this adventure of a growing number of people, food, clothing and medicine arrived with unusual abundance. They experienced the truth of the sentence “give and it will be given to you” (Luke 6:38; Matt 7:7). To their amazement, the Gospel promises were punctually fulfilled. Chiara made a systematic plan with the goal of “solving the social problems of Trent.”In 1947, it took shape as “fraternity in action". In February 1948, in an editorial signed by Silvia Lubich, which appeared in L'Amico Serafico, the magazine of the Capuchin Fathers, she launched the communion of goods to all those around her, to follow the example of the first Christians. After only a few months, 500 people were involved in a widespread communion of material and spiritual goods [22]

Living for the unity of the human family[edit]

In that dark time without much hope for the future, a universal project opened up for Chiara:

One day I found myself with my new companions in a dark, candle-litcellar, a book of the Gospel in hand. I opened it at random and found the prayer of Jesus before he died: ‘Father (...) that they may all be one’ (John 17:11). It was not aneasy text for us to start with, but one by one those words seemed to come to life, giving us the conviction that we were born for that page of the Gospel.[23]

For Chiara, “that they may all be one” could mean nothing less than the unity of all humankind and another fortuitous discovery showed her the way to accomplish it. Unity with God and among human beings, which was the greatest aspiration of that time and of all times,[24] could be achieved on one condition: by embracing the cross. On January 24, 1944, Chiara understood from a comment made by a priest that Jesus had experienced the height of his pain when he cried out on the cross: “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” (Mark 15:34). From that moment on, Chiara's choice of God became a choice of “Jesus Forsaken”.[25] Gradually she and her companions realized that in that moment Jesus changed the course of history. He had transformed all forms of pain and suffering into “new life” and healed all the traumas of division.[26] Years later,she wouldaffirm:

Jesus Forsaken won every battle in us, even the most terrible ones (…). But it is necessary to be madly in love with him, who is the synthesis of every physical or spiritual suffering, the remedy (…) for every pain of the soul.[27]

He was the measure of the love they needed to live, to carry out his commandment, which they discovered as the heart of the Gospel: “Love one another as I have loved you” (John 15:12). That commandment would prove to be the DNA of a new social order.[28] Mutual love, lived radically, caused a qualitative leap in their lives.

We experienced joy, new peace, the fullness of life, an unmistakable light. Jesus was fulfilling his promise: ‘Where two or more are gathered in my name, I am there among them’ (Matt 18:20). He is the one who binds us into unity with the Father, and into unity among us, the unity which had been impossible until now.[29]

Chiara understood that the unity that she and her first companions were experiencing was destined for the whole world. In 1946 she already proposed that they aim at universal brotherhood, indicating the way that this can be done.

Look at all people as children of the one Father. Let our thoughts and the affection of our hearts go beyond the barriers imposed by our human vision of life, and develop the habit of constantly opening ourselves to the reality of being one human family in only one Father: God.[30]

A new spiritual current[edit]

While Chiara and her first companions believed they were simply living the Gospel, the phrases that were coming into relief formed the basic principles of a spirituality of unity or “spirituality of communion”. This spirituality would be recognized by the Catholic Church and leaders of other Christian Churches as a gift of the Holy Spirit for our age.[31] Chiara gradually deepened these principles in her spiritual writings and as she continually nourished the members of the Movement with the message of the Gospel. The spirituality of unity developed as a rich and solid synthesis of Christian experience, a remarkable patrimony of ideas and life experiences, with a distinctly communitarian character.[32] Twenty years later, it proved to be in total harmony with the documents of the Second Vatican Council. It has also had a social, cultural, political and economic impact on society.[33][34]

A decisive choice[edit]

On May 13, 1944, the city of Trent was subjected to heavy bombing. The Lubich home was also damaged to the point of being uninhabitable. The family decided to look for shelter in a mountain village, while Chiara made the difficult choice to stay in the city to support the increasingly numerous group of young women who were inspired by her actions and her words. While she was going through the streets, looking for her friends, a woman, distraught with grief, grabbed her by the shoulders, shouting at her that four of her family members had been killed. For Chiara, this was a call to set aside her own pain to take on the pain of humanity.[35]

First nucleus: the focolare[edit]

In the autumn of 1944, Chiara was offered a small apartment in Piazza Cappuccini, where she went to live with some of her companions. This would be the seed of a small and rather unique community. The warmth of their love earned them the nickname, “focolare”, the Italian word for “hearth[36]”. Even though they had no intention of starting anything, this small household marked the first basic structure of the newly born Movement. It would constitute its heart, its backbone. In the autumn of 1948, a young electrician, Marco Tecilla, and a merchant, Livio Fauri, decided to follow Chiara's new communitarian way and formed the first men's focolare community. In 1953, the focolare household would acquire its definitive form when also married people became full members of the community while remaining faithful to the obligations of their married life. The first to follow this path was Igino Giordani, the pioneer for a vocation that would be followed by numerous married people who are eager for spiritual perfection.[37]

Years of difficult trials[edit]

The terrible reality of the war was not the only difficulty they would have. Starting in 1945, criticisms, misunderstandings and accusations began to spread against this “new community” in Trent. Living the Gospel, communicating experiences, sharing their few possessions and making unity their ideal, aroused suspicions of Protestantism or a new form of communism, the great fear of the age. Their radical way of living the Gospel that Chiara proposed attracted the accusation of “fanaticism”, and the word “love”, not customarily used in the Catholic sphere at that time, was likewise misunderstood[38]

“Whoever listens to you listens to Me”[edit]

“Whoever listens to you listens to Me” (Luke 10:16). This sentence from the Gospel of Luke motivated Chiara to go with her companions to see the bishop of Trent, Carlo De Ferrari. He listened to them, got more information about their life and then reassured them, saying, “Here there is the hand of God. Keep going”. He also confirmed that this was something new that was developing and should be separate from the Franciscan Third Order. In fact, on May 1, 1947, Archbishop De Ferrari approved the Statute of the “Focolare of Charity - Apostles of Unity.”In March 1949, a decree of the Vatican department for religious ratified the distinction of the “Focolare of Charity” from the Franciscan Third Order, which had been its cradle, so to speak, protecting it in its infancy as a movement. The charges against them, however, did not cease. During the 1950s, when movements were a new phenomenon in the Church,certain Vatican offices regarded the Focolare Movement with suspicion.[39] In 1951, the Holy Office (now known as the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith) began a long study and a series of interviews to test the young founder. During this time, it was uncertain whether the movement would be disbanded or approved. During this time of interior trial, Chiara compared herself to the grain of wheat of the Gospel, which has to fall to the ground and die to bear fruit.[40]

Papal approvals[edit]

The trial came to an end gradually, starting with the first pontifical approval ad experimentum in 1962, during the pontificate of John XXIII, at about the same time that he opened the Second Vatican Council. Further approval was given by Pope Paul VI in 1964.In 1990, Pope John Paul II approved the Statutes that outline the composite physiognomy of the Focolare Movement as it developed over the years. As early as 1984, John Paul II recognized in the charism of Chiara a “radicalism of love”, juxtaposing it with that of Ignatius of Loyola and other founders.[41][42] The following year, in answer to a question posed to him by Chiara, he gave his support to the idea that in the future the head of the Movement would always be a woman, even though Focolare includes priests, men and women religious, and bishops. His answer was: “Indeed! I see you [the Focolare] as an expression of the Church’s Marian profile”.[43] In that same year, John Paul II named her as a consultant for the Pontifical Council for the Laity. Chiara addressed the synods of the bishops in 1985, 1987 and 1999.

The meeting with Igino Giordani[edit]

Various circumstances led Chiara to move from Trent to Rome. Looking for help to find an apartment in postwar Rome, she asked for an appointment with Igino Giordani (1884-1980), a prominent figure in Parliament. The meeting took place on September 17, 1948. Giordani, who was married and father of four children, was a prolific author, journalist, pioneer of ecumenism, scholar and expert in the history of the Church, and therefore able to understand the novelty that the spirituality offered. At the age of 56, he decided there and then to follow her, while remaining with his family, but becoming a spiritual member of the community of consecrated virgins. He was the first in this vocation of “married Focolarini”, an original way of consecration open to married people, as individuals or as a couple. Giordani would also contribute greatly to the development of ecumenism within the Movement, as well as to the civic and social dimension of the spirituality, so much so that he was considered by Chiara co-founder of the Movement. The process of his beatification is currently underway.

A special period of light[edit]

After years of intense activity, in the summer of 1949, Chiara went with her companions for a period of rest to a townnear Trent called Tonadico. Unknown to them, this would mark the beginning of a special time of grace, with illuminations generally reserved for founders or persons for whom God has a particular plan. It was a mystical experience and has since been referred to simply as “Paradise ’49”. As far as possible for a human being, Chiara was given the grace to “enter into the bosom of the Father,”who opened to her a deeper understanding of heaven, including the mystery of the Trinity, the splendor of Mary, the creation, the new heavens, and the new earth. She also understood more about God’s plans for the Focolare Movement and its future developments.[44] During those few months, Chiara constantly communicated with Igino Giordani, who had returned to Rome for his work. She would immediately share whatever she understood with the young women who were with her, in such a vital way that they had the impression of participating with her in the same experience.They had become, as Chiara would say, “one single soul”. It was the founding experience of the new communitarian spirituality and the ecclesial reality that it would generate.[45]

A project that goes down in history[edit]

In September 1949, Chiara returned to Rome from the mountains. A new stage began: total immersion in humanity,to bring it the light, the experience of God and the life of unity lived in Tonadico. Unity is the prerequisite so that “everything can be renewed: politics and art, education and religion, private life and recreation” [46].,

The meeting with Pasquale Foresi[edit]

Before that year ends, another historic meeting took place. A young man from Pistoia (central Italy), Pasquale Foresi (1929-2015), was searching for the meaning of life, even though he had a solid Catholic formation. He was destined to become one of Chiara's closest collaborators, whom she considered a co-founder, alongside Igino Giordani.

Spreading[edit]

The Movement had spread rapidly throughout Italy in the post-war period. From 1956 onward, groups of people living the spirituality could be found all over Europe, including Eastern European countries. In 1958, members of the Movement began to travelto other continents at the request of people who wanted to know more about it. In 1958, it reached various countries in South America, in 1961 North America, in 1963 Africa, in 1966 Asia and 1967 Australia.[47]

Scale models of a renewed society: the Mariapolis[edit]

Every summer between 1950 and 1959, in the mountain villages near Trent, young people and whole families, professionals and manual laborers, politicians and priests, men and women religious and bishops all joined Chiara and the members of the movement to live this new lifestyle, while enjoying a holiday atmosphere together. They came from the north to the south of Italy, from France and Germany, from other countries of Europe and other continents. The recent conflictsamong them, due to the war, were resolved, and mutual hatred and malice vanished. The first multicultural scale model of a society renewed by the Gospel took shape spontaneously and was given the name “Mariapolis” (“city of Mary”). In 1953, among other politicians, Alcide De Gasperi, then Prime Minister of Italy, attended the Mariapolis. In 1959, over 10,000 people came to the Valley of Primiero from 27 nations,including Czechoslovakia, Brazil, and Taiwan.[48] The following year, at the Mariapolis in Fribourg, Switzerland, Chiara spoke to a group of politicians of the day when all nations would live in unity, foreseeing “a new era”:

The time has come when the homeland of others has to be loved as one’s own. Today the times require us to have the social responsibility to build up, not only our own country but that of others, too.[49]

The Focolare magazine, entitled Città Nuova (“New City”), began at the 1956 Mariapolis from the desire of people to stay connected to the spirituality and the movement as a whole. In one of its first editorials, Chiara expressed her vision for it:

We would like to collect all the various experiences of people who are bringing unity all over the world (…) so that the good that one person does will become the common good and the common good will belong to each individual.[50]

A Work of God “under construction”[edit]

Chiara often described herself as a simple instrument in the hands of the artist, “formed by God through thousands and thousands of painful and joyful events”. And it is precisely in the painful years, during the 1950s, when the Movement was being studied by what is now the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, that God's work began. After the pontifical approval in 1962, the movement began to develop at a surprisingly rapid rate, resulting in the formation of various branches for more committed members and of movements for wider outreach. Chiara repeated several times that she never had a plan or an agenda:

Yes, because the pen does not know what the author wants to write. The brush does not know what the artist wants to paint. So, when God takes a person in his hands to produce a particular work within the Church, that person does not know what he or she will have to do. They are merely the tool, the instrument. And this, I think, is my case. When this life started in Trent, I had no plan, no program. The idea of this Movement was in the mind of God, the project was in heaven. That’s how it was in the beginning, and that’s how it has been over all the years the Movement has developed.[51]

Constantly listening to the cry of abandonment of Jesus in humanity, Chiara has opened wide horizons to give concrete help to individuals and groups and make an impact for change in society. She has inspired people to see and heal the wounds of division through small and also widespread projects, carried out both locally and internationally. People have taken the commitment to develop movements that reach out to those in need on all levels.

1956: “The Volunteers of God” for a New Humanity[edit]

In November 1956, an uprising of the Hungarian people was brutally suppressed. Pope Pius XII made a heartfelt plea that resonated powerfully in Chiara's heart. He cried out: “God, God, God! (…) make the name of God resound in streets, homes, and offices”.[52] Chiara responded by calling for an army of volunteers for the cause of God, “volunteers of God”:[53]

A certain society has attempted to erase the name of God, the reality of God, the providence of God and the love of God from people’s hearts. There has to be a society that can put God back in his rightful place (…). A society that witnesses to only one name: God

Hundreds of people responded, including men and women from all levels of society, from manual laborers to professionals, in many countries and of different cultural groups. Thus, the“volunteers of God” came to life, the first of 18 branches within the Focolare Movement. Groups met according to their area of engagement and, with Chiara's inspiration, began centers for politics, economy, medicine, and art. These later developed into a wider movement that Chiara launched in 1968 with the name “For a New Society” and later changed to “New Humanity[54]”.

Youth: global protests and the Gospel revolution[edit]

A world phenomenon among young people brewed during the 1960s and in 1968 exploded in protests and demonstrations all over Europe, the United States, and China. In 1967, Chiara proposed to young people a revolution of love, based on the Gospel. She issued a strong appeal: “Young people of the world, unite.”Youth from every part of the world responded in huge numbers. The Gen Movement was born (“Gen” for “new generation”). In 1972, Chiara predicted that the encounter between peoples and civilizations “will be irreversible” and will mark “a turning point in the history of humanity”. She pointed to a new model of person needed for this era, the “Global Person” with the whole world in their heart.[55] In 1985, an even broader youth movement began, called “Youth for a United World” (1985) for young adults,while a year before, in 1984, Chiara had started “Teens for Unity,” for teens and children to build peace everywhere and to spread a culture of giving.[56]

Chiara Lubich ad un incontro del Movimento dei Focolari

Responding to Family Crisis: New Families Movement[edit]

The profound socio-cultural upheaval of the 1960s also shook the foundations of the family, which had always been considered the indisputable basic cell of society. On July 19, 1967, Chiara announced the beginning of “an explosive, apostolic and diffusive movement” for families. She asked couples who were living the spirituality of unity to reach out to all couples, but especially to focus on those who most reflected the suffering of Jesus abandoned on the cross. Groups formed all over the world. Marriages have been renewed through a deeper capacity to live mutual love and hundreds of social projects to support family life now have an international impact. The “New Families Movement” reaches hundreds and thousands of families throughout the world, also providing concrete help for those in need and sponsoring children with their “Adoptions-at-a-Distance” project, and International Adoptions.[57]

Towards the Church as communion[edit]

Ever since the early years of the movement in Trent, Chiara had frequent contacts with men and women religious of various congregations as well as diocesan priests. She encouraged them to implement in their communities and parishes the last desire of Jesus, “Father, that they may all be one.” This led to a widespread movement among religious and priests at large, while branches developed for those who wanted to commit to living the spirituality according to their vocation and their founder's spirit. Later, bishops also joined together, applying the spirit of unity to their role, thus contributing to the increase of communion within the Church, as requested by recent Popes.[58]

Africa: “paying a debt”[edit]

In 1964, during the Second Vatican Council, Bishop Julius Peeters from Cameroon asked Chiara about the possibility of sending medical help to a region of his country where the people were at risk of extinction due to disease. She requested some of the Focolare members who were doctors or nurses to go to the village of Fontem, in the middle of a thick forest. They discovered that vaccinating the population already helped immensely to improve their situation. Seeing their great need, Chiara launched “Operation Africa” among the youth of the movement, who raised money to build a hospital and then schools for the village. “We from Europe have a debt to pay to Africa, and this is one way we can do it” she told the members of the Movement. She went in person to visit the Bangwa people in Fontem in 1966, 1969 and 2000, forming a strong bond with them, who called her “Mafua ndem”, meaning “queen sent by God”. Fontem became a town bearing witness to the fraternity between Europeans and Africans and drew people to experience and learn how to create unity among peoples and ethnic groups, thus spreading the spirit of unity all over Africa.[59]

Eastern Europe: beyond the Berlin wall[edit]

In 1954, Chiara met Bishop Pavel Hniliça who had fled Czechoslovakia and from him, she learned of the tragedy of the persecuted Church there. Starting in 1955, with the encouragement of Pope Pius XII and the German bishops, some men and women members of the Focolare moved to Czechoslovakia and then into East Germany and other neighboring countries. Chiara gave them precise directions - be perfect workers; live mutual love and love each neighbor without speaking about it; respect the laws of the country. She traveled to Berlin nine times, both before and after the wall had been constructed. In 1990, when travel outside their countries was permitted, several hundred youths from eastern Europe were able to participate in the GenFest in Rome and meet Pope John Paul II, to the joy of all. In August 1991, in Katowice, Poland, 6,500 members of the Focolare Movement, coming from Eastern European countries belonging to the communist bloc, met for the first time with Chiara and with one another.[60]

Breaking down the “walls of the West”[edit]

The fall of the Berlin wall in 1989 marked the end of the Cold War. Chiara's reaction can be summarized in these words: “Now the walls of the West also have to collapse”.[61] With this goal in mind, Chiara worked tirelessly in the last thirty years of her life to bring a spirit of unity and universal brotherhood into every area of society, in particular, in economy and politics.

For an Economy of Communion[edit]

In May 1991, Chiara arrived in São Paulo, Brazil, to meet with the members of the Movement there. However, the misery of the favelas (slums), which are like a crown of thorns surrounding the city of modern skyscrapers, urged her to find a solution, also because of the communion of goods within the Movement had not been enough to alleviate the poverty of some of its members. The idea emerged for a project called the “Economy of Communion” (EOC) in which businesses would, first of all, live the spirit of unity among their employees, competitors, and customers, and then share part of their profits to raise people out of poverty and form a “culture of giving” rather than of “having”. The project was immediately taken up by business people all over the world. It also stimulated. the interest of academics who have studied the praxis being used and are presenting a new economic theory in universities worldwide.[62] Chiara was awarded several honorary doctorates in economics and, in 1999, presented the Economy of Communion at the 50th anniversary of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, France.[63] In October 1998, Fernando Cardoso, president of the Federal Republic of Brazil presented Chiara with the highest award of his country, the “National Order of the Southern Cross, ”recognizing the EOC as “an innovative and effective weapon in the struggle against poverty and exclusion”[64]

Politics for unity[edit]

During a time of profound crisis for politics in Italy, Chiara was invited to speak to a meeting of politicians of various parties. It was May 2, 1996, in Naples. Her proposal to them was that, first of all, they should live fraternity among themselves and then bring this spirit to all their relationships with other politicians of different parties, with the goal that together they might achieve the common good. This “seed” soon found fertile ground in various parts of Italy, among politicians and others who serve the public, as well as in other countries of Europe and Asia and North and South America, giving shape to the Movement of Politics and Policy for Unity (MppU).[65] Chiara outlinedits fundamental features on several occasions when she met members of the government in Slovenia, Spain, France, the Czech Republic, Brazil (1998) and Italy (2000).[66]

During her visit to Ireland in 2004, she met President Mary McAleese. Visiting the focolare center near Dublin in 2008, McAleese spoke of Lubich's “simple and beautiful idea of love as a lived reality leading to unity. Ideas such as hers” she added, “provide an antidote to the negative ideas that spread so easily, causing damage, breaking hearts and lives”.[67] That same year (2004) Chiara visited England and spoke in the House of Commons in Westminster on the topic “Liberty and equality...What happened to fraternity[68]”? She also addressed a symposium at the United Nations in New York, sponsored by the Permanent Observer Mission of the Holy See in conjunction with the World Conference of Religions for Peace (WCRP) with the title “A Unity of Nations and a Unity of Peoples”. In November 2001, she was invited to a major conference held in Vienna, Austria, entitled “1,000 cities for Europe,” where she proposed “the spirit of universal brotherhood in politics as a key to the unity of Europe and the world.” On September 12, 2004, she gave was to be her last public address, in Rome, on the occasion of the second international Interdependence Day.[69]

Chiara Lubich - Onu

An interdisciplinary culture[edit]

From the 1940s on, Chiara came to realize that in the charism of unity there is a unique doctrine that could shed light not only on theology but also on every other discipline. At the beginning of the 1990s, at the urging of Bishop Klaus Hemmerle, Bishop of Aachen in Germany and renowned theologian and philosopher, Chiara gathered together scholars in a variety of disciplines who had been living the Focolare spirituality for some years. They formed what is called the “Abba’ School,” an interdisciplinary study center, to draw out a doctrine from the illuminations received during the summer of 1949. This doctrine, based on a communitarian way of life, has already had an impact, not only on theology and philosophy but also on medicine, law, sociology, education, sports, the arts, the environment, etc.[70] In December 2007, the pontifically approved Sophia University Institute was established in the Movement’s small town of Loppiano, near Florence, offering interdisciplinary graduate programs based on the culture of unity.[71]

“A Woman of Dialogue”[edit]

Throughout her life, Chiara became a protagonist and often a forerunner of a 360-degree dialogue among civil and religious leaders, movements and individuals within the Catholic Church, with Christians of different Churches, with followers of other religions and also with people without a religious affiliation. A “dialogue of life” helps people to meet and, even though they have different ideas, to speak with a sincere love for the other person, to find some point of agreement that can clarify misunderstandings, calm disputes, resolve conflicts, and even at times eliminate hatred.[72]

Chiara had many practical ideas about how to develop a fruitful dialogue. She explained:

We have to love the other person, but not with words or feelings. We have to be concrete in our love and the best way to do this is to‘make ourselves one’ with them,‘live the life of the other’ in a certain way, sharing their sufferings and their joys, understanding them, serving and helping them in practical ways. ‘Making ourselves one’ is the attitude that guided the apostle Paul, who wrote that he made himself a Jew with the Jews, Greek with the Greeks, all things to all people (cf. 1Cor 9:19-22). We must follow his example so that we can establish a sincere, friendly dialogue with everyone.[73]

This attitude suggested by Chiara also eliminates any idea of winning the other person over to one's religion or point of view. Instead, it leads people who were strangers to discover that they are all brothers and sisters in the one human family. Pope John Paul II defined the members of the Focolare Movement as “apostles of dialogue”[74]

Reconciliation among Christians[edit]

As everything in Chiara's experience, the ecumenical stage of the Movement began with a personal contact. In 1961, a group of Lutheran nuns invited her to Darmstadt in Germany to share with them the principles of her spirituality. Some Lutheran pastors were also present and were so struck by her radical evangelical lifestyle that they expressed the desire to spread this spirituality among Lutherans. In 2008, in his tribute to Chiara, the General Secretary of the World Lutheran Federation (LWF), Rev. Dr. Ishmael Noko, said: “Many in the Lutheran communion have drawn inspiration from this laywoman[75]”. In 1966, in London, Chiara had an audience with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Michael Ramsey, Primate of the Anglican Communion, and subsequently with his successors. The former Archdeacon of Canterbury, Bernard Pawley, once described the Focolare as having “burst forth in the Church like a fountain of living water from the Gospel.”

From 1967 to 1972, she traveled to Istanbul eight times, where she engaged in a deep fraternal dialogue with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Athenagoras I, with whom she had 24 audiences over the years. This dialogue continued with his successors, DemetriosI and Bartholomew I. Chiara also formed a deep and lasting friendship with Frère Roger Schutz, founder of the ecumenical community of Taizé. Since 1967, she had contacts with the Ecumenical Council of Churches based in Geneva, Switzerland. Rev. Dr. Samuel Kobia, General Secretary of WCC in 2008, wrote in testimony of Chiara's life: “Chiara Lubich had a profound impact on the ecumenical movement and helped significantly to foster viable relationships between churches of different Christian traditions. (…) Our love for Chiara and immense gratitude for the gift of God she has been to the ecumenical movement will continue to motivate and inspire us in our work for the visible unity of the Church[76]”.

In all of these contacts, Chiara referred her activities to the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, where she received full support. She also felt confirmed in this work by all the modern Popes, beginning with Pope John XXIII who had placed Christian unity as one of the first goals for the Second Vatican Council.[77]

Communion with Catholic ecclesial movements and new communities[edit]

On the eve of Pentecost 1998, in St. Peter's Square in Rome, Pope John Paul II held the first large meeting of ecclesial movements and new communities, with the presence of 250,000 people from many nations of the world. In his address, he said: “The institutional and charismatic aspects are co-essential in the Church’s constitution. They contribute, although differently, to the life, renewal, and sanctification of God’s People. It is from this providential rediscovery of the Church’s charismatic dimension that, before and after the Council, a remarkable pattern of growth has been established for ecclesial movements and new communities”. And he added: “The Church expects from you mature fruits of communion and commitment. Chiara addressed the Pope with three other founders, Fr. Luigi Giussani (Communion and Liberation), Jean Vanier (L’Arche) and Kiko Argüello (Neocatechumenal Way) and she assured him that she would work for the unity among the movements.[78] From then on, she dedicated herself with a particular passion to increasing the communion among the founders, directors, and members of movements and new communities.

“Together for Europe”[edit]

The experience of Catholic movements coming together inspired members of other Christian movements who asked to join them. Since 1999, a network of collaboration among Catholic and Lutheran movements and communities was formed and gradually spread to many other groups and movements in Christian Churches throughout Europe. The result has been an ongoing project of working together called “Together for Europe”. It is ecumenical, but also includes political leaders, and the goal is to contribute toward giving “a new soul to the old continent,” considering the difficult process of integrating eastern and western Europe. The first major event took place in Stuttgart in 2004 with Chiara as one of the main speakers. 9,000 people participated while 163 similar events were held simultaneously in other locations.[79]

Dialogue with members of other religions[edit]

The door to interreligious dialogue opened, quite unexpectedly, in London, 1977, when Chiara received the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion (now simply known as the “Templeton Prize”). In her acceptance speech, she outlined her Christian experience and mentioned that the Focolare Movement also had contacts with Jews, Muslims, and Buddhists, since friendships had developed in countries where these religious groups are present. She also quoted some of the great mystics of other religions who exalt love as the essence of all being. The response from religious leaders present was beyond anything she would have expected and for her was a sign that the Movement had to develop its interreligious dialogue.

In 1981, Chiara was invited to Tokyo by Nikkyo Niwano, the founder of Risshō KōseiKai, a lay Buddhist movement, to offer her spiritual experience to 10,000 Buddhists gathered in a prestigious Buddhist temple. It was the first time a Christian woman had spoken there. The impact was great and many of those present said that it helped them to appreciate the basic tenets of Christianity.

In January 1997, she went to Chiang Mai in Thailand, where she had been asked to address 800 Buddhist monks and nuns. Again, she was the first Christian and the first laywoman to address them. Their Great Teacher, Ajahn Thong, explained, “The wise person is neither male nor female. When someone turns on a light in the darkness, one does not ask if the one who lit it was a man or a woman. Chiara is here to give us the light she has experienced”.[80]

In May of that same year, she was invited to the Malcolm Shabazz Mosque in New York, where once again she simply shared her Christian experience with 3,000 Muslims, referencing quotes from Islam that were similar to the Gospel, to which the crowd responded, “God is great!” At the end of the meeting, she made a pact of fraternity with their leader, Imam Warith Deen Mohammed.[81] Three years later, they met again in Washington DC, with 6000 Christians and Muslims to celebrate an event called “Faith Communities Together”. Since then, this initiative has been repeated throughout the United States in many cities, bringing together the two communities for fellowship and common concrete projects.[82]

In Buenos Aires, in April 1998, Chiara met members of the Jewish community of Argentina and Uruguay at the invitation of the B'nai B'rith and other Jewish organizations.[83][84][85]

In 2001, she took her first trip to India invited by Kala Acharya, director of the Bharatiya Sanskriti Peetham University in Mumbai, who said, “It is time to break down the walls of separation and discover the garden of the other”. Two prestigious Hindu-Gandhian institution sin Tamil Nadu conferred on her the “Defender of Peace” Award.[86] She returned in 2003 on the invitation of the leader of a vast Hindu movement, the Swadhyaya Movement.

In 2002, among the official testimonies for peace offered by the representatives of the various churches and religions at the Day of Prayer for Peace in Assisi, presided over by Pope John Paul II, Chiara and Andrea Riccardi, founder of the Saint Egidio Community, gave the address on behalf of the Catholic Church.[87] In 2004, at Westminster Central Hall in London, Chiara, speaking to a large audience of people of various religions and cultures, proposed a strategy of fraternal love that could mark a turning point for international relations, “because fraternity is God’s plan for the whole human family”.[88]

Chiara Lubich visita Moschea Haarlem

Dialogue with persons with no religious affiliation[edit]

In 1978, Chiara inaugurated the Focolare center for dialogue with persons who profess no particular faith, but who follow their conscience and are committed to living and spreading the great common values of humanity. Groups were formed of persons with religious faith and those of other convictions, but who all share the same desire to work for universal brotherhood in the world and to recompose the unity of the human family. On the occasion of their first congress in 1992, Chiara told them: “You are an essential part of the Focolare Movement because the values of solidarity and justice that you promote contribute to the project of unity which is the goal of this Movement[89]”.

Dialogue with contemporary culture[edit]

Chiara soon realized that the spirituality of unity has something to offer to every profession and area of engagement in society. People began to meet with others in their field of work so that groups formed to increase unity and fraternal love within their profession or area of work. They promote scholarly research to bring the values of love of neighbor and unity to bear on the normal practice of medicine, education, art, sports, ecology, psychology, economics, politics, etc. and also sponsor conferences, training courses and various publications on these topics.[90][91]

Final years[edit]

The “night of God” and the “night of our age”[edit]

Chiara Lubich primo piano

For Chiara, as for Mother Teresa of Calcutta and other persons of great spiritual depth, a biography cannot keep silent about a “hidden” side of their life, a mysterious aspect, but of considerable importance. Since the time of Saint John of the Cross, these have been called “nights” of the soul in the language of mysticism. Chiara said that her life was marked by “luminous peaks of love and the dark depths of pain.[92] A climax came for her when she experienced the “night of God,” the last serious trial at the end of her life, from 2004–2008. It seemed to her that “God had disappeared, like the sun disappearing over the horizon and no longer seen[93]”. It was a personal “night”, but she also saw it projected onto the “night of our age.” Once again, Chiara found the way out of this trial by embracing Jesus on the cross, who in the “darkest possible night” felt abandoned by his Father. She pointed out “signs of the resurrection” in many aspects of her work, particularly in the fields of politics, economics, communication, interreligious and cultural dialogue. She felt that these “resurrections” came from the faithful love for Jesus forsaken amid pain and darkness. This was her last public message, concluding with:

If we walk forward in these ways we can say: ‘My night has no darkness’, but all things shine in the light.[94]

The last greeting[edit]

After a long period (from September 2004) in which her health failed, at the beginning of February 2008, Chiara was admitted to the Agostino Gemelli University Hospital in Rome. During her stay, she received a visit from the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Bartholomew I, and a letter from Pope Benedict XVI. On March 13, 2008, since nothing more could be done for her medically, she was discharged and returned to her home in Rocca di Papa where she died peacefully the next day, March 14, at the age of 88. The funeral was celebrated in Rome, on March 18, at the basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls. Thousands of people packed the church and overflowed outside where large screens had been set up to allow them to follow the service. Civic leaders as well as prominent figures from the Catholic Church, many other Christian churches and other religions, attended and offered their testimony to her life. An eminent Thai Buddhist monk, Phara-Maha Thongratana, said: “Now Chiara and her great Ideal are the legacies of the whole of humanity. “News of her funeral was reported internationally.[95] Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, Secretary of State of the Vatican, read the letter from Pope Benedict XVI, who said among other things:

The continuous link with my venerable predecessors, from the Servant of God, Pius XII, to Blessed John XXIII and the Servants of God, Paul VI, John Paul I and John Paul II, was concrete testimony that the thought of the Pope was for her a sure guide. Moreover, looking at the initiatives she accomplished, one could even affirm that she had an almost prophetic capacity to perceive and anticipate it.[96]

Funerali Chiara Lubich

On January 27, 2015, the cause for her beatification and canonization was opened with a message from Pope Francis which highlights its motivation: “to make known to the people of God the life and works of one who, by accepting the invitation of the Lord, has turned on a new light for the path to unity in the Church[97]”. November 10, 2019, marked the end of the diocesan phase, with the cause being transferred to the Congregation of the Cause of Saints at the Vatican.[98]

Acknowledgments[edit]

From civil institutions and heads of state[edit]

  • UNESCO:1996 Prize for Peace Education, December 1996
  • Council of Europe:1998 Human Rights Prize, September 1998
  • Brazil: National Order of the Southern Cross, the Federal Republic of Brazil, presented by the President of the Republic, Fernando Henrique Cardoso,October 1998
  • Germany: Grand Merit Cross from the Federal Republic of Germany, presented by the President of the Republic, Johanne Rau, June 2000
  • Taiwan: Order of the Brilliant Star of the Republic of China, February 2001
  • Italy: Knight of the Great Cross Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, presented by the President of the Republic, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, March 2004

Honorary citizenships[edit]

  • Italy: Rocca di Papa, 1995; Pompei, 1996; Rimini, 1997; Palrmo,1998; Rome, 2000; Florence, 2000; Incisa Valdarno, 2000; Rovigo, 2000; Genoa, 2001; Turin, 2002; Milan, 2004; La Spezia, 2006
  • Brazil: Vargem G. Paulista, 1998; Manues Amazonia, 1998; Paragominas Parà, 1998; Bela Vista do Toldosc, 1998; Amanindena Parà, 2002
  • Argentina: Buenos Aires, 1998; Chacabuco, 1998; Santiago de Estero, 1998
  • Philippines: Tagaytay, 1997
  • Hungary: Janoshalma, 2008

Significant awards[edit]

  • Italy: Sienna, Silver Cateriniana Plaque from St. Catherine Center, September 1987
  • Italy: Florence, Casentino Literary Award from the Michelangelo Cultural Center, July 1987
  • Italy: Trent, Burning Eagle of St. Wenceslaus, January 1995; Gold Medal of St. Virgilius, 1995
  • Italy: Milan, Author of the Year Award from the Union of Italian Catholic Publishers and Booksellers, March 1995
  • Italy: Bologna, Silver Turret Award, September 1997
  • Argentina: Illustrious Visitor, Government of the City of Buenos Aires, April 1998
  • Brazil:Coat of Arms of the city of Belém,December 1998
  • Slovenia: Medal of Saints Cyril and Methodius,April 1999
  • Republic of Cameroon: Conferral of title, MafuaNdem (Queen sent by God) by the Fon of Fontem, king of theBangwa, Lucas Njifua, Fontem, May 2000
  • Italy: Liguria Region, Award for peace and solidarity, December 2001
  • Italy: Lombardy Region, Rosa Camuna Award, November 2003
  • Italy: Brescia, Paul VI Goodness Award, 2005
  • USA: Lifetime Achievement Award, Family Theater Productions, Hollywood, July 2006

For interreligious dialogue[edit]

  • England: Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion, from the Templeton Foundation, London, April 1977
  • Italy:“An olive tree for peace,”Jewish Community of Rome, planted in Rocca di Papa, October 1995
  • Italy: Civilization of Love award for interreligious dialogue, from the International Civilization of Love Forum, Rieti, June 1996
  • Brazil: Plaque for Promoting Interreligious Dialogue and a Culture of Peace, Respect and Fraternity, from the Christian-Jewish Fraternal Council, Sao Paulo, April 1998
  • USA: Plaque for Love of Neighbor and Solidarity with Muslim communities of Imam W.D. Mohammed, Malcolm Shabazz Mosque in Harlem, New York, May 1999
  • India: Defender of Peace Award, Gandhian-Hindu movements, Shanti Ashram and Sarvodaya, Coimbatore, January 2001
  • India: Citation in honor of Chiara Lubich,SomayiaBharatiyaSanskritiPeethamUniversity,Mumbai, January 2001
  • USA: Crystal of recognition for excellent service to humanity in the field of religion,the Muslim community, Chicago, May 2004

For ecumenical dialogue[edit]

The Anglican Communion[edit]

  • Cross of the Order of St. Augustine of Canterbury from the Primate of the Anglican Church, Archbishop Robert Runcie, London, 1981;
  • Golden Cross of the Order of St. Augustine of Canterbury from the Primate of the Anglican Church, Archbishop George Carey, London, 1996.

Greek Orthodox Church[edit]

Byzantine Cross, from the Ecumenical Patriarchs of Constantinople, Dimitrios I, in Istanbul, 1984, and Bartholomew I in Istanbul, 1995.

Evangelical Lutheran Churches[edit]

  • Augsburg Peace Prize, “for special achievement ininterconfessional agreements,” at a common celebration of Lutherans and Catholics, Augsburg, Germany, October 1988

From academic institutions[edit]

Honorary Doctorates Honoris Causa[edit]

  • Poland: Social Sciences, Catholic University of Lublin, June 19, 1996
  • Thailand: Social Communications, St. John University, Bangkok, January 5, 1997
  • Philippines: Theology, Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, Manila, January 14, 1997
  • Taiwan: Theology, Fu Jen University, Taipei, January 1997
  • USA:Humane Letters, Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, Connecticut, promoted by Rabbi Jack Bemporad, director of the Center for Christian-Jewish Understanding at this University, May 21, 1997
  • Mexico: Philosophy,La Salle University, Mexico City, June 6, 1997
  • Argentina: Dialogue with Contemporary Culture,State University of Buenos Aires, April 6, 1998
  • Brazil: Humanities and Religious Sciences, Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, April 29, 1998; Economics, Catholic University of Pernambuco, May 9, 1998
  • Italy:Business and Economics, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, conferred at the Piacenza Campus, January 29, 1999
  • Malta: Psychology, University of Malta, February 26, 1999
  • USA:Education, Catholic University of America, Washington, November 2000
  • Slovakia: Theology, University of Trnava, June 23, 2003
  • Italy: Theology of Consecrated Life, the Claretian Institute of the Theology of the Consecrated Life, a Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, October 25, 2004
  • Venezuela: Art,Cecilio Acosta Catholic University, Maracaibo,November 18, 2006
  • England:Divinity, Liverpool Hope University, delivered by the rector at Lubich's home in Rocca di Papa, January 5, 2008

From cultural institutions[edit]

  • Italy: Prize for Dialogue among Peoples, International Franciscan Study Center, Massa Carrara, October 1993
  • Brazil: Medal of Honor,State University of São Paulo (USP), April 1998
  • Argentina: Medal of Honor,Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, Buenos Aires, April 1998
  • Italy: The Trent Person of the Year Award from the Person-City-Territory Cultural Association, Trent, June 2001
  • Italy: Stefano Borgia Award for intercultural and interreligious dialogue from the International Centre for Borgian Studies, Velletri, November 2001
  • Italy: Honorary member of the Luigi Getta Study Centre, Rome, March 2003
  • Venezuela: Establishment of the “Chiara Lubich”Free Chair of Studies,Cecilio Acosta Catholic University, Maracaibo, February 2005
  • Paraguay: Thomas More Award,Our Lady of the Assumption Catholic University, Asunción, December 27, 2006
  • Brazil: Medal of Honor, State University of Sao Paulo, April 1998; “Chiara Lubich” Chair in Fraternity and Humanism, Recife Catholic University, March 25, 2014

International honors[edit]

  • Argentina: Illustrious Visitor, Government of the City of Buenos Aires, April 1998
  • Brazil:Coat of Arms of the city of Belém,December 1998
  • Italy: Telamon International Peace Award, Social Programming Center, Agrigento, July 1999
  • Republic of Cameroon: Conferral of title, MafuaNdem (Queen sent by God) by the Fon of Fontem, king of theBangwa, Lucas Njifua, Fontem, May 2000
  • Italy: City of Peace Award, Castelgandolfo, April 2003
  • Italy: CivisTusculanus Award, Frascati, September 2004
  • Switzerland: Bourgeoisie of honor presented by the Mayor of Mollens, August 2007

Publications[edit]

Declared the author of the year 1995 with the UELCI Prize, Chiara Lubich authored 58 books (including bestsellers such as Meditations), translated into 28 languages, with 30 editions, and over 3,200,000 copies. In March 2018, the first volume (Words of Life) was publishedof a series aimed at presenting systematically the heritage of her thought. Coeditors are Città Nuova Editrice and the Chiara Lubich Center, which was founded in 2008 to preserve her rich patrimony of thought and make it available in various formats to a wider public [88]. A selection:

Cornerstones of the spirituality of unity[edit]

  • That All May Be One: origins and life of the Focolare Movement, New City Press, New York, 1969; May They All Be One, New City, London, 1977.
  • The Gen Revolution, New City Press, New York, 1972.
  • A Little Harmless Manifesto, New City Press, New York, 1973;Manifesto, New City, London, 1975.
  • Meditations, New City Press, New York, 1988; New City, London, 2005 (4th edition).
  • Yes Yes No No, New City, London, 1977.
  • Charity our Ideal, New City Press, New York, 1977; Charity, New City, London, 1981.
  • Where Two or Three, New City Press, New York, 1977; New City, London, 1977.
  • Servants of All, New City Press, New York, 1978; New City, London, 1979.
  • The Eucharist, New City Press, New York, 1978; New City, London, 1979.
  • Knowing How to Lose, New City, London, 1981.
  • Our Yes to God, New City Press, New York, 1982; New City, London, 1982.
  • When Did We See You, Lord?New City Press, New York, 1983; Jesus in our Brother, New City, London, 1983.
  • Journey: Spiritual Insights,New City Press, New York, 1984
  • Jesus: The Heart of His Message: Unity and Jesus Forsaken, New City Press, New York, 1985; Why Have You Forsaken Me?New City, London, 1985.
  • Diary 1964–65, New City Press, New York, 1987
  • On the Holy Journey: Spiritual Messages, New City Press, New York, 1988
  • A Call to Love.Spiritual Writings, Volume 1, New City Press, New York, 1990
  • When Our Love is Charity. Spiritual writings, Volume 2, New City Press, New York, 1991
  • The Love that Comes from God. Reflections on the Family, New City Press, New York, 1993
  • The Living Presence – Jesus in the Word, in the Eucharist and in our midst,New City Press, New York, 1997; New City, London, 1997
  • Heaven on Earth, Meditations and Reflections, New City Press, New York, 2000
  • The Cry of Jesus Crucified and Forsaken, New City Press, New York, 2001; New City, London, 2001.
  • A New Way: The spirituality of unity, New City Press, New York, 2002; New City, London, 2006.
  • Mary, Transparency of God, New City Press, New York, 2003;New City, London, 2003.
  • Essential Writings – Spirituality Dialogue Culture, New City Press, New York, 2007; New City, London, 2007.

Posthumous publications[edit]

  • Early Letters: At the origins of a new spirituality, edited by F. Gillet and G. D'Alessandro, New City Press, New York, 2012.
  • God is Love, edited by F. Gillet, New City Press, New York, 2011.
  • Rays: Short Reflections on living God's will, edited by B. Hartnett, New City Press, New York, 2011.
  • God's Word to Us, edited by B. Hartnett, New City Press, New York, 2012.
  • Neighbors, Short Reflections on loving the people around us, edited by B. Hartnett, New City Press, New York, 2012.
  • The Pearl of the Gospel, Short Reflections on Mutual Love, edited by F. Gillet, New City Press, New York, 2013.
  • The Sun that Daily Rises, Short Reflections on the Eucharist, edited by F. Ciardi, New City Press, New York, 2014.
  • Unity, edited by D. Falmi, and F. Gillet, New City Press, New York, 2015.
  • Jesus forsaken, edited by H. Blaumeiser, New City Press, New York, 2016; New City, London, 2016.
  • Mary, edited by B. Leahy and J. Povilus, New City Press, New York, 2018; New City, London, 2017.
  • The Holy Spirit, edited by R Silva and F. Gillet, New City Press, New York, 2018; New City, London, 2018.
  • The Church, edited by H. Blaumeiser and B. Leahy, New City Press, New York, 2019; New City, London, 2018.
  • Jesus in our Midst, edited by D. Falmi, and J. Povilus, New City Press, New York, 2019; New City, London, 2019.

On various topics[edit]

  • Chiara Lubich,Here and Now: Meditations on living in the present,New City Press, New York, 2005; New City, London, 2000, 2014.
  • Chiara Lubich,TheArt of Loving, New City Press, New York,2010.
  • Chiara Lubich, Living Dialogue: Steps on the way to unity among Christians, New City Press, New York, 2009; New City, London, 2009.
  • Chiara Lubich,No Thorn without a Rose:99 Sayings, New City Press, New York, 2008.
  • Chiara Lubich,Only at Night We See the Stars,New City Press, New York, 2002; New City, London, 2002.
  • Chiara Lubich, From Scriptures to Life, New City Press, New York, 1991.
  • Chiara Lubich, Christmas Joy: Spiritual Insights by New City Press, London, New York, Manila1998.
  • Michel Pochet,Stars and Tears: a Conversation with Chiara Lubich,New City Press, New York, 1985; New City, London, 1985.
  • William Proctor,An Interview with Chiara Lubich, New City Press, New York, 1983.
  • Jim Gallagher,A Woman's Work: Chiara Lubich, a biography, New City Press, New York, 1997.
  • Armando Tono,Chiara Lubich: A Biography, New City Press, New York, 2012.
  • Franca Zambonini, Chiara Lubich: A Life for Unity, New City Press, New York, 2012; New City, London, 1992.
  • Florence Gillet, Model of Incarnate Love, Mary Desolate in the experience and thought of Chiara Lubich, New City Press, New York, 2010.
  • Marisa Cerini, God who is Love, in the experience and thought of Chiara Lubich, New City Press, New York, 1992.
  • Florence Gillet, The Choice of Jesus Forsaken, in the theological perspective of Chiara Lubich, New City Press, New York, 2015.
  • Judith Povilus,United in His Name, Jesus in the Midst in the experience and thought of Chiara Lubich, New City Press, New York, 1992.
  • Florence Gillet, Fifteen Days of Prayer with Chiara Lubich, New City Press, New York, 2009.
  • Luigino Bruni, ed, The Economy of Communion, Toward a Multi-dimensional Economic Culture, New City Press, New York, 2002.
  • M. James, T. Masters, A. Uelmen, Educations’ Highest Aim, Teaching and Learning through a Spirituality of Communion, New City Press, New York, 2010.
  • T. Masters, A. Uelmen, Focolare: Living the Spirituality of Unity in the United States,New City Press, New York, 2011/

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Chiara Lubich, The Times, 15.3.2008 https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/chiara-lubich-538rnp3j607
  2. ^ Jan Fisher, Chiara Lubich, Who Founded Catholic Group, Dies at 88, New York Times, March 15, 2008. https://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/15/world/europe/15lubich.html
  3. ^ Giorgio Napolitano , Telegramma in occasione della morte di Chiara Lubich, in SIR, 14 Marzo 2008
  4. ^ Paul Smoker, UNESCO Prize for Peace Education Program, available in UNESDOC portion of the online UNESCO Archives, http://www.unesco.org/unesdi and also at http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images .pdf
  5. ^ Cf. J. Castellano Cervera, OCD, A spirituality that unites the summit of the divine and the human, in Essential writings, edited by M. Vandeleene, New City Press, NY, 2007
  6. ^ Chiara Lubich, The Times cit.
  7. ^ F. Lethel, OCD, Professor at the Pontifical Theological Faculty Teresianum (Rome), Prelate Secretary of the Pontifical Academy of Theology in edited by F. Gillet and G. D’Alessandro, New City Press, New York, 2012. and in "L'Osservatore Romano", 26 March 2010.
  8. ^ Cf. Castellano Cervera, OCD, cited in Brendan Purcell, Brendan Leahy, Thomas Norris, The Spirituality of Unity in Contemporary Thought and Culture, Introduction to "Chiara Lubich Essential Writings", New City Press, NY, 2007, p. XXVIII
  9. ^ A. Camilloni, Laudatio dottorato hc in Dialogo con la cultura contemporanea, Università di di Buenos Aires (UBA), 6. Aprile 1998, in Dottorati onorari conferiti a Chiara Lubich, Città Nuova, Roma, 2016, p. 179
  10. ^ Chiara Lubich, The Times cit.
  11. ^ See Jim Gallagher, A woman's work: Chiara Lubich, Harper Collins Publisher, ltd, London 1997, p. 12
  12. ^ . Carella, Silvia prima di Chiara, Città Nuova, Roma 2014, pp. 46, 55
  13. ^ C. Lubich Master's Lecture, PhD Hc in Theology, Fu JenCatholic University of Taipei, 25.1.97, in Dottorati hc conferiti a Chiara Lubich, cit, p. 106.
  14. ^ See Mark Roces, Chiara Lubich: the woman behind the Focolare Movement in Home Life, philipinos Family Magazine, February 1997, p. 12
  15. ^ N. Carella, op. cit., pp. 134 etseq
  16. ^ M. Cocchiaro, Natalia, la prima compagna di Chiara Lubich, Città Nuova, Roma 2013, pp. 26-27.
  17. ^ M. Cocchiaro, Natalia, la prima compagna di Chiara Lubich, Città Nuova, Roma 2013, pp. 26-27
  18. ^ Chiara Lubich, To Duccia Calderari, in Early Letters: At the origins of a new spirituality, edited by F. Gillet and G. D’Alessandro, New City Press, New York, 2012
  19. ^ Cf. Mark Roces cited
  20. ^ See E Robertson, Chiara, Christian Journals, (Ireland), 1978, p. 30
  21. ^ Chiara Lubich, A New Way, New City Press, New York, 2006, pg 47.
  22. ^ See Jim Gallagher, cit
  23. ^ Chiara Lubich, Essential Writings, New City Press, New York, 2007, pg 4.
  24. ^ Chiara Lubich, The Times, March 15, 2008
  25. ^ Chiara Lubich, The Cry, New City Press, New York, 2001,
  26. ^ Austin Ivereigh, Chiara's quiet devolution, interview, The Tablet, 12 June 2004
  27. ^ Chiara Lubich, The Cry, New City Press, New York, 2001,
  28. ^ Cf. GaudiumetSpes, 38.
  29. ^ Chiara Lubich, in Essential writings, cit
  30. ^ Chiara Lubich, Jesus: the Heart of His Message,New City Press, New York, 1985, pp24-25.
  31. ^ https://www.focolare.org/en/download/scheda-chiara-lubich/
  32. ^ M. Roces, Chiara Lubich: The woman behind the Focolare Movement, cit.
  33. ^ Pope Francisco, Meeting with the community of the Focolare Movement, Parvis of the Mary Theotokos Shrine (Loppiano) Thursday, 10 May 2018 https://www.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/speeches/2018/may/documents/papa-francesco_20180510_visita-loppiano-focolari.html
  34. ^ Jesus Castellano, Focolari (Movimento dei) in Dizionario enciclopedico di spiritualità, Ermanno Ancilli, 1990 Città Nuova ed. Roma, p. 1015
  35. ^ Amelia Uelmen, Chiara Lubich, A life for Unity, Logos.Volume 8, Number 1, Winter 2005 pp. 52-64 https://muse.jhu.edu/article/177646/pdf
  36. ^ Adam Biela, Decano Facoltà Scienze Sociali, Laudatio in Dottorati h.c. a Chiara Lubich, pp. 33
  37. ^ Jim Gallagher, cit.
  38. ^ Jim Gallagher cit
  39. ^ Peter Standford, Chiara Lubich, pioneering leader of the Roman Catholic movement Focolare, The Guardian, March 18, 2008 https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/mar/18/religion
  40. ^ Chiara Lubich, The Cry, New City Press, New York, 2001, pp. 64-71
  41. ^ Chiara Lubich, The Cry, New City Press, New York, 2001, pg. 119.
  42. ^ Amy Uelmen, In gratitude for the life and legacy of Chiara Lubich, Church Magazine
  43. ^ Franca Zambonini, (interview by), Chiara Lubich, A life for Unity, New City Press, NY 2012, New City London, 1992. Also General Statutes of the Work of Mary, 2008 edition, footnote 23 explaining article 98.1, regarding the President of the Movement.
  44. ^ https://www.focolare.org/en/download/scheda-chiara-lubich/
  45. ^ Cf. L. Abignente, cit, pp. 145 et seq.
  46. ^ Chiara Lubich, Essential Writings,New City Press, New York, 2007, pg176.
  47. ^ Jim Gallagher, cit.
  48. ^ Cf. I. Giordani, Le Mariapoli, in C. Lubich and I. Giordani, Erano I tempi di Guerra. All’Alba dell’Ideale dell’Unità, Città Nuova, Rome 2007, pp. 193 et seq.
  49. ^ Chiara Lubich, Mary Queen of the World, Essential Writings
  50. ^ Chiara Lubich, Editoriale in "La Rete" n. 1, 5 Marzo 1957
  51. ^ Michel Pochet, Stars and Tears: A conversation with Chiara Lubich, New City
  52. ^ Pio XII, Radiomessaggio ai popoli e ai governanti10.11.1956 https://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xii/it/speeches/1956/documents/hf_p-xii_spe_19561110_luttuosi-eventi.html
  53. ^ Cf. C. Lubich, I volontari di Dio, in "Città Nuova" (1957), anno II n. 1 /, in C. Lubich, Attualità, leggere il proprio tempo edited by M. Zanzucchi, Città Nuova, Rome 2013, pp. 11-13
  54. ^ Jim Gallagher cit
  55. ^ C. Lubich, The Gen Revolution, New City Press, NY, 1972
  56. ^ A. Torno, chiara Lubich_ a Biography, cit
  57. ^ https://www.focolare.org/en/famiglienuove/chi-siamo/
  58. ^ Armando Torno, Chiara Lubich: a Biography, New City Press, NY, 2012
  59. ^ http://www.focolare-fontem.org
  60. ^ Armando Torno, Chiara Lubich: A Biography, cit
  61. ^ G. Eli Folonari, Lo spartito scritto in Cielo – 50 anni con Chiara Lubich, Città Nuova, Roma 2012, p. 126.
  62. ^ The Economy of Communion, The Innovative Economic Proposal, The Times, Business, Malta, February 18, 1999
  63. ^ Cf. Chiara Lubich, Essential Writings, “The Charism of Unity and Economy”, pp. 269-289.
  64. ^ The title of Grand Officer of the National Order of the Southern Cross, M. Calfova,, Economy of Communion, Philadelphia Center for Study, Research and Documentation, p. 7, MariapolisGinetta (Vargem Grande Paulista, Brazil)
  65. ^ http://www.mppu.org/en/key-documents/chiara-lubich.html
  66. ^ Cf. Chiara Lubich, Essential Writings, “For an interdependence based on fraternity”, pp 264-268
  67. ^ Catholic lay activist who founded Home, The Irish Times, March 22, 2008
  68. ^ Cf. Chiara Lubich, Essential Writings, “The Charism of Unity and Politics”, pp.230-264
  69. ^ Cf.A. Torno, hiara Lubich, cit
  70. ^ Chiara Lubich, Essential Writings, introduction by Piero Coda, cit, pg. xxiii.
  71. ^ ttp://www.sophiauniversity.org/en
  72. ^ https://www.focolare.org/en/cosa-ci-muove/#indialogo
  73. ^ Cf. Chiara Lubich, Essential Writings, pg. 332.
  74. ^ http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/speeches/2003/december/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_20031206_chiara-lubich.html
  75. ^ Tribute to Lay Movement Leader Chiara Lubich, in Lutheran World Information, published by the Lutheran World Federation (LWF), 26 March 2008 [1]
  76. ^ https://www.oikoumene.org/en/press-centre/news/tribute-to-chiara-lubich
  77. ^ J. P. Back, L’ecumenismo di Paolo VI e Chiara Lubich, in Paolo VI e Chiara Lubich, la profezia di una Chiesa che si fa dialogo, ed. Studium 2015, pp. 112 e ss.
  78. ^ Pope John Paull II with Ecclesial Movements and New Communities, May 30, 1998, http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/speeches/1998/may/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_19980530_riflessioni .html and http://archive.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles/2005/04/17/movement_people?pg=full
  79. ^ http://www.together4europe.org/ 80Amy Uelmen, In gratitude for the life and legacy of Chiara Lubich, Church Magazine, Fall 2009
  80. ^ Thomas Masters and Amy Uelmen, Focolare: Living a Spirituality of Unity in the United States, New City Press, New York, 2011, pp. 33-35.
  81. ^ Jacqueline Lateef and Imam Khalid S. Lateef, Italian Focolare Movement Leader Speaks to Muslim African American Audience. A Historical Meeting Held at Harlem's Historic Malcolm Shabazz Masjid, Muslim Journal, vol 22, no. 35, June 13, 1997.
  82. ^ Imam Mikal Saahir, Focolare Congress draws Muslim from 24 Nations – Muslim American Society, and Focolare Movement: Two communities Uniting upon charity and Love, in Muslim Journal, vol 23, no. 40, July 17, 1998
  83. ^ José Ignacio Lopez, "Hermanos mayores", La Nacion, Buenos Aires, 4 de mayo 1998
  84. ^ C. Lubich, Ai membri della B'naiB'rith e altri membri di comunità Ebraiche, in Nuova Umanità 20 (1998), n. 117-118, pp. 375-384 Discorso del 20/4/1998 in Buenos Aires (Argentina)
  85. ^ Chiara Lubich and religions. Judaism. https://www.focolare.org/en/news/2014/02/23/chiara-lubich-e-le-religioni-ebraismo/
  86. ^ Peace Award for Focolare Movement Founder, The Hindu, January 6, 2001
  87. ^ https://www.vatican.va/special/assisi-testimonianze_20020124_en.html
  88. ^ https://www.focolare.org/en/news/2005/07/21/quale-futuro-per-una-societa-multiculturale-multietnica-e-multireligiosa-dopo-i-fatti-terroristici-2/
  89. ^ ttps://www.focolare.org/en/download/dialogo-con-persone-di-convinzioni-non-religiose/
  90. ^ A. Torno, Chiara Lubich, A Biography, cit pp. 104-105
  91. ^ Michel Vandelene, in Chiara Lubich, Essential Writings, cit. ppxxv-xxviii.
  92. ^ Cf. Card. G. Coppa, "Sorelle nell’amore a Gesù sulla croce –La commune esperienza di unione con Cristo di Madre Teresa di Calcutta e Chiara Lubich, "L'Osservatore Romano", 4 April 2008, p. 7.
  93. ^ A. Torno, Chiara Lubich, A Biography, New City Press, New York, 2012, pp 111 et seq
  94. ^ https://www.focolare.org/en/news/2006/09/16/la-nostra-risposta-alla-notte-culturale-collettiva-di-oggi-2/
  95. ^ I. Fisher, Chiara Lubich, Who Founded Catholic Lay Group, Dies at 88, New York Times, 15.3.2008
  96. ^ PopeBenedict XVI, Letter for the funeral of Chiara Lubich https://w2.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en/letters/2008/documents/hf_ben-xvi_let_20080318_chiara-lubich.html
  97. ^ Chiara Lubich, new light for the Church, Osservatore Romano, 28.1.2015 http://www.osservatoreromano.va/en/news/chiara-lubich-una-luce-nuova-la-chiesa#
  98. ^ Chiara Lubich and Don Benzi beatification, the diocesan phase is closed https://www.vaticannews.va/en/chiesa/news/2019-10/chiara-lubich-don-oreste-benzi-chiusura-causa-beatificazione. html

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