Chordeumatida

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Chordeumatida
Chordeumatida New Zealand.jpg
Two unidentified species from New Zealand
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Myriapoda
Class: Diplopoda
Subclass: Chilognatha
Infraclass: Helminthomorpha
Superorder: Nematophora
Order: Chordeumatida
Pocock, 1894
Suborders

Chordeumatidea
Craspedosomatidea
Heterochordeumatidea
Striariidea

Diversity
c. 50 families, 1200 species
Synonyms

Ascospermophora Verhoeff, 1900
Craspedosomatida Jeekel, 1971

Chordeumatida (from the Greek word for "sausage") is a large order of millipedes containing some 1200 species with a nearly worldwide distribution. They possess around 30 body segments and reach about 25 mm (1 in) in length.

Description[edit]

Chordeumatidans are relatively short-bodied, with only 26-32 body segments behind the head. They range in length from 4–25 mm (0.16–1 in). A key feature is the presence of 6 large bristles (setae) on the dorsal surface each body segment. The first segment (collum) is relatively narrow, giving the appearance of a distinct "neck" in many species. The body tapers towards the rear, and the rearmost tip (telson) contains silk-producing organs (spinnerets). A dorsal groove runs down the length of the body, and some species possess paranota, lateral extensions of the exoskeleton. Paranota are also found in some other millipedes, notably Polydesmida, from which Chordeumatidans can be distinguished by having more than 20 body segments and a dorsal groove. Unlike most other helminthomorph (worm-like) millipedes, Chordeumatidans lack ozopores.[1][2]

Distribution[edit]

Chordeumatidans have a large distribution, occurring on all continents except Antarctica. They are present in Madagascar but absent from sub-Saharan Africa and, aside from southern Chile, are largely absent from South America. They occur in the tropics of Central America, Southeast Asia, and Oceania, and as far south as Tasmania, New Zealand, and Chiloé Island, Chile.[3] They are abundant in cold, rocky, mountainous areas of Europe and central Asia, and range northward to Scandinavia, Siberia, and in North America up into Canada and southwest Alaska.[3]

Classification[edit]

The Chordeumatida contains approximately 1200 species,[4][5] classified in four suborders and approximately 50 families, although several families contain only one to five genera.[6]

Suborder Chordeumatidea Pocock 1894
Suborder Craspedosomatidea Cook, 1895
Suborder Heterochordeumatidea Shear, 2000

Superfamily Diplomaragnoidea Attems, 1907

Schedotrigona (Metopidiotrichidae) from New Zealand

Superfamily Heterochordeumatoidea Pocock, 1894

Superfamily Pygmaeosomatoidea Carl, 1941

Suborder Striariidea Cook, 1896

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Millipede Body Organization". Milli-PEET: The class Diplopoda. The Field Museum, Chicago. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  2. ^ "Putative apomorphies of millipede clades" (PDF). Milli-PEET: Millipede Systematics. The Field Museum, Chicago, IL. 26 September 2006. 
  3. ^ a b Shelley, R. M., & Golavatch, S. I. (2011). "Atlas of myriapod biogeography. I. Indigenous ordinal and supra-ordinal distributions in the Diplopoda: Perspectives on taxon origins and ages, and a hypothesis on the origin and early evolution of the class". Insecta Mundi 158: 1–134. 
  4. ^ Sierwald, Petra; Bond, Jason E. (2007). "Current Status of the Myriapod Class Diplopoda (Millipedes): Taxonomic Diversity and Phylogeny". Annual Review of Entomology 52 (1): 401–420. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.52.111805.090210. PMID 17163800. 
  5. ^ Brewer, Michael S.; Sierwald, Petra; Bond, Jason E. (2012). "Millipede Taxonomy after 250 Years: Classification and Taxonomic Practices in a Mega-Diverse yet Understudied Arthropod Group". PLoS ONE 7 (5): e37240. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037240. PMC 3352885. PMID 22615951. 
  6. ^ Shear, W. (2011). "Class Diplopoda de Blainville in Gervais, 1844. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness" (PDF). Zootaxa 3148: 159–164. 

External links[edit]