Chronology of Ukrainian language suppression

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The chronology of Ukrainian language suppression.

17th century[edit]

18th century[edit]

  • 1720 – Peter I's decree banning the printing press in the Ukrainian language and Ukrainian texts seizure of church books.[4][2]
  • 1729 – Peter II ordered to rewrite the Ukrainian into Russian all decrees and orders.[2]
  • 1763 – Catherine II decree banning the teaching in Ukrainian in Kiev-Mohyla Academy.[2]
  • 1769 – Prohibition of the Synod of Ukrainian print and use the primer.[2]
  • 1775 – The destruction of the Zaporozhian Sich and closed Ukrainian schools at the offices of the Cossack regiment.[2]
  • 1789 – Disposal of the Polish Sejm Commission Education the closure of all Ukrainian schools.[2]

19th century[edit]

  • 1804 – according to a special royal decree in Russian empire, all Ukrainian-language schools were banned, which led to the complete degradation of the Ukrainian population.[5]
  • 1817 – Introduction of the Polish language in all public schools in nowadays Western Ukraine.[2]
  • 1832 – Reorganization of education in Ukraine on the empire-wide principles and transform all teaching into Russian language[2]
  • 1847 – The crackdown of the Brotherhood of Cyril and Methodius and increased persecution of the Ukrainian language and culture, the prohibition of the best works of Shevchenko, Kulish, Kostomarov and others.[2]
  • 1859 – Ministry of Religion and Science of Austria-Hungary in Eastern Galicia and Bukovyna attempt to replace Ukrainian Cyrillic alphabet with Latin.[2]
  • 1862 – Closing free Sunday Ukrainian schools for adults in the Russian part of Ukraine.[2]
  • 1863 – Valuev Circular banning censors to give permissions for Ukrainian spiritual and popular educational literature: "there was no and could not have been a separate Little Russian language"[2]
  • 1864 – Adoption of the Charter of the primary school at which education was to be conducted only in Russian.[2]
  • 1869 – Introduction of the Polish language as the official language of education and the administration of Polish Eastern Galicia.[2]
  • 1870 – Comment of Minister of Education of Russia Dmitry Tolstoy that "the ultimate goal of education for all inorodtsy (non-Russians, literally "people of other descent") is unarguably to be Russification."[2]
  • 1876 - Alexander II's Ems decree banning the printing and import from abroad of any Ukrainian literature, and to ban Ukrainian stage performances and Ukrainian lyrics in music scores, that is folk songs.[6]
  • 1881 – Prohibition of teaching in the public schools and uttering church sermons in Ukrainian.[2]
  • 1884 – Alexander III ban Ukrainian theater in all the provinces of Little Russia.[2]
  • 1888 – Alexander III decree banning the use of the Ukrainian language in official institutions and baptism Ukrainian names.[2]
  • 1892 – Prohibition to translate books from Russian into Ukrainian.[2]
  • 1895 – Prohibition by the Main Administration of Printing to publish Ukrainian-language children's books.[2]

20th century[edit]

  • 1911 – Resolution VIIth congress of the nobility in Moscow's only Russian-language education and the inadmissibility of the use of other languages in schools in Russia.[2]
  • 1913 – Ukrainian banned from all public schools in Alberta, Canada, home to the largest Ukrainian diaspora community in the New World at that time.[2]
  • 1914 – Prohibition of celebrating the 100th anniversary of Taras Shevchenko, the decree of Nicholas II prohibition of the Ukrainian press.[2]
  • 1914, 1916 – Russification campaign in western Ukraine, the prohibition of the Ukrainian word, education, church.[2]
  • 1922 – Part of the proclamation of the Central Committee of the RCP (b), and the Communist Party (b) the "theory" of the struggle between the two cultures in Ukraine – city (Russian) and peasant (Ukrainian), which should win the first one.[2]
  • 1924 – Law of the Republic of Poland on limiting the use of the Ukrainian language in the administration, judiciary, education subservient to the Polish lands.[2]
  • 1924 – Kingdom of Romania law on the obligations of all the "Romanians" who "lost their mother language," to educate children only in Romanian schools.[2]
  • 1925 – Ukrainian final closure of the "secret" of the university in Lviv[2]
  • 1926 – Stalin's letter to "Comrade. Kaganovich and other members of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CP (B) U with the sanction of the struggle against the "national bias", the beginning harassment of "Ukrainization".[2]
  • 1933 – Stalin's telegram to stop "Ukrainization".[clarification needed][2][7][8]
  • 1933 – Abolition in Romania Ministerial Decree of 31 December 1929, which permits a few hours a week of the Ukrainian language in schools with a majority of students with the Ukrainians.[2]
  • 1934 – A special order of the Ministry of Education of Romania's dismissal "for the hostile attitude of the State and the Romanian people" of all Ukrainian teachers who demanded the return to school of Ukrainian.[2]
  • 1958 – Enshrined in Art. 20 Principles of Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics on Public Education of the situation on the free choice of language learning, the study of all languages except Russian, at the request of students' parents.[2]
  • 1960–1980 – Mass closure of Ukrainian schools in Poland and Romania.[clarification needed][2]
  • 1970 – Order of the Ministry of Education of the USSR on academic thesis defense only in Russian language.[2]
  • 1972 – Prohibition of party bodies to celebrate the anniversary of the museum Kotlyarevskyi in Poltava.[2]
  • 1973 – Prohibition to celebrate the anniversary of Ivan Kotlyarevsky's "Aeneid."[2]
  • 1984 – Order of the Ministry of Culture of the USSR on the transfer proceedings in all the museums of the Soviet Union, the Russian language.[2]
  • 1984 – Back to the USSR payments increased by 15% of the salary for teachers of the Russian language in comparison with teachers of Ukrainian language.[9]
  • 1989 – the decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU on "legislative consolidation of the Russian language as a nationwide".[2]
  • 1990 – adoption by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Law on the languages of the peoples of the USSR, where the Russian language was granted official status.[2]

21st century[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Text for charters Собраніе Гос. Грамотъ, ІІІ, №77
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar ""Документи про заборону української мови" / Documents on prohibition of the Ukrainian language". Ridivira. 2016-05-10. Archived from the original on 2016-08-19. Retrieved 2016-08-19.
  3. ^ "Тест на державність: Музей рідкісної книги у Ніжині подає приклад іншим". www.radiosvoboda.org. Radio Liberty. 2019-01-27. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  4. ^ Ilarion Ohienko, Українська церква: Нариси з історії української православної церкви / Ukrainian Church: Essays on the history of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church: У 2-х т. – Kyiv, 1993. – 284 p.
  5. ^ Розпутенко Іван Забуття українців Kyiv "K.I.C." - 2008 - 180 p. ISBN 978-966-7048-87-7
  6. ^ Full Text of Ems decree as in journal of «Special meeting» (in Russian)
  7. ^ The Kremlin's Nationality Policy in Ukraine after the Holodomor of 1932—33
  8. ^ The Ukrainian Famine of 1932-1933 and the UN Convention on Genocide // Human Rights in Ukraine. Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group
  9. ^ "Школа і мова. Про доплати вчителям мови/язика нині і в минулому". language-policy.info. 2018-07-20. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
  10. ^ Parliament registers bill to provide Russian language with official status
  11. ^ Deutsche Welle: Ukraine Has Changed In Two Weeks More than in Twenty Years.
  12. ^ Euromaidan Press: Is Luhansk about to be annexed by Russia?
  13. ^ Вадим Черниш розповів про кроки України щодо підтримки вивчення української мови в Криму
  14. ^ «Система знищує все українське»: доповідь про життя українців у Криму
  15. ^ В анексованому Криму не залишилося шкіл з українською мовою навчання - правозахисники
  16. ^ Euromaidan Press: Terrorists in Luhansk ban study of Ukrainian history and language
  17. ^ Rebel-held Ukraine overhauls education system as it aligns itself with Russia
  18. ^ Що сталося зі школами в ОРДЛО за чотири роки війни?
  19. ^ Із окупованої частини Донбасу витискають українську мову
  20. ^ В ОРДЛО не викладають українську та вчаться по завезених з РФ підручниках
  21. ^ Russia has eliminated all classes taught in Ukrainian since its annexation of Crimea // Human Rights in Ukraine. Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group

Sources[edit]

  • Очеретянко С. І., Рябець Л. В. Заборона української мови // Енциклопедія сучасної України : у 30 т / ред. кол. І. М. Дзюба [та ін.] ; НАН України, НТШ, Координаційне бюро енциклопедії сучасної України НАН України. — К., 2003­–2019. — ISBN 944-02-3354-X Parameter error in {{ISBN}}: Invalid ISBN..
  • Сушко Роман, Левицький Мирослав // «Хроніка нищення Української мови» (від доби Романових до сьогодення), видання четверте виправлене й доповнене, вид. Б. МММ «Таля», м. Київ, 2012 р., 80 с. – ISBN 978-966-2995-50-3
  • Енциклопедія українознавства : Словникова частина : [в 11 т.] / Наукове товариство імені Шевченка ; гол. ред. проф., д-р Володимир Кубійович. — Париж ; Нью-Йорк : Молоде життя ; Львів ; Київ : Глобус, 1955—2003.
  • Viktor Kubaychuk [uk], «Хронологія мовних подій в Україні: зовнішня історія української мови». — Kyiv: К. І. С., 2004. — 176 с.
  • Ukrainian language in the 20th century: history of linguocide [uk]: documents and materials. Упорядники: Masenko Larysa, Victor Kubaichuk, Demska Orysia. — Київ: Видавничий дім «Києво-Могилянська академія», 2005. — 399 с. ISBN 966-518-314-1
  • ""Документи про заборону української мови" / Documents on prohibition of the Ukrainian language". Ridivira. 2016-05-10. Archived from the original on 2016-08-19. Retrieved 2016-08-19.
  • Куземська, Ганна. Нездоланна Україна: Хроніка нищення української Церкви, мови, культури, народу / Рецензенти: Г. П. Півторак, Л. Т. Масенко, І. К. Патриляк. — К. : Фенікс, 2014. — 132 с. — ISBN 978-966-136-179-8.

External links[edit]