Chunfen

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Chunfen
Chinese name
Chinese 春分
Literal meaning vernal equinox
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabet xuân phân
Chữ Hán 春分
Korean name
Hangul 춘분
Hanja 春分
Japanese name
Kanji 春分
Hiragana しゅんぶん
Solar term
  Longitude     Term     Calendar
  Spring
  315°   Lichun    4 – 5 February
  330°   Yushui   18–19 February
  345°   Jingzhe    5 – 6 March
  0°   Chunfen   20–21 March
  15°   Qingming    4 – 5 April
  30°   Guyu   20–21 April
  Summer
  45°   Lixia    5 – 6 May
  60°   Xiaoman   21–22 May
  75°   Mangzhong    5 – 6 June
  90°   Xiazhi   21–22 June
  105°   Xiaoshu    7 – 8 July
  120°   Dashu   22–23 July
  Autumn
  135°   Liqiu    7 – 8 August
  150°   Chushu   23–24 August
  165°   Bailu    7 – 8 September
  180°   Qiufen   23–24 September
  195°   Hanlu    8 – 9 October
  210°   Shuangjiang     23–24 October
  Winter
  225°   Lidong    7 – 8 November
  240°   Xiaoxue   22–23 November
  255°   Daxue    7 – 8 December
  270°   Dongzhi   21–22 December
  285°   Xiaohan    5 – 6 January
  300°   Dahan   20–21 January

The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 solar terms. Chūnfēn, Shunbun, Chunbun, or Xuân phân is the 4th solar term. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 0° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 15°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 0°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around 20 March and ends around 4 April (5 April East Asia time).

Pentads[edit]

Date and Time (UTC)
year begin end
辛巳 2001-03-20 13:30 2001-04-04 17:24


壬午 2002-03-20 19:16 2002-04-04 23:18


癸未 2003-03-21 00:59 2003-04-05 04:52


甲申 2004-03-20 06:48 2004-04-04 10:43


乙酉 2005-03-20 12:33 2005-04-04 16:34


丙戌 2006-03-20 18:25 2006-04-04 22:15


丁亥 2007-03-21 00:07 2007-04-05 04:04


戊子 2008-03-20 05:48 2008-04-04 09:45


己丑 2009-03-20 11:43 2009-04-04 15:33


庚寅 2010-03-20 17:32 2010-04-04 21:30


辛卯 2011-03-20 23:20 2011-04-05 03:11


壬辰 2012-03-20 05:14 2012-04-04 09:05


癸巳 2013-03-20 11:01 2013-04-04 15:02


甲午 2014-03-20 16:57 2014-04-04 20:46


Source: JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System

Each solar term can be divided into 3 pentads (候). They are: first pentad (初候), second pentad (次候) and last pentad (末候). Pentads in Chunfen include:

China
  • First pentad: 玄鳥至, 'The dark birds arrive'. 'Dark bird' in this case refers to swallows, which are also making their northward migration.[1]
  • Second pentad: 雷乃發聲, 'Thunder sounds', referring to the onset of spring thunderstorms.[1]
  • Last pentad: 始電, 'Lightning begins'. This refers to thunderstorms as well, but also to the gradual lengthening of daytime, and the prevalence of sunlight.[1]
Japan

A pentad as follows was referred to Japanese traditional calendar presented in a smaller, easy to use, format.

  • First pentad: Suzume hajimete sukuu (雀始巣?), 'Sparrow begins holding a nest'.[2]
  • Second pentad: Sakura hajimete hiraku (桜始開?), 'Cherry blossoms open for the first time'.[2]
  • Last pentad: Kaminari sunawachi koeo hassu (雷乃発声?), 'Distant thunder start to sound'.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kondō Heijō (近藤瓶城), ed. (1901). 新加纂録類 (Shinka Sanrokurui). 改定史籍集覧 (Kaitei Shiseki Shūran). 19. (Meiji 34). Tokyo: 近藤活版所 (Kondō Kappansho). p. 110. 
  2. ^ a b c Fujisawa, Morihiko (1961). 年中行事編 (Nenjū Gyōjihen). 図説日本民俗学全集 (Zusetsu Nihon Minzokugaku Zenshū). 7. Tokyo: Akane Shobō. p. 103. 
Preceded by
Jingzhe (驚蟄)
Solar term (節氣) Succeeded by
Qingming (清明)