Community health center
A healthcare center, health center, or community health center is one of a network of clinics staffed by a group of general practitioners and nurses providing healthcare services to people in a certain area. Typical services covered are family practice and dental care,[clarification needed] but some clinics have expanded greatly and can include internal medicine, pediatric, women’s care, family planning, pharmacy, optometry, lab, and more. In countries with universal healthcare, most people use the healthcare centers. In countries without universal healthcare, the clients include the uninsured, underinsured, low-income or those living in areas where little access to primary health care is available.
Community health centres by country
In Quebec, local community services centres known by their French acronym, CLSC, offer routine health and social services, including consultations with general practitioners with and without an appointment.
The health center (Portuguese: centro de saúde) was the basic community primary healthcare unit of the National Health Service of Portugal, as well as acting as the local public health authority. Usually, each health center covered the area of one of the Portuguese municipalities, but municipalities with over than 15 000 habitants could be covered by more than one of these centers. Health centers were staffed with general practitioners, public health physicians, nurses, social workers and administrative personnel.
In 2008, the more than 300 health centers were aggregated into around 70 health center groups (agrupamentos de centros de saúde) or ACES. Each ACES includes several family and personalized healthcare units, these being now the basic primary health care providers of the Portuguese National Health Service. Besides family health care services, the ACES also include public health, community health and other specialized units, as well as basic medical emergency services.
Some of the ACES were grouped with hospital units into experimental local health units (unidades locais de saúde) or ULS. The ULS are intended to increase the coordination between the primary and the secondary healthcare, through both of these services being provided by the same health unit.
Lord Dawson of Penn was commissioned by Lord Addison to produce a report on "schemes requisite for the systematised provision of such forms of medical and allied services as should... be available for the inhabitants of a given area". The Interim Report on the Future Provision of Medical and Allied Services was produced in 1920, though no further report ever appeared. The report laid down detailed plans for a network of Primary and Secondary Health Centres, together with detailed architectural drawings of different sorts of centres. By 1939 the term health centre was widely used to refer to new buildings housing local health authority services. The Dawson report was very influential in debates about the National Health Service when it was set up in 1948, but few centres were built because "it was not practicable for local authorities to establish health centres without the full compliance of general practitioners" - which was not forthcoming. Far more attention and resources were devoted to hospital services than to primary care. From 1948 to 1974 local authorities were responsible for the building of health centres.
A well known centre was opened at Woodberry Down in October 1952. It had provision for 6 GPs, 2 dentists, a pharmacist and two nurses. It cost about £163,000, which included the cost of a day nursery and child guidance clinic. This was regarded as extravagant and used as an excuse by critics for not building more. Harlow, where 4 centres were built by the new town corporation, was the only community in Britain served exclusively by doctors working from health centres.
The few centres that were built "functioned as isolated islands in a sea of General Practitioners generally indifferent to their success". There were later calls to establish a network of centres to include not only GPs but also dentists and diagnostic facilities. In 1965 there were only 30 health centres in England and Wales, and 3 in Scotland. By 1974 there were 566 in England, 29 in Wales and 59 in Scotland. After the NHS Re-organisation Act 1973, responsibility for promoting health centres was transferred to Area Health Authorities and there were renewed calls to establish more Health Centres. It was suggested that these centres could arrange alternative medical care for patients "when their doctor is off duty, or for emergency calls when he is engaged elsewhere".
Lord Darzi set up a network of Polyclinics in England when he was a minister in 2008. These clinics had some features in common with earlier proposals for health centres, but shared with them considerable resistance from GPs.
Community Health Centers (CHCs) in the U.S. are neighborhood health centers generally serving Medically Underserved Areas (MUAs) which includes persons who are uninsured, underinsured, low-income or those living in areas where little access to primary health care is available. Largely federally and locally funded, some health clinics are surprisingly modernized with new equipment and electronic medical records. In 2006, the National Association of Community Health Centers implemented a model for offering free, rapid HIV testing to all patients between the ages of 13 and 64 during routine primary medical and dental care visits.
Medically Underserved Areas/Populations are areas or populations designated by the Health Resources and Services Administration, or HRSA as having: too few primary care providers, high infant mortality, high poverty and/or high elderly population. Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) are designated by HRSA as having shortages of primary medical care, dental or mental health providers and may be geographic (a county or service area), demographic (low income population) or institutional (comprehensive health center, federally qualified health center or other public facility).
- Ambulatory care
- Community health
- Doctor's visit
- Health administration
- Health insurance
- Health professional
- Social work
- "Association of Ontario Health Centres". Association of Ontario Health Centres. 2013-09-24. Retrieved 2013-09-24.
- "Local Community Services Centres (CLSCs)". Santé Montréal Portal. Gouvernement du Québec. 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
- "Statistical Communiqué on the 2011 National Economic and Social Development". stats.gov.cn. National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2012-09-05.[dead link]
- "Interim Report on the Future Provision of Medical and Allied Services 1920 (Lord Dawson of Penn)". Socialist Health Association. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- Webster, Charles (1988). The Health Services Since the War. London: HMSO. p. 380. ISBN 0116309423.
- "Woodberry Down Health Centre". British Medical Journal 1952 (2): 879. 18 October 1952.
- Webster, Charles (1988). The Health Services Since the War. London: HMSO. p. 386. ISBN 0116309423.
- "The Case for Health Centres". Socialist Health Association. 1964. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- Webster, Charles (1998). The National Health Service A Political History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 131. ISBN 0192892967.
- "Health Centres the Next Step". Socialist Health Centres. 1975. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- "Health Centres the Next Step 1975". March 10, 1975. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- "Community Health Centers Integrate Rapid HIV Screening Into Routine Primary Care, Leading to Significant Increases in Testing Rates". Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2013-05-08. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
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