Community of Sahel–Saharan States

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Community of Sahel–Saharan States

تجمع دول الساحل والصحراء
Communauté des Etats Sahélo-Sahariens
Comunidade dos Estados Sahelo-Saarianos
CEN-SAD.svg
  Founding members
  Countries joining later
HeadquartersLibya Tripoli
Official languages
TypeTrade bloc
Membership29 member states
Leaders
• Secretary General
Ibrahim Sani Abani (acting)
Establishment
• Agreement signed
4 February 1998

The Community of Sahel–Saharan States (CEN-SAD; Arabic: تجمع دول الساحل والصحراء; French: Communauté des Etats Sahélo-Sahariens; Portuguese: Comunidade dos Estados Sahelo-Saarianos) aims to create a free trade area within Africa. There are questions with regard to whether its level of economic integration qualifies it under the enabling clause of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

Establishment[edit]

CEN-SAD was established in February 1998 by six countries, but since then its membership has grown to 29. One of its main goals is to achieve economic unity through the implementation of the free movement of people and goods in order to make the area occupied by member states a free trade area. At the international level, CEN-SAD gained observer status at the UN General Assembly in 2001 and concluded association and cooperation accords with the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and with UN specialized agencies and institutions such as UNDP, WHO, UNESCO, FAO, and the Permanent Interstate Committee for drought control in the Sahel.

All CEN-SAD member countries are also participating in other African economic unions, that have the aim to create a common African Economic Community. The envisioned Free Trade Area of CEN-SAD would be hard to practically implement, because it is overlapping with the envisioned customs unions of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS/CEDEAO), ECCAS and COMESA and other trade blocs more advanced in their integration.

2005 summit[edit]

At the summit of 1–2 June 2005 in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), the heads of state decided to create a "high authority for water, agriculture and seeds" in order to allow member countries to develop their agriculture through better control of water resources and seed selection. On the other hand, the summit to decide to study the construction of a railway line connecting Libya, Chad, Niger, with ramps to Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal, to facilitate exchanges and to open up the CEN-SAD space. Blaise Compaoré, president of Burkina Faso, succeeded Malian President Amadou Toumani Toure as current president of CEN-SAD.

2007 summit[edit]

The African leaders sought to reconcile differences between neighbours Chad and Sudan over the Darfur conflict and boost Somalia's embattled Transitional Federal Government at a regional summit in Libya on June 3, 2007.[1]

2008 summit[edit]

The 10th Summit of Heads of State of the Community of Sahel–Saharan States (CEN-SAD) met on June 28, 2008 in Cotonou on June 18. Its theme was Rural Development and Food Security in the CEN-SAD area. Beninese President Yayi Boni has been elected current President of CEN-SAD for a one-year term.[2]

2013 summit[edit]

In January 2013, the Community of Sahel–Saharan States will meet in N'Djamena, Chad. A commentator said "Morocco will likely continue its steps to take command of the organization".[3]

CEN-SAD Games[edit]

Beginning in 2009, CEN-SAD member states will take part in planned periodic international sporting and cultural festivals, known as the Community of Sahel–Saharan States Games (Jeux de la Communauté des Etats Sahélo-Sahariens).[4] The first CEN-SAD Games were held in Niamey, Niger from 4–14 February 2009. Thirteen nations competed in Under-20 sports (athletics, basketball, judo, football, handball, table tennis and traditional wrestling) and six fields of cultural competition (song, traditional creation and inspiration dancing, painting, sculpture and photography). The second CEN-SAD Games was scheduled to take place in the Chadian capitol of N’Djamena in February 2011.[5]

List of members[edit]

Member state Joined Area
(km²)
Population GDP (PPP) ($US) Notes
(all states are also members of the
United Nations and of the African Union)
(inh.) (date) (millions) (per capita)
 Benin 2002 114,763 10,008,749 2013 census[6] 29,918[7] 2,552[7] also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA
 Burkina Faso 1998– 274,200 14,017,262 2006 census 45,339[8] 792[8] also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA
 Cape Verde 2009–[9] 4,033 543,767 2019 est.[10] 4,323[11] 3,651[11] also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO
 Central African Republic 1999– 622,984 4,666,368 2019 est.[10] 4,262[12] 823[12] also member of ECCAS/CEEAC and CEMAC
 Chad 1998– 1,284,000 13,670,084 2015 est.[13] 30,000[14] 2,428[14] also member of ECCAS/CEEAC and CEMAC
 Comoros 2007–[15] 1,861 850,688 2018 est. 2,446[16] 2,799[16] also member of SADC and COMESA
 Djibouti 2000– 23,200 also member of IGAD and COMESA
 Egypt 2001– 1,010,408 also member of COMESA, candidate to AMU/UMA
 Eritrea 1999– 117,600 also member of IGAD and COMESA
 Gambia 2000– 10,689 also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and WAMZ
 Ghana 2005– 239,567 also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and WAMZ
 Guinea 2007–[15] 245,857 also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and WAMZ
 Guinea-Bissau 2004– 36,125 also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA
 Ivory Coast 2004– 322,463 also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA
 Kenya 2007–[15] 580,367 also member of IGAD, EAC and COMESA
 Liberia 2004– 111,369 also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and WAMZ
 Libya 1998– 1,759,541 6,871,287 2019 est.[10] also member of AMU/UMA and COMESA
 Mali 1998– 1,240,192 also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA
 Mauritania 2007–[15] 1,030,000 also member of AMU/UMA
 Morocco[17] 2001– 446,550
or 710,850[17]
also member of AMU/UMA
 Niger 1998– 1,267,000 also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA
 Nigeria 2001– 923,769 also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and WAMZ
 São Tomé and Príncipe 2007–[15] 1,001 also member of ECCAS/CEEAC and CEMAC
 Senegal 2000– 196,712 also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA
 Sierra Leone 2005– 71,740 7,092,113 2015 census[18] 12,177[19] 1,608[19] also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and WAMZ
 Somalia 2001– 637,657 also member of IGAD and COMESA
 Sudan[20] 1998– 1,886,068
(2,505,813 before 2011[20])
41,592,539
30,894,000
2020 est.[21]
2009 est.[22]
177,678[23] 4,232[24] also member of IGAD and COMESA
 Togo 2002– 56,785 also member of ECOWAS/CEDEAO and UEMOA
 Tunisia 2001– 163,610 11,722,038 2019 census[25] 159,707[26] 3,713[26] also member of AMU/UMA and COMESA
Total (29 members) 14,680,111
or 14,944,411[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20070603/wl_africa_afp/censadsummit;_ylt=A9G_RyW9HmNG7YMAMhhvaA8F
  2. ^ Bénin : Yayi Boni élu président en exercice de la CEN-SAD, Pana, 18 juin 2008
  3. ^ Nickels, Benjamin P. (January 3, 2013). "Morocco's Engagement with the Sahel Community". SADA. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
  4. ^ La première édition des Jeux de la CEN-SAD en février 2009 au Niger.[permanent dead link] APANEWS, 17 June 2008.
  5. ^ Maiden CEN-SAD Games ends in glory in Niamey. [permanent dead link] APA News. 2009-02-15.
  6. ^ "BENIN en Chiffres" [BENIN in Figures]. INSAE (in French). Archived from the original on 17 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  7. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018". International Monetary Fund. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  8. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects - Burkina Faso". International Monetary Fund.
  9. ^ "Cape Verde becomes CEN-SAD's 29th member country". www.panapress.com.
  10. ^ a b c United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. "World Population prospects – Population division". population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). Retrieved 9 November 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019). "Overall total population – World Population Prospects" (xlsx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). Retrieved 9 November 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects - Cape Verde". International Monetary Fund.
  12. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects - Central African Republic". International Monetary Fund. 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  13. ^ Projections demographiques 2009–2050 Tome 1: Niveau national (PDF) (Report) (in French). INSEED. July 2014. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  14. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects - Chad". International Monetary Fund. 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  15. ^ a b c d e "CEN-SAD celebrates 13th anniversary". Panapress. 4 February 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  16. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects - Comoros". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  17. ^ a b c Morocco: the area 446,550 km2 (172,410 sq mi) excludes all disputed territories, while 710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi) includes the Moroccan-claimed and partially-controlled parts of Western Sahara (claimed as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic by the Polisario Front). Morocco also claims Ceuta and Melilla, making up about 22.8 km2 (8.8 sq mi) more claimed territory.
  18. ^ "Sierra Leone 2015 Population and Housing Census National Analytical Report" (PDF). Statistics Sierra Leone. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  19. ^ a b "Sierra Leone". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  20. ^ a b Membership of Sudan in CEN-SAD was formerly including South Sudan, but only before its independence from Sudan on 9 July 2011; after its independence, South Sudan did not join CEN-SAD, but joined EAC instead, while also choosing to remain in IGAD.
  21. ^ "Sudan - Official population clock". cbs.gov.sd.
  22. ^ (disputed) "Discontent over Sudan census". News24. Cape Town. Agence France-Presse. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  23. ^ "Sudan - PPP GDP". International Monetary Fund.
  24. ^ "Sudan - PPP per capita". International Monetary Fund.
  25. ^ "Population". National Institute of Statistics-Tunisia. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  26. ^ a b "Tunisia". International Monetary Fund.

External links[edit]