Cosmic ocean

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The Cosmic Ocean Reveals Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva (opaque watercolor and gold on paper, San Diego Museum, 1835)

A cosmic ocean or celestial river is a mythological motif found in the mythology of many cultures and civilizations, representing the world or cosmos as enveloped by primordial waters.

In ancient creation texts, the primordial waters are often represented as originally having filled the entire universe, being the first source of the gods cosmos with the act of creation corresponding to the establishment of an inhabitable space separate from the enveloping waters.[1]

Fraxkard (Middle Persian: plʾhwklt, Avestan: Vourukaša; also called Warkaš in Middle Persian) is the cosmic ocean in Iranian mythology.[2]

In the first creation story in the Bible the world is also created as a space inside of the water, and is hence surrounded of it, "And God saith, 'Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.'" (Genesis 1:6).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Stiessel, Lena (1995). Skapelsemyter från hela världen. Almquist & Wiksell. ISBN 91-21-14467-2.
  2. ^ "Welcome to Encyclopaedia Iranica".