Court of Justice of the European Union
|This article relies too much on references to primary sources. (July 2015)|
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU; French: Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the institution of the European Union (EU) that encompasses the whole judiciary. Seated in Luxembourg, Luxembourg, it consists of two major courts and a specialised court.
- The Court of Justice, informally known as European Court of Justice (created in 1952 as the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Communities, later named Court of Justice of the European Communities), the highest court in the EU legal system;
- The General Court (created in 1988; formerly the Court of First Instance);
- The Civil Service Tribunal, a specialised court created in 2004.
The institution was originally established in 1952 as a single court called the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Communities (as of 1958 the Court of Justice of the European Communities (CJEC)). With the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009, the court system obtained its current name (Court of Justice of the European Union), while the court itself was renamed "Court of Justice".
Its mission is to ensure that "the law is observed" "in the interpretation and application" of the Treaties. The Court reviews the legality of the acts of the institutions of the European Union; ensures that the Member States comply with obligations under the Treaties; and interprets European Union law at the request of the national courts and tribunals.
The Court constitutes the judicial authority of the European Union and, in cooperation with the courts and tribunals of the Member States, it ensures the uniform application and interpretation of European Union law.
- "CURIA – General Presentation – Court of Justice of the European Union". CURIA. CURIA. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Article 19 TEU: The Court of Justice of the European Union shall include the Court of Justice, the General Court and specialised court.
- Gunnar Beck, The Legal Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the EU, Hart Publishing (Oxford), 2013.
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