Court of Justice of the European Union

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Not to be confused with the European Court of Human Rights, the supranational court based in Strasbourg.
Not to be confused with the 'European Court of Justice' (the CJEU's Court of Justice), the highest court of the CJEU.
Court of Justice of the European Union
Emblem of the Court of Justice of the European Union.svg
Emblem of the Court of Justice of the European Union
European Court of Justice - Luxembourg (1674586821).jpg
Palais de la Cour de Justice, Luxembourg
Agency overview
Formed 1952
Jurisdiction European Union
Headquarters Luxembourg
49°37′15.41″N 6°8′28.48″E / 49.6209472°N 6.1412444°E / 49.6209472; 6.1412444
Employees 2,144 (2015)
Annual budget EUR 357,060,000 (2015)
Child agencies
European Union
Flag of the European Union

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government
of the European Union

The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (French: Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the institution of the European Union (EU) that encompasses the whole judiciary.

Seated in Luxembourg, Luxembourg, it consists of three separate courts: the Court of Justice, the General Court, and the Civil Service Tribunal.[1][2]

CJEU is the chief judicial authority of the European Union and oversees the uniform application and interpretation of European Union law, in co-operation with the national judiciary of the member states.[2] CJEU also resolves legal disputes between national governments and EU institutions, and may take action against EU institutions on behalf of individuals, companies or organisations whose rights have been infringed.[3]

Composition[edit]

CJEU consists of two major courts and one specialised court:

  1. the Court of Justice, informally known as European Court of Justice (ECJ) which hears applications from national courts for preliminary rulings, annulment and appeals;
  2. the General Court, which hears applications for annulment from individuals, companies and, less commonly, national governments (focusing on competition law, State aid, trade, agriculture and trade marks); and
  3. the Civil Service Tribunal, a specialised court which hears disputes between the EU and its staff.[3]

Functions[edit]

CJEU's specific mission is to ensure that "the law is observed" "in the interpretation and application" of the Treaties of the European Union. To achieve this, it:

  • reviews the legality of actions taken by the EU's institutions;
  • enforces compliance by member states with their obligations under the Treaties, and
  • interprets European Union law.[2]

History[edit]

CJEU was originally established in 1952 as a single court called the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Communities (as of 1958 the Court of Justice of the European Communities (CJEC)).

The General Court was created in 1988 (known as the Court of First Instance) and the Civil Service Tribunal was created in 2004.

With the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009, the court system obtained its current name (Court of Justice of the European Union), while the court itself was renamed "Court of Justice".

References[edit]

  1. ^ Article 19 TEU: The Court of Justice of the European Union shall include the Court of Justice, the General Court and specialised court.
  2. ^ a b c "General Presentation". Curia. Europa. Retrieved 23 October 2015. 
  3. ^ a b "Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU)". Europa. Europa. Retrieved 23 October 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gunnar Beck, The Legal Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the EU (Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2013)

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 49°37′12″N 6°08′22″E / 49.62000°N 6.13944°E / 49.62000; 6.13944