European Union Customs Union

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European Union Customs Union
  Non-EU states which participate
Type Customs union
Member states
Establishment 1958
 -  Total 5,200,000 km2
2,007,731 sq mi
 -  2014 estimate 585,000,000
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $19.6 trillion
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $19.2 trillion
European Union
Flag of the European Union

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government
of the European Union

The European Union Customs Union (EUCU) is a customs union which consists of all the member states of the European Union (EU) and some of its neighbouring countries: Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Turkey.

The customs union is a principal task of the European Economic Community, established in 1958, and now succeeded by the European Union. No customs are levied on goods travelling within the customs union and—unlike a free trade area—members of the customs union impose a common external tariff on all goods entering the union. One of the consequences of the customs union is that individual European Union member states are prevented from negotiating international trade deals through institutions such as the World Trade Organisation.

Non-EU participants[edit]

EU applicant Turkey and two bordering microstatesAndorra and San Marino — each have a customs union agreement with the EU; while Monaco is part of the EU customs territory through an agreement with France.

State Agreement Date Notes
 Andorra Agreement between the EEC and Andorra[1] 1991 Excludes agricultural products
 Monaco Franco-Monegasque Treaty[2][3] 1958
 San Marino Co-operation and Customs Union Agreement[4] 1991
 Turkey European Union–Turkey Customs Union[5][6] 1995 Excludes agricultural products

In addition to these, four British territories that are not part of the EU participate in the customs union:

EU territories with an opt-out[edit]

While all EU member states are part of the customs union, not all of their respective territories participate. Territories of member states which have remained outside of the EU (overseas countries and territories of the European Union) genrally do not participate in the customs union.

However, there are seven territories that are within the EU which do not participate in the customs union:

See also[edit]