European Union Customs Union

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European Union Customs Union
  Non-EU states which participate
Policy of  European Union
Type Customs union
Member states
Establishment 1958
 •  Total 5,200,000 km2
2,007,731 sq mi
 •  2014 estimate 585,000,000
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 •  Total $19.6 trillion
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 •  Total $19.2 trillion
European Union
Flag of the European Union

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government
of the European Union

The European Union Customs Union (EUCU) is a customs union which consists of all the member states of the European Union (EU) and some of its neighbouring countries: Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Turkey.

The customs union is a principal task of the European Economic Community, established in 1958, and now succeeded by the European Union. No customs are levied on goods travelling within the customs union and—unlike a free trade area—members of the customs union impose a common external tariff on all goods entering the union. One of the consequences of the customs union is that individual European Union member states are prevented from negotiating international trade deals through institutions such as the World Trade Organisation.

Non-EU participants[edit]

Monaco and the British territories of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Guernsey, Isle of Man and Jersey are integral parts of the EU's customs territory, while Andorra, San Marino and Turkey, a candidate for EU membership, are each in a customs union with the EU.

State Agreement Entry into force Notes
Andorra Andorra Agreement in the form of an Exchange of Letters between the European Economic Community and the Principality of Andorra - Joint Declarations[1] 1 January 1991 Excludes agricultural products
Monaco Monaco Franco-Monegasque Treaty[2][3] 1958
San Marino San Marino Agreement on Cooperation and Customs Union between the European Economic Community and the Republic of San Marino[4] 1991
Turkey Turkey Decision No 1/95 of the EC-Turkey Association Council of 22 December 1995 on implementing the final phase of the Customs Union[5] 31 December 1995 Excludes agricultural products
 United Kingdom in respect of

 Akrotiri and Dhekelia

Act concerning the conditions of accession of the Czech Republic, the Republic of Estonia, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Republic of Poland, the Republic of Slovenia and the Slovak Republic and the adjustments to the Treaties on which the European Union is founded
Protocol No 3 on the sovereign base areas of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Cyprus[6]
1 May 2004
 United Kingdom in respect of

 Isle of Man

Documents concerning the accession to the European Communities of the Kingdom of Denmark, Ireland, the Kingdom of Norway and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Protocol No 3 on the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man[7]
1 January 1973

EU territories with an opt-out[edit]

While all EU member states are part of the customs union, not all of their respective territories participate. Territories of member states which have remained outside of the EU (overseas countries and territories of the European Union) generally do not participate in the customs union.

However, there are seven territories that are within the EU which do not participate in the customs union:

See also[edit]