Mun of Balhae

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Mun of Balhae
Hangul 문왕
Hanja 文王
Revised Romanization Mun wang
McCune–Reischauer Mun wang
Birth name
Hangul 대흠무
Hanja 大欽茂
Revised Romanization Dae Heum-mu
McCune–Reischauer Tae Hŭm-mu
Monarchs of Korea
  1. Go 698–719
  2. Mu 719–737
  3. Mun 737–793
  4. Dae Won-ui 793
  5. Seong 793–794
  6. Gang 794–809
  7. Jeong 809–812
  8. Hui 812–817
  9. Gan 817–818
  10. Seon 818–830
  11. Dae Ijin 830–857
  12. Dae Geonhwang 857–871
  13. Dae Hyeonseok 871–894
  14. Dae Wihae 894–906
  15. Dae Inseon 906–926

King Mun of Balhae (r. 737–793), also known as Dae Heum-mu, was the third and longest-reigning ruler of the Balhae, the successor state to Goguryeo. He succeeded his father King Mu, upon his death in 737.


During King Mun's reign, diplomatic ties with Tang Dynasty China were established, and many Balhae scholars went to China to study,[1] extending the influence of Buddhism and Confucianism in Balhae's governance. He also strengthened relations with Silla, which unified the Korean peninsula to the south of Balhae, overseeing the development of the trade route called Silla-road (Hangul: 신라도, Hanja: 新羅道). Balhae also increased diplomacy and trade with Japan.

King Mun moved the capital of Balhae several times (Sanggyeong and Donggyeong), stabilizing and strengthening central rule over various ethnic tribes in his realm, which was expanded temporarily. He also authorized the creation of the Jujagam (Hangul: 주자감, Hanja: 胄子監), the national academy, based on the national academy of Tang.

Although China recognized him as a king, Balhae itself referred to him as the Daeheung Boryeok Hyogam Geumryun Seongbeop Daewang (Hangul: 대흥보력효감금륜성법대왕, 大興寶曆孝感金輪聖法大王), Gadokbu (Hangul: 가독부, Hanja: 可毒夫), Seongwang (Hangul: 성왕, Hanja: 聖王) and Giha (Hangul: 기하, Hanja: 基下),[2] Although China recognized him as a king, Balhae itself referred to him as the posterity of heaven and an emperor.[3]

The tomb of his fourth daughter, Princess Jeonghyo, was discovered in 1980. The tombstone of his elder daughter, Princess Jeonghye, has also been found.[4]

Era names[edit]

  • Daeheung (대흥 大興 Great Happiness 737-774, ?-793)
  • Boryeok (보력 寶曆, 774-?, at least until 781)

See also[edit]


External links[edit]

Mun of Balhae
Died: 793
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of Balhae
Succeeded by
Dae Won-ui