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The deadlift is a weight training exercise in which a loaded barbell or bar is lifted off the ground to the level of the hips, then lowered to the ground. It is one of the three powerlifting exercises, along with the squat and bench press.
Deadlift refers to the lifting of dead weight (weight without momentum), such as weights lying on the ground. It is one of the few standard weight training exercises in which all repetitions begin with dead weight. There are several positions one can approach when performing the deadlift, which include the conventional deadlift, squat, and sumo-deadlift. In most other lifts there is an eccentric (lowering of the weight) phase followed by the concentric (lifting of the weight) phase. During these exercises, a small amount of energy is stored in the stretched muscles and tendons in the eccentric phase if the lifter is not flexible beyond the range of motion. Although this exercise uses the hips and legs as the primary movers, it can just as easily be considered a back exercise.
Conventional deadlift: The deadlift can be broken down into three parts: The setup, the initial pull or drive, and the lockout.
Setup: When performing a deadlift, a lifter will set up in a position that eccentrically loads the gluteus maximus, minimus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus while the muscles of the lumbar contract isometrically in an effort to stabilize the spine.
- Set up behind the bar with it touching or nearly touching the legs.
- Begin by hinging at the hips and knees, setting one's weight predominantly in the heels while maintaining flat feet.
- Spine stays long and straight as hips hinge back, taking care not to allow knees to track forward over one’s toes.
- Gripping the bar outside of the legs, a lifter will depress their shoulders away from their ears in an effort to load the lats and generate force throughout their erectors.
Drive: The next section of the deadlift produces the highest amount of force. By pushing down through their heels while simultaneously pushing up and forward with their hips and maintaining depressed scapula and a long tense spine an individual can remain safe during this motion. This is considered the most difficult part of the entire movement due to the amount of work required to drive the bar off the ground initially.
- Keep the muscles of the back contracted tightly in order to maintain a safe posture throughout the motion.
- Drive up and forward with the hips and legs to stand erect and lift the bar.
- Take a deep diaphragmatic breath and hold it in during the movement, thus creating an outward pressure on the core to further stabilize the lumbopelvic hip complex and core throughout the motion.
Lockout: The finish is the most critical aspect of the motion. This requires being totally erect with a neutral spine and forceful hip extension to engage the muscles of the lumbar spine and abdomen in unison with the glutes.
- Finish by driving the hips completely into the bar and getting as tall as possible. Contract the glutes while shortening the rectus abdominis to finish the movement with the pelvis in a neutral position.
- Contracting the glutes as well as the abdominal muscles is critical for low back health and safety.
Lowering the weight: Finishing a deadlift is simply performing these same steps in reverse order. As the muscles of the back and core must remain tight throughout the motion, one should simply hinge at the hips and knees to bring the weight down. Lowering their chest towards their knees while keeping the bar close is the safest way to ultimately complete the motion.
There are a few common errors during the performance of the deadlift.
- Back is rounded or arched: during the deadlift, the back should be flat with the spine neutral. If a lifter arches the back, either rounded or arched, the load shifts and can place too much stress or pressure on the back, which may lead to injury. The head is included in the neutral spine and should not be arched or rounded either.
- Shoulders are protracted: allowing the shoulders to come forward disengages the back muscles which stabilize the spine.
- Jerking the bar: the slack should be taken from the bar by squeezing the back muscles first and straightening the arms. The bar should then be lifted in a smooth motion without jerking.
- Squatting: the objective of a deadlift is to hinge the hips, knees will be slightly bent in the setup phase, but should not bend so deeply as to be a squat.
- Too far from the bar: if the load is too far forward, the lifter may compensate by rounding the back or shifting the weight to the front of the foot. Both result in shifting what muscles are used and could cause injury.
- Poor lowering of the weight: bending the knees too soon when lowering the weight can put pressure on the lower back. While there should be a very slight bend in the knees on the way down, bend the knees more fully (at whatever depth is needed to keep a neutral spine) once the bar has passed them on the way down.
Deadlifts can be performed using dumbbells, barbells, or kettlebells with one hand or two hands & with one leg or two legs. Other variations are the side deadlift or suitcase deadlift, rack pulls, deadlift lockouts, deficit deadlift or deadlift from a box (pulling from the floor while standing on a built or improvised low platform).
Each of these variations is called for to address specific weaknesses in a lifter's overall deadlift. For instance if the athlete has difficulty breaking contact at max. weight, deficit deadlifts are performed to strengthen the gluteus maximus and hamstrings due to the greater range of motion required by standing on the low platform or low box. On the other hand, if the lifter has no problem with breaking contact with the floor but has difficulty locking out, they should perform rack pulls to strengthen their upper back, posterior deltoids, and trapezius muscles while de-emphasizing the gluteus and hamstrings.
The archaic "dead weight lift", or "dead weight lift with lifting bar" involved a T-bar with weight loaded on it while the lifter stood on sturdy chairs or other such platforms. A remarkably heavy amount of weight could be lifted in this manner due to its short range of motion; the main limitations are in the grip. This lift is similar to the modern day rack pulls, where a heavy amount of weight is lifted deadlift style a short distance in a power cage or squat rack.
Typically, there are two grips used: overhand (pronated) or a mixed overhand-underhand (supinated) (sometimes called "offset," "staggered," "alternating", or "mixed") grip. Depending on forearm strength, the overhand grip may result in the bar potentially rolling about. Mixed grip is capable of neutralizing this through the "physics of reverse torsion." The mixed grip allows more weight to be held for this reason.
In order to prevent the bar from rolling out of the hands, some lifters have been known to use an Olympic weightlifting technique known as the hook grip. This is similar to an overhand grip, but the thumbs are inside, allowing the lifter to "hook" onto them with the fingers. The hook grip can make it easier to hold heavier weights using less grip strength, and keeps both shoulders and elbows in a symmetrical position. While it theoretically takes much of the stress off of the joints which might be created by the twisting of a mixed grip it has the disadvantage of being extremely uncomfortable for the thumbs, something which those who advocate it says will pass once a lifter becomes accustomed to it. Another, but rarely used method is a combination of the mixed overhand-underhand grip and the hook grip, preferred by people who lift heavier weights than their grip can handle, but who don't want to rely on lifting straps or other supportive gear.
Many powerlifters adopt the overhand grip for their lower weight sets and move to the mixed grip to lift larger weights so they can achieve their one rep max.
A neutral grip can be achieved by the use of a trap bar; which is a hexagonal shaped bar which the lifter stands inside whilst holding the two side handles. The neutral grip provides the lifter slightly different posturing which can help reduce the risk of injury.
The deadlift is a compound movement that works a variety of muscles groups:
- The grip strength (finger flexors) and the lower back (erector spinae) work isometrically to keep the bar held in the hands and to keep the spine from rounding.
- The gluteus maximus and hamstrings work to extend the hip joint.
- The quadriceps work to extend the knee joint.
- The adductor magnus works to stabilize the legs.
- Core musculature remains braced to stabilize the spine.
The deadlift activates a large number of individual muscles:
- Biceps brachii muscle
- long head
- short head
- Biceps brachii muscle
There are numerous variations of the deadlift:
- Stiff-legged deadlift: The grounded-bar start and end positions are modified to make the legs as straight as possible without rounding the back.
- Romanian deadlift: From the standing position, the bar is lowered to about knee-height where the hamstrings are at maximal stretch without rounding the back, developing a natural bend in the legs without squatting, then returning to standing. The Romanian deadlift is named for Nicu Vlad. Because the workout begins from a standing position rather than from a dead stop, it is alternatively called an undead lift.
- American deadlift: A variant of the Romanian deadlift, where a hip thrust and glute squeeze is added to the top of the movement.
- Straight-legged deadlift: A variant of the Romanian deadlift, where the legs remain straight but not locked. The back usually needs to be rounded if the bar is taken to the floor.
- Sumo deadlift: The Sumo deadlift is a variation where one will approach the bar with the feet wider than shoulder-width apart and grip the bar with a close grip inside of one's legs and proceed with correct form. Compared to conventional deadlifts, the Sumo deadlift puts more emphasis on the glutes, hamstrings, hips, quads, and traps with less of an impact on spinal erectors and the posterior chain. Weightlifters with a history of back injuries may find that sumo deadlifts are a viable alternative. If allowed in competition, many lifters favor the Sumo deadlift due to shorter bar travel from floor to lockout.
- Trap bar deadlift: The trap bar deadlift is a variation of the deadlift using a special hexagonal bar (a trap bar). This allows more clearance for the knees to pass "through" the bar. To perform the trapbar deadlift, one loads the bar, steps inside the hollow portion of the bar, bends down, grasps the handles, stands erect, then lowers the bar to the ground in the exact opposite path. This is very helpful for both the handgrip and the lifter's hips. The trap bar deadlift allows for greater amounts of peak force production meaning it can be performed more powerfully. This allows for a greater amount of weight to be lifted than in a traditional barbell deadlift. It also reduces the potential for injury by avoiding excessive strain on the lower back. This is especially advantageous for beginners.
A deadlift suit is a special piece of power lifting assistance clothing. The suits are made from very tight material. The material tightens on the squat on the way down, storing energy, that gives an extra boost with the stored tension to lift up. Thus, records are recorded with and without the suit. The starting position with a suit is slightly different to maximize use, so training with a suit is different. Wrist wraps are sometimes used to provide support, not necessarily to increase lift, like a suit.
- The world record deadlift with equipment (including a deadlift suit and weightlifting straps) is 500 kg (1,102.3 lb), held by Eddie Hall.
- The world record deadlift without equipment is 460.4 kg (1,015.0 lb), held by Benedikt Magnússon.
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