Delta blues

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The Mississippi Delta (not to be confused with the Mississippi River Delta, in Louisiana)

Delta blues is one of the earliest-known styles of blues. It originated in the Mississippi Delta, and is regarded as a regional variant of country blues. Guitar and harmonica are its dominant instruments; slide guitar is a hallmark of the style. Vocal styles in Delta blues range from introspective and soulful to passionate and fiery.


Although Delta blues certainly existed in some form or another at the turn of the 20th century, it was first recorded in the late 1920s, when record companies realized the potential African-American market for "race records". The major labels produced the earliest recordings, consisting mostly of one person singing and playing an instrument. Live performances, however, more commonly involved a group of musicians. Current belief is that Freddie Spruell is the first Delta blues artist to have been recorded; his "Milk Cow Blues" was recorded in Chicago in June 1926.[1] Record company talent scouts made some of the early recordings on field trips to the South, and some performers were invited to travel to northern cities to record. According to Dixon and Godrich (1981), Tommy Johnson and Ishmon Bracey were recorded by Victor on that company's second field trip to Memphis, in 1928. Robert Wilkins was first recorded by Victor in Memphis in 1928, and Big Joe Williams and Garfield Akers by Brunswick/Vocalion, also in Memphis, in 1929.

Son House first recorded in Grafton, Wisconsin, in 1930 for Paramount Records.[2] Charley Patton also recorded for Paramount in Grafton, in June 1929 and May 1930. He also traveled to New York City for recording sessions in January and February 1934. Robert Johnson recorded his only sessions, for ARC, in San Antonio in 1936 and Dallas in 1937. Many other artists were recorded during this period.

Subsequently, the early Delta blues (as well as other genres) were extensively recorded by John Lomax and his son Alan Lomax, who crisscrossed the southern U.S. recording music played and sung by ordinary people, helping establish the canon of genres we know today as American folk music. Their recordings, numbering in the thousands, now reside in the Smithsonian Institution. According to Dixon and Godrich (1981) and Leadbitter and Slaven (1968), Alan Lomax and the Library of Congress researchers did not record any Delta bluesmen or women prior to 1941, when he recorded Son House and Willie Brown near Lake Cormorant, Mississippi, and Muddy Waters at Stovall, Mississippi. However, this claim has been disputed, as John and Alan Lomax had recorded Bukka White in 1939, Lead Belly in 1933 and most likely others.

Female performers[edit]

In big-city blues, women singers such as Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith and Mamie Smith dominated the recordings of the 1920s.[3] However, much fewer women were recorded playing Delta blues and other rural or folk-style blues, but as many performers did not get professionally recorded, the number is uncertain.

Geeshie Wiley was a blues singer and guitar player who recorded six songs for Paramount Records, issued on three records in April 1930. According to the blues historian Don Kent, Wiley "may well have been the rural South's greatest female blues singer and musician."[4]

L.V. Thomas, better known as Elvie Thomas, was a blues singer and guitarist from Houston, Texas, who recorded with Geeshie Wiley.[5]

Memphis Minnie was a blues guitarist, vocalist, and songwriter whose recording career lasted for over three decades. She recorded around 200 songs, some of the best known being "Bumble Bee", "Nothing in Rambling", and "Me and My Chauffeur Blues".

Bertha Lee was a blues singer, active in the 1920s and 1930s. She recorded with, and was the common-law wife of, Charley Patton.[6]

Rosa Lee Hill, daughter of Sid Hemphill, learned guitar from her father and by the time she was ten, was playing dances with him.[7] Several of her songs were recorded by Alan Lomax between 1959-1960, including "Rolled and Tumbled" and others.[8]

Bonnie Raitt, Rory Block, and Susan Tedeschi are contemporary women blues artists who were influenced by Delta blues and learned from some of the most notable of the original artists still living.


Many Delta blues artists, such as Big Joe Williams, moved to Detroit and Chicago, creating a pop-influenced city blues style. This was displaced by the new Chicago blues sound in the early 1950s, pioneered by Delta bluesmen Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf and Little Walter, harking back to a Delta-influenced sound, but with amplified instruments.

Delta blues was also an inspiration for the creation of British skiffle music, from which eventually came the British invasion bands, while simultaneously influencing British blues, which led to the birth of early hard rock and heavy metal.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Leggett, Steve. "Freddie Spruell". AllMusic. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
  2. ^ "Paramount Records".
  3. ^ Wyman, Havers, Doggett (2001). Bill Wyman's Blues Odyssey. Dorling Kindersley. pp. 77–96.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Kent, Don (1994). Liner notes to "Mississippi Masters: Early American Blues Classics 1927–35". Reprinted at Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  5. ^ Sullivan, John Jeremiah (2014-04-12). "The Ballad of Geeshie and Elvie". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-04-17.
  6. ^ "Biography by Joslyn Layne". AllMusic. Retrieved September 21, 2011.
  7. ^ Liner notes, Lomax Collection.
  8. ^ Lomax, Alan; Hill, Rosa (1959-09-25). "Rolled and tumbled". Alan Lomax Collection.


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