Economy of Kurdistan Region

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Economy of Kurdistan Region
Erbil (Hewlêr), capital of Kurdistan Region
CurrencyIraqi dinar (IQD)
Calendar year
GDP31,668,000,000 USD (Nominal,2018)[1]
GDP growth
GDP per capita
5,372 USD (Nominal, 2018)[1]
GDP by sector
Petroleum industry (80% of revenues)[3]
Decrease 97% (August 2016)[4]
Population below poverty line
Decrease 12% (August 2016)[5]
Labour force
1,300,000 (September 2016)[6]
UnemploymentNegative increase14% (September 2016)[6]
Positive decrease13% (May 2017)[7]
Positive decrease10.2% (July 2018)[8]
Positive decrease 9% (July 2019)[9]
Decrease$17 billion (2018)[10]
Public finances
Revenues$5,4 billion (2016) Decrease[3]

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

Economy in Kurdistan Region[11] consists of the autonomous economy in Kurdistan region in northern Iraq. The Kurdistan region's economy is dominated by the oil industry, agriculture and tourism.[12][13] Since late 2016, the standard of living in Kurdistan Region has been lower than the rest of Iraq. [14]


In Kurdistan been semi-autonomous since the 1990 Gulf War and subsequent protection of the region from the hostile forces of the Hussein regime forces by the Allied establishment of a no fly zone.[11]

Prior to the removal of Saddam Hussein, the Kurdistan Regional Government received approximately 14% of the revenues from the UN's Oil-for-Food Program. By the time of the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, the program had disbursed $8.35 billion to the KRG. Iraqi Kurdistan's relative food security allowed for substantially more of the funds to be spent on development projects than in the rest of Iraq. By the program's end in 2003 $4 billion of the KRG's oil-for-food funds remained unspent. Between 1992 and 2003, the GDP growth rate was between 6% and 10%.

During US occupation of Iraq (2003–2011)[edit]

Following the removal of Saddam Hussein's administration and the subsequent violence, the three provinces fully under the Kurdistan Regional Government's control were the only three in Iraq to be ranked "secure" by the US government. According to the KRG website, not a single coalition soldier has died nor a single foreigner been kidnapped since the 2003 invasion of Iraq in areas administered by the KRG.[15]

The relative security and stability of the region has allowed the KRG to sign a number of investment contracts with foreign companies. In 2006, the first new oil well since the invasion of Iraq was drilled in the Kurdistan region by the Norwegian energy company DNO. Initial indications are that the oil field contains at least 100 million barrels (16,000,000 m3) of oil and will be pumping 5,000 bbl/d (790 m3/d) by early 2007. The KRG has signed exploration agreements with several other oil companies, including Canada's Western Oil Sands and the UK's Sterling Energy and Gulf Keystone Petroleum.[citation needed]

The stability of the Kurdistan region has allowed it to achieve a higher level of development than other regions in Iraq. In 2004, the per capita income was 50% higher than in the rest of Iraq. By 2009, this was 200% higher. The highest growth rates achieved was around 12.7% in 2005–2008 and again 11.5% in 2010–2012. Since 2012, the growth rate has stabilized between 7% and 8%. The government continues to receive a portion of the revenue from Iraq's oil exports, and the government will soon implement a unified foreign investment law.

The KRG also has plans to build a media city in Arbil and free trade zones near the borders with Turkey and Iran by 2016. The KRG is an integral part of the general cultural and economic region also containing Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Cyprus, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Georgia, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, and Moldova, i.e. the Eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea-Caucasian region. As such, the KRG leadership has expressed plans for a more thorough integration and relationship with these countries, especially the three Caucasian Republics, Turkey, and Moldova. This would give the Kurdish economy a better bridge-head or foothold into Russia, Europe and the EU. According to President Barzani, this would also cement KRG's essentially Eurasian character rather than an undesirable Middle Eastern-Arab character. According to Barzani, the Kurdish culture, national characteristics, work ethics, business culture, etc. are more similar to that of Georgia, Moldova, etc. than to that of the rest of Iraq. It also has a similar Eastern Mediterranean climate, cuisine and thus a favourable tourist destination.

Special Economic zones[edit]

The KRG currently has four SEZs , in Dohuk, Batifa, Shaqlawa and Chamchamal. The first SEZ was set up in 1999 in Batifa, and the last in 2011 in Shaqlawa. The SEZs are mainly for manufacturing of hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals , packaged food and processed food. These include the largest bottling plant for Coca-Cola in the Middle East outside of Egypt, Israel and the GCC; and the largest production center for ice cream in Iraq and Syria combined. The Chamchammal SEZ is dedicated solely for the petroleum and natural gas sector. Further two more SEZs, in Amedi and Bazian, have been planned to be completed before 2016. SEZs together account for nearly 30% of all industrial jobs and 40% of all industrial revenue and output.


Despite objections from Baghdad, the Erbil governate says the KRG has signed contracts with 42 oil companies from 17 countries[16] with more favourable terms than those offered by Iraq's central government.[17] As recently as 2014 KRG officials claimed to sell 200,000 bpd and optimistically predicted exports of 1 million barrels annually.[18]

The Kirkuk–Ceyhan Oil Pipeline allows the export of oil from the Taq Taq and Tawke oil fields

The Kurdistan Regional Government begun exporting crude oil by truck to Turkey during the summer of 2012.[11] In 2013, the Kurdistan Regional Government completed a pipeline from the Taq Taq field through Khurmala and Dahuk to Faysh Khabur on the Turkey-Iraq border, where it is connected to the Kirkuk-Ceyhan pipeline. This 36-inch (910 mm) diameter pipeline has capacity of 150,000 barrels per day (24,000 m3/d). It allows the export of oil from the Taq Taq and Tawke oil fields.[19] On 23 May 2014, the Kurdistan Regional Government announced that the first oil transported via the new pipeline was loaded into tanker at Ceyhan.[20]

Financial crisis[edit]

The Kurdistan region was hit by an economic crisis in 2015. Despite an increase in overall production,[21] oil revenues have decreased significantly since 2014 due to lower oil prices, disputes with the central government and the rapid expansion of the Islamic State. In June 2015, Exxon Mobil, the largest exporter by volume, evacuated its staff and left its facilities in the care of peshmerga. In early December 2015, Peshmerga reportedly repelled an IS attack on those facilities, though the prospect of such attacks poses a deterrent to foreign investment.[22] 17% of the central government's budget is earmarked for distribution to the KRG, but no funds have been disbursed since February 2014. A US-mediated agreement in 2014 would have resolved the conflict between the oil ministries of the KRG and the GOI, but this too collapsed over allegations of under payment. Erbil's independent contracts sold for less than market price due to its poor quality.[23]


Currently, most industrial supplies from Kurdistan are being supplied from abroad, trade with kurdistan region is a large part of the economy and trade of the frontier.[24]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Kurdish GDP" (PDF).
  2. ^ "Standard of living lower in Kurdistan than rest of Iraq for first time: study". 31 August 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  3. ^ a b "KRG budget deficit narrows despite ongoing financial crunch, official data show". Rudaw. 4 April 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  4. ^ "Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Inflation Rate in Kurdistan Region August/ 2016" (PDF). p. 2. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  5. ^ "Iraqi Kurdistan Economic Report 2016: Kurdistan's Great Recession". 1 August 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  6. ^ a b "Unemployment rate in Kurdistan is 14%". Rudaw. 21 September 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  7. ^ "Unemployment Rising Rapidly in Kurdistan Region: Official". Basnews. 13 May 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  8. ^ "Demographic Survey – Kurdistan Region of Iraq" (PDF). p. 39. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  9. ^ "Iraq economy: Positive indicators in the north". Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  10. ^ "Is Iraqi Kurdistan heading toward civil war?". Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  11. ^ a b c "Iraqi Kurdistan's Economy: Overview".
  12. ^ British agency Hinterland Travel has recently started small scale tourism tours to the region [1].
  13. ^ Time magazine article mentioning Australian/Kurdish tour company Kurdistan Adventures on tourism in Kurdistan [2]
  14. ^ "Standard of living lower in Kurdistan than rest of Iraq for first time: study". 12 November 2019. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  15. ^ "Kurdistan Regional Government". KRG. Retrieved 28 December 2010.
  16. ^[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ "Kurdistan Oil & Gas: Oil Sector Growing Amid Political Wrangling".
  18. ^ "Kurdistan's Oil Ambitions". 15 November 2013.
  19. ^ "Operations in Kurdistan Region of Iraq". Genel Energy. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  20. ^ "KRG statement on first oil sales through pipeline export" (Press release). Kurdistan Regional Government. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  21. ^ Whitcomb, Alexander (12 September 2014). "In Kurdistan, Oil Industry Ramps up despite War".
  22. ^ "Peshmerga Commander: IS Militants Wanted to Seize Exxon Mobil equipment in Khazir - باسنیوز". Archived from the original on 14 February 2016.
  23. ^ "Is the KRG heading for bankruptcy? - Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East". 20 January 2016.
  24. ^ "Kurdistan Board of Investment | Trade & Industry".