Erishum II

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ErishumI or Erišum II, the son and successor of Naram-Sin, was the king of the city-state Assur, listed in the Assyrian King List as the 38th king of Assyria from 1815 BC to 1809 BC. Shalim-ahum (the 31st king of Assyria c. 1900 BC as listed in the Assyrian King List.)[1] and his successors bore the titles “Išši’ak Aššur” (Steward of Assur) and “ensí”.[2] The length of Naram-Sin's reign is uncertain, however; based on various excavated "limmu" (eponym) lists, Naram-Sin's and Erishum II's reigns had a combined length of 64 years.[3]:29

The Amorites had overrun the kingdoms of Lower Mesopotamia and the Levant between c. 2100 BCE and c. 1809 BCE, but had hitherto been repelled by the Assyrian kings. However, after having reigned for only six years, Erishum II was to be the last king of the dynasty of Puzur-Ashur I (founded c. 2025 BC) as he was deposed and the throne of Assyria was usurped by Shamshi-Adad I during the expansion of the Amorite tribes from the Khabur River delta in the north-eastern Levant. Although regarded as an Amorite by later Assyrian tradition, Shamshi-Adad I's descent is suggested to be from the same line as the native Assyrian ruler Ushpia within the Assyrian King List. Shamshi-Adad I had inherited the throne in Terqa from his father Ila-kabkabu. The Assyrian King List records that Shamshi-Adad I, “went away to Babylonia in the time of Naram-Sin” while Naram-Sin of Eshnunna had been attacking Ekallatum. Shamshi-Adad I had not returned until he had taken Ekallatum, after which he had paused for three years and then had overthrown Erishum II.[4] The Mari Eponym Chronicle, which resumes the listing until the seizure of Ekallatum by Shamshi-Adad I, provides no clue as to when the succession of Erishum II had taken place. As the reign of Erishum II was prematurely ended by the conquests of Shamshi-Adad I, it is likely that Naram-Sin's reign was the greater part of the period, additionally; the broken figure on the Nassouhi King List ends on four, so perhaps Naram-Sin reigned 44 or 54 years (c. 1872 BC onward, middle chronology.)[5]:45

References[edit]

  1. ^ J. A. Brinkman (2001). "Assyria". In Bruce Manning Metzger, Michael David Coogan. The Oxford companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press. p. 63. 
  2. ^ Barbara Cifola (1995). Analysis of variants in the Assyrian royal titulary from the origins to Tiglath-Pileser III. Istituto universitario orientale. p. 8. 
  3. ^ Klaas R Veenhof (2008). Mesopotamia: The Old Assyrian Period. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 
  4. ^ I. J. Gelb (1954). "Two Assyrian King Lists". Journal of Near Eastern Studies 13 (4): 212–213. 
  5. ^ Klaas R. Veenhof (2003). The Old Assyrian List of Year Eponyns from Karum Kanish and its Chronological Implications. Turkish History Society. 
Preceded by
Narām-Sîn
Išši’ak Aššur
1815 BC — 1809 BC
Succeeded by
Shamshi-Adad I