Eveslogite

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Eveslogite
General
Category Inosilicate
Formula
(repeating unit)
(Ca,K,Na,Sr,Ba)48[(Ti,Nb,Fe,Mn)12(OH)12Si48O144](F,OH,Cl)14
Strunz classification 9.DG.97
Crystal system Monoclinic
Crystal class Prismatic (2/m)
(same H-M symbol)
Space group P2/m
Identification
Cleavage perfect {001} and {010}
Fracture splintery
Tenacity brittle
Mohs scale hardness 5
Luster vitreous to resinous; silky
Streak white and at times yellow-brown
Density 2.85 g/cm3 (meas.)
2.93 g/cm3 (calc.)

Eveslogite ((Ca,K,Na,Sr,Ba)48[(Ti,Nb,Fe,Mn)12(OH)12Si48O144](F,OH,Cl)14) is a complex inosilicate mineral found on Mt. Eveslogchorr in Khibiny massif, Kola peninsula, Russia. The name derives from the name of where it was encountered. This silicate mineral occurs as an anchimonomineral veinlet that cross-cuts poikilitic nepheline syenite. This mineral appears to resemble yuksporite, as it forms similar placated fine fibrous of approximately 0.05 to 0.005mm that aggregates outwardly. The color of eveslogite is yellow or rather light brown. In addition it is a semitransparent mineral that has a white streak and a vitreous luster. Its crystal system is monoclinic and possesses a hardness (Mohs) of 5. This newly discovered mineral belongs to the astrophyllite group of minerals and contains structures that are composed of titanosilicate layers (Krivovichev et al., 2004). Limited information about this mineral exists due to the few research studies carried out since its recent discovery. Regarding to its effect on heat and the of this mineral to the health of an individual has not been explained effectively, thus, ample opportunity for further investigation and research still exists.

Introduction[edit]

Eveslogite is a monoclinic-prismatic mineral that contains a trilogy of elements, which includes: aluminum, calcium, barium, chlorine, hydrogen, fluorine, manganese, iron, niobium, potassium, rubium, oxygen, silicon tantalum, sodium titanium and zirconium. It is usually found at Mount Eveslogchorr, Kola Peninsula, Khibina alkaline massif, in Russia. This mineral adds to the rapidly expanding class of the porous materials that are vital in gas separation, catalysis, optoelectronics, and in ion exchange processes. According to the article Crystal Research and Technology by Depmeier that seeks to further explain the properties of eveslogite, this mineral is in almost all aspect similar to yuksporite, in fact this article explains that it is almost impossible to distinguish these two minerals by looking at their appearance. However, when compared to yuksporite, eveslogite is much poorer in Ba content and it possesses different thermal capability. This mineral was Yuri Men’shikov in the year 1998. Below is a photo showing some of the physical features of Eveslogite such as color. Fig 1. Retrieved from Rocks & Minerals (2012)

Composition[edit]

Eveslogite is a complex titanosilicate made up of numerous elements of silicon, sodium, calcium and potassium. With the chemical formula ((Ca,K,Na,Sr,Ba)48[(Ti,Nb,Fe,Mn)12(OH)12Si48O144](F,OH,Cl)14), Number of atoms in the chemical formula being 298.4. The listed elements in the formula are Ba, Cl, Ca, Fe, F, H, K, Mn, O, Sr, Si and Ti. The table below shows the composition of elements and their relative weight that makes up eveslogite. Eveslogite is a complex titanosilicate made up of numerous elements of silicon, sodium, calcium and potassium. With the chemical formula ((Ca,K,Na,Sr,Ba)48[(Ti,Nb,Fe,Mn)12(OH)12Si48O144](F,OH,Cl)14), Number of atoms in the chemical formula being 298.4. The listed elements in the formula are Ba, Cl, Ca, Fe, F, H, K, Mn, O, Sr, Si and Ti. The table below shows the composition of elements and their relative weight that makes up eveslogite.

Element Symbol Weight% Atoms Atoms% Atom weight (u) Sum weight (u)
Hydrogen H 0.29 20.4 6.84 1.0079470 20.5621188
Oxygen O 37.28 164.4 55.09 15.9994300 2,630.3062920
Fluorine F 1.13 4.2 1.41 18.9984033 79.7932937
Sodium Na 1.56 4.8 1.61 22.9897702 110.3508970
Silicon Si 19.11 48 16.09 28.0855300 1,348.1054400
Chlorine Cl 0.70 1.4 0.47 35.4532000 49.6344800
Potassium K 6.65 12 4.02 39.0983100 469.1797200
Calcium Ca 14.99 26.4 8.85 40.0784000 1,058.0697600
Titanium Ti 4.48 6.6 2.21 47.8671000 315.9228600
Manganese Mn 0.47 0.6 0.20 54.9380499 32.9628299
Iron Fe 0.95 1.2 0.40 55.8452000 67.0142400
Strontium Sr 2.98 2.4 0.80 87.6210000 210.2904000
Niobium Nb 4.74 3.6 1.21 92.9063820 334.4629752
Barium Ba 4.67 2.4 0.80 137.3277000 329.5864800

In addition, this mineral has the empirical formula Ca22.46K12.27Na10.3Sr1.8Ba1.25Ti5.53Nb3.34Mn3+0.95Fe2+0.83Fe3+0.2Zr0.19Rb0.14Ta0.08 (OH)12Si47.3Al0.41O138.08(OH)9.42Cl0.8 and a molecular weight of 6,800.28 grams. Due to this form of composition, eveslogite’s structure has been observed to resist characterization because of its poor diffraction of its crystals and also due to its small dimensions (Chukanov et al., 2008). The aspect of characterization has been made possible after the late 20th century discovery of the 3rd generation X-ray synchrotron sources that made it possible to structurally characterize various mineral elements that could not have been characterized using the in-house X-ray sources (Burzo, 2006).

Physical Properties

Eveslogite is a titanosilicate mineral that falls under the group of astrophyllite and perfectly fits within the point and space group P2/m {P1 1 2/m} {P2/m} {P1 2/m 1}. It is a mineral that is light brown or yellowish in color. It has a Silky structure with white streak. Its tenacity is brittle and an indistinctly perfect cleavage of {001} and {010}. In regard to its general appearance, as explained by Chukanov et al. 2008, this mineral is indistinguishable from yuksporite and other related titanosilicate. In addition, the article American Mineralogist further expounds on both the measured and calculated densities of this mineral. After measuring the density of eveslogite it recorded a total of 2.85 g/cm3 but when directly calculated, it recorded a slightly higher density of 2.93 g/cm3. Additionally, the physical characteristics of eveslogite include a fracture that is largely splintery and a rough semitransparent gold like appearance.

Structure[edit]

The structure of eveslogite is based upon complex rods that consist of the corner sharing octahedral (TiO) and the tetrahedral SiO4. Due to its 5- Apatite hardness and density of 2.85 the general structure of this mineral is a rigid but porous in nature just like other astrophyllite. Some of the minerals that are largely associated with Eveslogite in terms of close similarity of their structure include nepheline, biotite, flouritite, K-feldspar, eudialyte and also many other minerals that fall under the astrophyllite group. Eveslogite is an orthorhombic mineral that fits within the space group 2lm prismatic. The complex rods that make up the structure of Eveslogite are parallel and have an elliptical cross-section appearance when viewed through the 3rd generation X-ray synchrotron sources. Eveslogite structure of the titanosilicate rods is remarkably unique when compared with other tetrahedral silicates. This is because it consists of a total of nine distinct symmetry independent silicates, which includes; SilO4, Si4O4, and Si5O4 similar to the xonolite double chains structure. Although eveslogite has a rigid structure, the nanorods {(Ti,Nb)4 (O,OH)4[Si6O17]2[Si2O7]3 are porous. These internal pores in the structure of eveslogite are defined by eight-Membered rings (8MR) separated by two parallel channels of Si9O4 and Si4O7 tetrahedral groups (Krivovichev et al., 2004). On the other hand, the inside part of eveslogite titanosilicate nanorods is composed of alkali metals cations Na2,Nal, K1-K5 and the H2O molecules. In general, the composition of the structure, eveslogite, is especially in the discovery of the existence of titanosilicate nanorods in the composition of this mineral that provides a vital notion for further research and understanding of the structural diversity of Titanosilicate and other alkaline astrophyllite. However, at present, the individual crystal structure of the eveslogite minerals is well described in detail in the article of Geology of Ore Deposits (Chukanov et al. 2008).

Geological Occurrence[edit]

The particles of eveslogite are found in Mt. Eveslogchorr in Khibiny Massif, Kola peninsula, Russia. In particular the geological occurrence of this mineral and the place of conservation for this mineral is Fersman mineralogical Museum in Moscow Russia (Hawthorne 2012). Eveslogite derives its name from this locality, particularly from Mt. Evesglochorr. Since it is a newly discovered mineral, there has not been extensive research to show if it occurs in any significant amounts in other parts of the world. Eveslogite often occurs in close proximity with other rare-earth minerals, particularly the other Astrophyllite mineral elements, in addition, intergrowths with particular orientations are frequently found. In regard to its geological setting, Eveslogite is a monomineralic veinlet that is known to cut the poikilitic nepheline syenite (Burzo, 2006). Eveslogite is commonly found in peralkaline granitoids, where it may be selectively included by certain major minerals (such as feldspar) or may form aggregates of multiple types of other minerals that are also found in the Russian mountain of Eveslogchorr.

Special Characteristics[edit]

Eveslogite synonym is IMA2001-023 and its axial ratios are; a:b:c =0.5641:1:1.7768. Among its special characteristics is that its estimated radioactivity is barely detectable. The radioactivity test in regard to Eveslogite can be measured using GRapi=172.67 (Gamma Ray American Petroleum Institute Units). According to the research carried out by Krivovichev et al., the chemical composition of Eveslogite was determined through a wavelength-dispersion spectrometry, which encompasses the Cameca MS-46 microbe electron that was operating at 20kV. This strategy was adopted because of the traditional test of bond lengths and the bond-valence analysis, resulting in errors and therefore could not result in reliable information. Through the use of the wavelength dispersion spectrometry approach, other special feature of the Eveslogite were that, the rods in the structure of the Eveslogite are separated by walls that appears to be parallel and acts as the main linkage of the rods to the 3-dimensional structure of this mineral. This is a special feature to this mineral since other minerals that fall into this Astrophyllite group do not possess these walls in between their rods structure.

Literature Search/Prospects for Further Research[edit]

Arguably, the most cited works with regard to the research on Eveslogite is the article by Yuri p. Men’shikov and Ferraris titled Eveslogite, the researcher who collected a specimen of 6x3x1.5 cm mineral in 1998 which later turned out to be a discovery of a new mineral; Eveslogite. Eveslogite is one of the least researched minerals in all the Astrophyllite group. Therefore, this mineral lacks a lot of supporting evidence with regard to its applicability and health effects of Eveslogite. Since the basic structure and chemistry of Eveslogite is seemingly less and poorly understood, reliable methods are of paramount importance in performing experiments and additional research aimed at describing the composition of all Eveslogite and the ways that it can be used in the industry just like the other Astrophyllite. Predominantly, more research is required so as to explain the effects of this mineral to the general health of individuals. There is no previous research study that seeks to explain how this mineral would affect person’s health wise when in contact with it or during the use of it in various industrial processes such as in gas separation, catalysis, optoelectronics, and in ion exchange processes. Nonetheless, the sole explanation for lack of enough or substantial literature for this mineral is because it is considered a 21st mineral since the mineralogy authorities in Russia approved it. Therefore, It is believed that more studies will be carried out to seek in detail Eveslogite.

Conclusion[edit]

In conclusion, titanium inosilicate minerals such as eveslogite and yuksporite have in the recent past attracted a lot of attention because of their interesting modular crystal chemistry (Krivovichev et al., 2004). Men’shikov played a vital role in the chemical explanation of eveslogite, he suggested that eveslogite should be placed in the astrophyllite group of minerals and also further expounded on the titanosilicate heteropolyhedral layers in its structure. Therefore, it is evident that more research is required so as to further explanation of both the importance and disadvantages of eveslogite as a mineral resource, especially in regard to its economic use.

References[edit]

  • Burzo, E. (2006). Neptunite, hellandite, sörensenite, astrophyllite, epididymite, bavenite, lorenzenite and related silicates (Tables). In Inosilicates (pp. 459–468). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Chukanov, N. V., Dubovitsky, V. A., Vozchikova, S. A., & Orlova, S. M. (2008). Discrete and functional-geometric methods of infrared spectroscopy of minerals using reference samples. Geology of Ore Deposits, 50(8), 815-826.
  • Depmeier, W. (2009). Minerals as advanced materials. Crystal Research and Technology, 44(10), 1122-1130.
  • Hawthorne, F. C. (2012). Who's Who in Mineral Names: Alexander Khomyakov (b. 1933). Rocks & Minerals, 87(6), 555-558.
  • Krivovichev, S. V., Yakovenchuk, V. N., Armbruster, T., Döbelin, N., Pattison, P., Weber, H. P., & Depmeier, W. (2004). Porous titanosilicate nanorods in the structure of yuksporite,(Sr, Ba) 2K4 (Ca, Na) 14 (□, Mn, Fe){(Ti, Nb) 4 (O, OH) 4 [Si6O17] 2 [Si2O7] 3}(H2O, OH) n, resolved using synchrotron radiation. American Mineralogist, 89(10), 1561-1565.