Excessive daytime sleepiness

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daytime hypersomnia
Other namesEDS
SpecialtyPsychiatry, Neurology

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is characterized by persistent sleepiness and often a general lack of energy, even during the day after apparently adequate or even prolonged nighttime sleep. EDS can be considered as a broad condition encompassing several sleep disorders where increased sleep is a symptom, or as a symptom of another underlying disorder like narcolepsy, circadian rhythm sleep disorder, sleep apnea or idiopathic hypersomnia.

Some persons with EDS, including those with hypersomnias like narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia, are compelled to nap repeatedly during the day; fighting off increasingly strong urges to sleep during inappropriate times such as while driving, while at work, during a meal, or in conversations. As the compulsion to sleep intensifies, the ability to complete tasks sharply diminishes, often mimicking the appearance of intoxication. During occasional unique and/or stimulating circumstances, a person with EDS can sometimes remain animated, awake and alert, for brief or extended periods of time. EDS can affect the ability to function in family, social, occupational, or other settings.[1] A proper diagnosis of the underlying cause and ultimately treatment of symptoms and/or the underlying cause can help mitigate such complications.[2] According to the National Sleep Foundation, around 20 percent of people experience the Excessive daytime sleepiness.[3]

Causes[edit]

EDS can be a symptom of a number of factors and disorders. Specialists in sleep medicine are trained to diagnose them. Some are:

Diagnosis[edit]

An adult who is compelled to nap repeatedly during the day may have excessive daytime sleepiness; however, it is important to distinguish between occasional daytime sleepiness and excessive daytime sleepiness, which is chronic.

A number of tools for screening for EDS have been developed. One is the Epworth Sleepiness Scale which grades the results of a questionnaire with eight questions referring to situations encountered in daily life. The ESS generates a numerical score from zero (0) to 24 where a score of ten [10] or higher may indicate that the person should consult a specialist in sleep medicine for further evaluation.[8][9][10]

Another tool is the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), which has been used since the 1970s. It is used to measure the time it takes from the start of a daytime nap period to the first signs of sleep, called sleep latency. Subjects undergo a series of five 20-minute sleeping opportunities with an absence of alerting factors at 2-hour intervals on one day. The test is based on the idea that the sleepier people are, the faster they will fall asleep.[11][12]

The Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) is also used to quantitatively assess daytime sleepiness. This test is performed in a sleep diagnostic center. The test is similar to the MSLT as it also relies on a measurement of initial sleep latency. However, during this test, the patient is instructed to try to stay awake under soporific conditions for a defined time.[13][14]

The use of Electroencephalography (EEG) readings is essential for the objective diagnosis of EDS. The initial sleep latency employed in the MSLT and the MWT is mainly derived from EEG recordings.[14] Moreover, power characteristics in the alpha-band of resting-state EEG readings, correlating with somnolence, also showed a correlation with the presence of EDS.[15][16][17]

Treatment[edit]

Treatment of EDS relies on identifying and treating the underlying disorder which may cure the person from the EDS. Drugs like modafinil,[18] Armodafinil,[19] Xyrem (sodium oxybate) oral solution, have been approved as treatment for EDS symptoms in the U.S. There is declining usage of other drugs such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), amphetamine (Adderall), lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse), methamphetamine (Desoxyn), and pemoline (Cylert), as these psychostimulants may have several adverse effects[20] and may lead to dependency, especially when illicitly misused.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palomo-Toucedo, Inmaculada C.; Leon-Larios, Fatima; Reina-Bueno, María; Vázquez-Bautista, María del Carmen; Munuera-Martínez, Pedro V.; Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel (2020-09-03). "Psychosocial Influence of Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome in Daily Life of Patients: A Qualitative Study". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17 (17): 6425. doi:10.3390/ijerph17176425. ISSN 1660-4601. PMC 7503231. PMID 32899328.
  2. ^ Guilleminault, C; Brooks, SN (August 2001). "Excessive daytime sleepiness: a challenge for the practising neurologist". Brain : A Journal of Neurology. 124 (Pt 8): 1482–91. doi:10.1093/brain/124.8.1482. PMID 11459741.
  3. ^ "Do I Have Excessive Sleepiness?". National Sleep Foundation. 2020-12-03. Retrieved 2021-11-16.
  4. ^ "Diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders: a brief review for clinicians". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 5 (4): 371–388. doi:10.31887/DCNS.2003.5.4/vabad. PMC 3181779. PMID 22033666.
  5. ^ "How to Stop Snoring". Sleep Apnea. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  6. ^ Arnold, Ria; Issar, Tushar; Krishnan, Arun V; Pussell, Bruce A. "Neurological complications in chronic kidney disease". JRSM Cardiovascular Disease. 5: 204800401667768. doi:10.1177/2048004016677687. ISSN 2048-0040. PMC 5102165. PMID 27867500.
  7. ^ Miklovic, Tyler; Sieg, Vanessa C. (2021), "Ehlers Danlos Syndrome", StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, PMID 31747221, retrieved 2021-11-16
  8. ^ Johns, Murray W. (November 1991). "A New Method for Measuring Daytime Sleepiness: The Epworth Sleepiness Scale". Sleep. 14 (6): 540–545. doi:10.1093/sleep/14.6.540. PMID 1798888. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  9. ^ Johns, Murray W. (July 1992). "Reliability and Factor Analysis of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale". Sleep. 15 (4): 376–381. doi:10.1093/sleep/15.4.376. PMID 1519015. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  10. ^ Kendzerska, Tetyana B.; Smith, Peter M.; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Leung, Richard S.; Tomlinson, George A. (August 2014). "Evaluation of the measurement properties of the Epworth sleepiness scale: A systematic review". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 18 (4): 321–331. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2013.08.002. PMID 24135493. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  11. ^ Carskadon, Mary A. (December 1986). "Guidelines for the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT): A Standard Measure of Sleepiness". Sleep. 9 (4): 519–524. doi:10.1093/sleep/9.4.519. PMID 1798888. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  12. ^ Littner, Michael R.; Kushida, Clete; Wise, Merrill; Davila, David G.; Morgenthaler, Timothy; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Hirshkowitz, Max; Loube, Daniel L.; Bailey, Dennis; Berry, Richard B.; Kapen, Sheldon; Kramer, Milton (January 2005). "Practice Parameters for Clinical Use of the Multiple Sleep Latency Test and the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test". Sleep. 28 (1): 113–121. doi:10.1093/sleep/28.1.113. PMID 15700727. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  13. ^ Mitler, Merrill M.; Gujavarty, Krishnareddy S.; Browman, Carl P. (June 1982). "Maintenance of wakefulness test: A polysomnographic technique for evaluating treatment efficacy in patients with excessive somnolence". Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 53 (6): 658–661. doi:10.1016/0013-4694(82)90142-0. PMC 2480525. PMID 6177511.
  14. ^ a b Arand, Donna; Bonnet, Michael; Hurwitz, Thomas; Mitler, Merrill; Rosa, Roger; Sangal, R. Bart (January 2005). "The Clinical Use of the MSLT and MWT". Sleep. 28 (1): 123–144. doi:10.1093/sleep/28.1.123. PMID 15700728. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  15. ^ Breitenbach, Johannes; Baumgartl, Hermann; Buettner, Ricardo (August 2020). Detection of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Resting-State EEG Recordings: A Novel Machine Learning Approach Using Specific EEG Sub-Bands and Channels. AMCIS 2020 Proceedings. Salt Lake City. pp. 1–10. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  16. ^ Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Vuckovic, Aleksandra; Bojić, Tijana (December 2012). "EEG alpha phase shifts during transition from wakefulness to drowsiness". International Journal of Psychophysiology. 86 (3): 195–205. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2012.04.012. PMID 22580156. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  17. ^ Lin, Chin-Teng; Wu, Ruei-Cheng; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Chao, Wen-Hung; Chen, Yu-Jie; Jung, Tzyy-Ping (December 2005). "EEG-based drowsiness estimation for safety driving using independent component analysis". IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers. 52 (12): 2726–2738. doi:10.1109/TCSI.2005.857555. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  18. ^ Valentino, RM; Foldvary-Schaefer, N (August 2007). "Modafinil in the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness". Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 74 (8): 561–6, 568–71. doi:10.3949/ccjm.74.8.561. PMID 17708127.
  19. ^ Nishino, S; Okuro, M (June 2008). "Armodafinil for excessive daytime sleepiness". Drugs of Today. 44 (6): 395–414. doi:10.1358/dot.2008.44.6.1223892. PMID 18596995.
  20. ^ Harris, SF; Monderer, RS; Thorpy, M (November 2012). "Hypersomnias of central origin". Neurologic Clinics. 30 (4): 1027–44. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2012.08.002. PMID 23099128.
  21. ^ "Nootropics". Nootropics UK - Modafinil UK. Retrieved 2021-11-16.

External links[edit]

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