Five laws of library science
The Five laws of library science is a theory that S. R. Ranganathan proposed in 1932, detailing the principles of operating a library system. Many librarians from around the world accept the laws as the foundations of their philosophy.
These laws are:
- Books are for use.
- Every reader his or her book.
- Every book its reader.
- Save the time of the reader.
- The library must be a growing organism.
First Law: Books are for use
The first law constitutes the basis for the library services. Dr. Ranganathan observed that books were often chained to prevent their removal and that the emphasis was on storage and preservation rather than use. He did not reject the notion that preservation and storage were important, but he asserted that the purpose of such activities should be to promote use. Without user access to materials, there is little value in these items. By emphasizing use, Dr. Ranganathan refocused the attention of the field to access-related issues, such as the library's location, loan policies, hours and days of operation, the quality of staffing, and mundane matters, such as library furniture and temperature control.
The first law of library science, "Books are for use," means that books in libraries are not meant to be shut away from users.
Second Law: Every reader his or her book
The second law of library science, "Every reader his or her book," means that librarians are to serve a wide collection of patrons, acquire literature to fit a wide variety of needs, and refrain from judging what specific patrons choose to read. Librarians should respect that everyone is different and that everyone has different tastes regarding the books they choose.
Third Law: Every book its reader
The third law of library science, "Every book its reader," means all books have a place in the library, even if only a small demographic might choose to read them.
Fourth Law: Save the time of the reader
The fourth law of library science, "Save the time of the user," means that all patrons should be able to easily locate the materials they desire quickly and efficiently.
Fifth Law: The library must be a growing organism
The fifth law of library science, "The library must be a growing organism," means that a library should be a dynamic institution that is never static in its outlook. Books, methods, and the physical library should be updated over time.
- Libraries serve humanity.
- Respect all forms by which knowledge is communicated.
- Use technology intelligently to enhance service.
- Protect free access to knowledge.
- Honor the past and create the future.
Gorman repeated these laws in Chapter 1 of his book Future Libraries: Dreams, Madness, & Realities, which was co-written by Walt Crawford, and in Our Singular Strengths: Meditations for Librarians.
In 2004, librarian Alireza Noruzi recommended the application of Ranganathan's laws to the Web:
- Web resources are for use.
- Every user has his or her web resource.
- Every web resource its user.
- Save the time of the user.
- The Web is a growing organism.
In 2008, librarian Carol Simpson recommended the following edits to Ranganathan's laws to reflect the richness of media:
- Media are for use.
- Every patron his information.
- Every medium its user.
- Save the time of the patron.
- The library is a growing organism.
In 2015, B. Shadrach proposed an alternative set of laws, adapted from those of Ranganathan, at the 2015 Indian Public Libraries Conference in New Delhi:
- Knowledge is for use in "all" forms.
- Every citizen has the right to access "all" knowledge in "all" forms.
- Every piece of knowledge is for access by "all" without discrimination of any kind.
- Save the time of "all" of the knowledge seekers.
- A library or a knowledge system is one that evolves with time to achieve all of the above laws.
In 2016, Dr. Achala Munigal recommended the following edits to Ranganathan's laws due to the introduction and application of social tools in libraries:
- Social Media is for use – increasingly in libraries by librarians.
- Every user his or her Social Tool.
- Every Social Tool its user.
- Save time of user by providing information he or she seeks using the social tool he or she is familiar with.
- Social Media is a growing organism, with various tools and apps being introduced every day. Libraries are not brick and stone anymore. They serve members and non-members alike in terms of non-traditional library service, irrespective of space and time.
- Koehler, W. C., Hurych, J. M., Dole, W. V., & Wall, J. (2000). Ethical values of information and library professionals—an expanded analysis. The International Information & Library Review, 32(3-4), 485-506.
- Rubin, R. E. (2016). Foundations of library and information science, 4th ed. Neal-Schuman Publishers.
- University of Southern California. (n.d.) Dr. S.R. Ranganathan's five laws of library science. MMLIS Blog. http://librarysciencedegree.usc.edu/resources/infographics/dr-s-r-ranganathans-five-laws-of-library-science
- Noruzi, A. (2004, December). Application of Ranganathan's laws to the web. Webology, 1(2). http://www.webology.org/2004/v1n2/a8.html
- Simpson, C. (2008, April/May). Five laws. Library Media Connection, 26(7), 6. http://www.carolsimpson.com/5laws.pdf
- Munigal, A. (2016, August). 124th jayanthi sandharbanga: Grandhalaya tapsvi ranganathanku niwali. Granthalaya Sarvasvam, 4-7. ISSN 0972-8104
- Crawford, W. & Gorman, M. (1995). Future libraries: Dreams, madness, & reality. American Library Association. Available at https://books.google.com/books?id=z-ppP1e8BlUC&printsec=frontcover&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false
- Gorman, M. (1998). Our singular strengths: meditations for librarians. American Library Association.
- Full text of The Five Laws of Library Science at HathiTrust Digital Library.
- Reordering Ranganathan: Shifting User Behaviors, Shifting Priorities (OCLC Research, 2014)