Flacourtia jangomas

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Flacourtia jangomas
Lubika
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Salicaceae
Genus: Flacourtia
Species:
F. jangomas
Binomial name
Flacourtia jangomas
Synonyms[1]
  • Flacourtia cataphracta Roxburgh ex Willdenow.
  • Rumea jangomas (Lour.) Spreng.
  • Stigmarota jangomas Lour.
  • Xylosma borneensis Ridl.

Flacourtia jangomas, or also known as the Indian coffee plum, Indian plum,[2]: 73  or scramberry, is a lowland and mountain rain forest tree in the family Salicaceae.[3][4] It was once placed in the Flacourtiaceae family.[2] It is widely cultivated in Southeast and East Asia, and has escaped cultivation in a number of places.[5] Its wild origin is unknown but is speculated to be tropical Asia, *most perhaps India.[5][6]

This tree is very common in the Southern India and is of culinary and medical importance, especially in Kerala.

Description[edit]

Tree[edit]

Flacourtia jangomas is a small, deciduous shrub or tree that grows to a height of 6-10m. Trunk and branches are commonly thornless in old trees, but densely beset with simple or branched, blunt woody thorns when younger. Bark is light-brown to copper-red with a flaky texture and the leaves are light green and narrow ovate in shape.[7] The leaves and roots contain tannin.[2]

Flowers and fruit[edit]

It produces small white to whitish green fragrant flowers. The relatively juicy fruits are rounded pink to dark red and about 0.6–1 inch (1.5–2.5 cm) wide.[7] The flesh is greenish yellow.[2]

Ecology[edit]

The plant is considered one of the primary host plants of the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni).[8]

Common names[edit]

  • Bengali: ŧipa fol, লুকলুকি
  • Assamese: poniol (পনিয়ল)
  • English: Indian coffee plum, Indian sour cherry, rukam, runeala plum, scramberry
  • Hindi: talispatri (तालिसपत्री), Pani amla (पानी आमला)
  • Manipuri: heitroi ( হৈত্ৰোঈ )
  • Konkanni: Jagomma
  • Thai: takhob
  • Rohingya, Chittagonian: fainná gula
  • Sanskrit: sruvavrksha, vikankatah (स्रुववृक्ष)
  • Sylheti: lukluki (ꠟꠥꠇꠟꠥꠇꠤ), kulkuli (ꠇꠥꠟꠇꠥꠟꠤ)
  • Malayalam: lubikka (ലൂബിക്ക), lovlolika (ലൗലോലിക്ക), lololikka, vayyamkaitha
  • Tamil: vaiyyankarai
  • Mizo: sakhi thei
  • Malay: kerkut
  • Castellano Panama: uva de monte, uvita, guinda.

Uses[edit]

Food[edit]

Flacourtia jangomas fruits are widely eaten around South Asia, both raw and cooked. They are noted for their mild sour and tangy taste. The fruits are pickled, salt-dried or cooked in Indian curries. They can also be blended into juices or made into jams and marmalades which are immensely popular in Southern India.[3][4] Commercially produced coffee plum jams and pickles are exported across the world by various companies, mainly from Kerala.

Medicine[edit]

In South Asian folkloric medicine, the fruits and leaves of Indian coffee plum are used against diarrhea. Dried leaves are reportedly effective for bronchitis and roots are said to suppress toothache. The bark of Flacourtia jangomas has various antifungal and antibacterial constituents which makes it an important ingredient for a few Ayurvedic drugs.[3][4] Ground bark paste is also used for curing many common ailments in the tribal settlements of Western Ghat.

Lumber[edit]

The wood is sometimes harvested for lumber in the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka. It is often used as a cheaper alternative to Teak and other expensive wood.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. 2023. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
  2. ^ a b c d Sleumer, Herman Otto (December 1954). "Flacourtiaceae". Flora Malesiana. 5 (1): 1–106 – via Naturalis Institutional Repository.
  3. ^ a b c Hanelt, Peter; Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, eds. (2001). Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: (Except Ornamentals). Springer. p. 3700. ISBN 978-3-540-41017-1.
  4. ^ a b c Chandra, Indrani; P. Bhanja (25 August 2002). "Study of organogenesis in vitro from callus tissue of Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch through scanning electron microscopy". Current Science. India: Current Science Association and Indian Academy of Sciences. 83 (4): 476–479.
  5. ^ a b "Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeuschel". Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk.
  6. ^ "Flacourtia jangomas". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  7. ^ a b Thingnam, Sophia. "Flacourtia jangomas- Description". Flowers Of India. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  8. ^ Botha, John; Darryl Hardie; Greg Power (2000). "Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni: Exotic threat to Western Australia" (PDF). AGWEST Factsheet. The Government of Western Australia. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2008-09-01. Retrieved 2008-12-29.