Fortress of Deva

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The Fortress of Deva
Cetatea Devei
Déva vára
Deva, Hunedoara County, Romania
Ruins of Deva citadel being renovated 1.jpg
Fortress of Deva under heavy restoration
Type Fortress
Site information
Open to
the public
yes
Condition ruins in reconstruction
Site history
Built after 1242
In use 1269–1848
Events Peter I Csák, Palatine of Hungary defeated the Cumans,
Ferenc Dávid died in the fortress's prison,
Horea, Cloșca and Crișan's revolt besieged (unsuccessfully) the fortress
Garrison information
Occupants John Hunyadi, Gabriel Bethlen

The Fortress of Deva (Romanian: Cetatea Devei, Hungarian: Déva vára) is a fortress located in the city of Deva, Hunedoara County, Romania, on top of a volcanic hill.

Position[edit]

Deva Funicular (inclined railway) provides easy access to the fortress from the city below.

The fortress is located atop a volcano in the Poiana Ruscă Mountain Range within the Western Carpathian Mountains of Romania. From the foot of the hill, the city of Deva spreads out, beginning with Magna Curia and the public park. Nearby are the lower funicular station, which tourists use to reach the fortress, and most of the buildings of the administrative institutions of the city: the Court House, the Prefecture, the County Hall, the Finance Administration, the old police headquarters, the City Hall and two of the oldest schools in Deva: the Decebal National College and the Pedagogic Lyceum.

History[edit]

The first evidence of the medieval Deva Fortress dates back to the second half of the 13th century; in 1269, Stephen V, King of Hungary and Duke of Transylvania, mentioned "the royal castle of Deva" in a privilege-grant for the Count Chyl of Kelling (Romanian: comitele Chyl din Câlnic).[1]

The first records regarding a military operation involving the fortress dates from 1273. Under its walls, the Cumans were defeated by Peter I Csák, Palatine of Hungary (Latin: Magister Pertrus de genere Chak), who was rewarded for his victory by Ladislaus IV, King of Hungary. In his letter, Ladislaus IV mentioned the facts with the words: sub castro Dewa contra Cumanorum exercitur viriliter dimicavit.[2][3]

At the end of the 13th century, the Deva Fortress was in the property of Ladislaus Kán, Voivode of Transylvania, who organized a court besides the military garrison.[1]

The Fortress of Deva is central to the Hungarian folk tale The Wife of Clement, the Mason.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Octavian, Floca; Ben Bassa (1965). Cetatea Deva. Monumentele patriei noastre (in Romanian). București: Editura Meridiane. p. 14. 
  2. ^ Octavian, Floca; Ben Bassa (1965). Cetatea Deva. Monumentele patriei noastre (in Romanian). București: Editura Meridiane. p. 14. sub castro Dewa contra Cumanorum exercitur viriliter dimicavit 
  3. ^ Veszprémy, László. Erik Kooper, ed. Chronicles in Charters. Historical Narratives (narrationes) in Charters as Substitutes for Chronicles in Hungary. "The Medieval Chronicle III". p. 194. ISBN 90-420-1875-5. Retrieved 2008-08-20. Magister Pertrus de genere Chak, 1273, In castrum Feketeholm sub castro Deva viriliter dimicavit, quosdam captivando, quosdam perimendo, triumphalem victoriam reportavit; 
  4. ^ Jones, Henry (1886). "A Hungarian Folk-Tale". The Academy and Literature. 30: 73. 

Coordinates: 45°53′19″N 22°53′50″E / 45.88861°N 22.89722°E / 45.88861; 22.89722