|Developer(s)||Tony "Ponder" Cannon|
0.32 / August 27, 2015
|Written in||C, C++|
|Operating system||Microsoft Windows|
GGPO (short for Good Game Peace Out) is middleware designed to help create a near-lagless online experience for various emulated arcade games and fighting games. The program was created by Tony Cannon, co-founder of fighting game community site Shoryuken and the popular Evolution Championship Series.
Before its creation, GGPO creator Tony Cannon was completely dissatisfied with the 2006 Xbox 360 re-release of Street Fighter II: Hyper Fighting after experiencing its criticized online capabilities. As a reaction to its service, Cannon began development on GGPO and released the first version in late 2006. Cannon later demonstrated GGPO to Capcom, which was positively received.
The downloadable GGPO client supported many games from Capcom and SNK, including Super Street Fighter II Turbo, The King of Fighters 2002, and Metal Slug X through the use of a built-in emulator. Video game companies have also implemented a licensed version of GGPO. Games using it include Skullgirls and Street Fighter III: 3rd Strike Online Edition.
GGPO uses a netcode technique called "rollback". Rather than waiting for input to be received from other players before simulating the next frame, GGPO predicts the inputs they will send and simulates the next frame without delay using that assumption. When other players’ inputs arrive, if any input didn’t match the prediction, GGPO rolls back the state of the game to the last correct state, then replays all players’ revised inputs back until the current frame. The hope is that the predictions will be correct most of the time, allowing smooth play with minimal sudden changes to the game state. The system in itself is highly similar to client-side prediction, but applied to a peer-to-peer setup.
The client program can allow players to manually adjust native input delay in high-ping situations, either creating a possibly-jerky yet accurate representation or a smoother game with input delay.
GGPO was originally bundled with a client which enabled users to play supported games online with other players. A matchmaking system allowed players to request challenges from other users, while non-participants could spectate the match and chat. Once a challenge initiated, the match ran a ROM through its prepackaged emulator, FinalBurn Alpha. This client was discontinued, and superseded by other clients which make use of GGPO's networking middleware, such as Fightcade or RedGGPO.
Games using GGPO
- Final Fight: Double Impact (2010)
- Dragon Ball: Zenkai Battle (2011)
- Street Fighter III: 3rd Strike Online Edition (2011)
- Skullgirls (2012)
- Marvel vs. Capcom Origins (2012)
- Darkstalkers Resurrection (2013)
- Dungeons & Dragons: Chronicles of Mystara (2013)
- Divekick (2013)
- Metal Slug 3 (2014)
- Lethal League (2014)
- Rising Thunder (2015)
- Skullgirls (mobile) (2017)
- Pocket Rumble (2017)
- Windjammers (2017)
- Punch Planet (2017)
- Omen of Sorrow (2018)
- Fantasy Strike (2019)
- Them's Fightin' Herds (2020)
- FOOTSIES Rollback Edition (2020)
- Terrordrome - Reign of the Legends (2020)
- Guilty Gear XX Accent Core Plus R[a] (2020)
- Breakers Collection (2021)
- Blazing Strike (2022)
- Coreupt (TBA)
Games using rollback networking
- Super Street Fighter II Turbo HD Remix (2008)
- Marvel vs Capcom 2: New Age of Heroes (2009)
- Touhou Suimusou: Immaterial and Missing Power[b] (2009)
- Street Fighter X Tekken (2012)
- PlayStation All-Stars Battle Royale (2012)
- Touhou Hisoutensoku[b] (2012)
- Killer Instinct (2013)
- Killer Instinct Classic[a] (2013)
- Killer Instinct 2 Classic (2014)
- Eternal Fighter Zero[b] (2014)
- Melty Blood Actress Again Current Code[b] (2015)
- Brawlhalla (2015)
- Street Fighter V (2016)
- Mortal Kombat XL (2016)
- For Honor (2017)
- River City Ransom: Underground (2017)
- Injustice 2 (2017)
- Marvel vs. Capcom: Infinite (2017)
- Umineko: Golden Fantasia (2017)
- Acceleration of Suguri 2 (2018)
- The King of Fighters '97 Global Match[a] (2018)
- Street Fighter 30th Anniversary Collection (2018)
- Lethal League Blaze (2018)
- Mortal Kombat 11 (2019)
- Fight of Gods[a] (2019)
- Samurai Shodown V Special[a] (2019)
- Power Rangers: Battle for the Grid (2019)
- Fight of Animals (2019)
- Garou: Mark of the Wolves[a] (2020)
- Maiden & Spell (2020)
- Mighty Fight Federation (2020)
- The Last Blade 2[a] (2020)
- Samurai Shodown NeoGeo Collection (2020)
- Super Smash Bros. Melee[b] (2020)
- Fighting EX Layer[a] (2020)
- Spelunky 2 (2020)
- The King of Fighters 2002: Unlimited Match[a] (2020)
- Dual Souls: The Last Bearer[a] (2020)
- Tough Love Arena (2021)
- Guilty Gear -Strive- (2021)
- Dengeki Bunko: Fighting Climax Ignition[b] (2021)
- Windjammers 2 (2021)
- Melty Blood: Type Lumina (2021)
- Rivals of Aether[a] (2021)
- Nickelodeon All-Star Brawl (2021)
- The King of Fighters XV (2022)
- Metal Revolution (TBA)
- Slayers for Hire (TBA)
- Fly Punch Boom! (TBA)
- Rushdown Revolt (TBA)
- MerFight: Curse of the Arctic Prince (TBA)
- Rollback netcode added after release via patch.
- Rollback netcode added via fan-made patch.
- "ggpo/LICENSE at master · pond3r/ggpo". Retrieved 2019-10-09.
- Orland, Kyle (2011-04-22). "Interview: How A Fighting Game Fan Solved Internet Latency Issues". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- Cannon, Tony (2008-08-29). "GGPO Networking Guru Talks SF HD Remix!". Capcom. Archived from the original on 2020-01-28. Retrieved 2011-06-21.
- Heart, Adam (6 June 2011). "Street Fighter III: 3rd Strike Online – 1st Trailer and Screens". Shoryuken. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
Street Fighter III Third Strike Online Edition will be using GGPO netcode ...
- Cannon, Tony [@Pond3r] (2019-10-09). "GGPO has a new home and is now available under the MIT License. Get it here!: t.co/7KXHGQ7OMN" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Miller, Patrick. "The lag-fighting techniques behind GGPO's netcode". Gamasutra. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- Cannon, Tony (September 2012). "Fight the Lag!". Game Developer Magazine. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "Capcom: Final Fight". Retrieved 2019-10-04.
GGPO network technology creates a frame-accurate arcade experience across the internet, and with online voice chat and the ability to join games in progress, it's just like playing in the arcade.
- 佐伯憲司 (2010-11-25). "バンダイナムコ、AC「ドラゴンボール ZENKAIバトルロイヤル」". GAME Watch (in Japanese). Retrieved 2019-10-04.
- "新機能". CAPCOM：STREET FIGHTER III 3rd STRIKE ONLINE EDITION -Fight for the Future- (in Japanese). Retrieved 2019-10-04.
- Zaimont, Mike (2011-09-13). "Skullgirls, GGPO… and You". Skullgirls 2nd Encore. Retrieved 2019-10-04.
- Sahdev, Ishaan (2012-07-08). "Marvel vs. Capcom Origins To Use GGPO For Online Play". Siliconera. Curse LLC. Retrieved 2019-10-04.
- Araujo, Yuji (2013-01-11). "Darkstalkers Resurrection and GGPO". Capcom Unity. Retrieved 2019-10-04.
- Neltz, András (2013-06-13). "Capcom's Two Classic Arcade Titles, Reborn on Modern Consoles". Kotaku. Gizmodo Media Group. Retrieved 2019-10-04.
Chronicles of Mystara is powered by GGPO to offer seamless drop-in/drop-out online gameplay for up to four players in each of the title’s two modes.
- "Divekick - Two-button fighting game for PS3, PS Vita and Steam". Retrieved 2019-10-04.
Ranked and non-ranked GGPO-powered online play, the most trusted netcode in fighting games.
- @dotemu (Jan 28, 2014). "Yes, it is a licensed version of GGPO" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Lethal League". Retrieved 2019-10-04.
High performance online GGPO multiplayer.
- Partridge, Jon (2015-08-31). "Rising Thunder interview with Seth Killian". Red Bull. Retrieved 2019-10-04.
It’s a beat’em up built for online play too: it’s built on the backend of GGPO for lag-free play, and it’s also just so happens to be free.
- @sgmobile (Sep 20, 2019). "In case you didn't know, we're using "GGPO" as our netcode solution for Skullgirls Mobile, which is the same netcode used for Skullgirls 2nd Encore!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Pocket Rumble". Retrieved 2019-10-04.
Near-flawless online multiplayer with GGPO netcode
- "Windjammers arrives August 29 on PS4 & PS Vita". Dotemu. 20 July 2017. Retrieved 2019-10-22.
- @PunchPlanet (March 26, 2019). "Join the online #community featuring #GGPO netcode" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Thang, Jimmy (2018-11-29). "Omen of Sorrow Proves That a Small Indie Developer Can Make a Well-Respected, Competitive Fighting Game". Unreal Engine. Epic Games. Retrieved 2019-10-04.
UE4’s versatility allowed us to implement the well-regarded GGPO system for online fights which, in turn, set the basis for the development of the entire gameplay.
- "Fantasy Strike". Retrieved 2019-10-04.
Fantasy Strike uses GGPO’s rollback-style networking.
- "Engine get and three short stories – Them's Fightin' Herds". Mane6 Blog. 2013-03-30. Retrieved 2019-10-04.
- @HiFightTH (2020-05-09). "FOOTSIES with GGPO.... I need testers.... If you have FOOTSIES friends, please try it out" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- @HiFightTH (September 30, 2020). "FOOTSIES Rollback Edition is now available on Steam!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Enclave, Marc (Feb 12, 2020). "Terrordrome - Reign of the Legends Vlog 01 Full - Game overview". YouTube. Retrieved March 9, 2020.
And last but not least we have GGPO rollback netcode integrated.
- @ArcSystemWorksU (2020-10-16). "GUILTY GEAR XX ACCENT CORE PLUS R will be receiving it's much awaited GGPO update soon!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Breakers Collection - Dev Diary: Online Versus Playtest" (Press release). Games Press Ltd. 2021-02-09. Retrieved 2021-02-09.
- @markarotGC (2020-11-11). "#BlazingStrike + #GGPO = ?" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Aksys Games Announces Blazing Strike" (Press release). Torrance, California: Aksys Games. Michael Meyers Public Relations. 2021-05-20. Retrieved 2021-05-20.
- @JW_Corelated (2020-05-09). "GGPO is the current plan!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Sirlin, David. "Street Fighter HD Remix Features". Sirlin.Net. Retrieved 2020-02-06.
Note that the networking uses Tony Cannon's ggpo technique, and he consulted to ensure it was done correctly.
- Svensson, Christian. "Where's Yo Curleh Mustache? Yes, MVC2 is Real!". capcom-unity.com. Retrieved 2020-02-20.
With the game being developed by Backbone, we are using largely the same, critically acclaimed net code that we used in Super Street Fighter 2 Turbo HD Remix and with that will come our player match quarter mode/lobby system that has proven so popular.
- Yin-Poole, Wesley (2012-03-09). "Capcom looking to improve Street Fighter x Tekken online sound problems". Eurogamer. Retrieved 2019-10-22.
- D'Argenio, Angelo (2012-11-20). "PlayStation All-Stars Battle Royale Review". Cheat Code Central.
- "Touhou Hisoutensoku Rollcaster Official Release". #firstname.lastname@example.org. 2012-12-25. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
Thanks to Fireseal, Touhou Hisoutensoku can now be played with rollback enabled; long story short, intercontinental play with low delay is now possible.
- "EXCLUSIVE: Everything We Know About Killer Instinct For Xbox One". Killer Instinct Central. September 9, 2013. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
- Sahdev, Ishaan (2014-12-23). "Killer Instinct Classic Getting Online Multiplayer". Siliconera. Retrieved 2019-10-22.
- @CodeMystics (December 8, 2016). "FWIW, we do have rollback netcode (e.g. it's an option in KI Classic), which is what GGPO is, but not used in SNK products" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Torres, Josh (2016-04-22). "Branching Path: Melty Blood Actress Again Current Code's Steam Version". RPG Site. Retrieved 2020-05-18.
As a matter of fact, two very talented individuals from the Melty Blood community, Mauve and Madscientist, built custom online multiplayer clients for the PC versions of Act Cadenza Ver. B and Actress Again Current Code respectively. While they were easy to use after spending a little bit of time understanding their interface, it still required a separate program. These clients are still impressive to this day because they minimized input lag by incorporating rollback netcode (now seen in Street Fighter V) and kept frame stuttering or "laggy matches" to a minimum.
- @MadscientistCC (Feb 1, 2015). "Rollback is out" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Nettention (2016-04-06). "Sponsored: Meet the company behind the P2P networking of Street Fighter V". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2019-10-22.
- Wright, Steven T. (2017-03-31). "Reviving 'River City Ransom' and Reinventing the Brawler". VICE. Retrieved 2020-01-29.
Crenna and co. even coded the online multiplayer around a "rollback driver," a challenging technical feature usually reserved for popular fighting games like Street Fighter.
- Paget, Mat (2016-07-14). "E3 2016: Injustice 2 Multiplayer Will Use Popular Fighting Game Netcode". GameSpot. Retrieved 2019-10-04.
He talked about the game's loot drops and gear system, but he also revealed that Injustice 2 will use GGPO netcode for its multiplayer.
- Walker, Ian (2017-04-27). "Marvel vs. Capcom Infinite Wants Even Newbies To Have A Blast". Kotaku. Retrieved 2020-01-11.
Once players have a firm grasp on the fundamentals, they can hop online and test their burgeoning skills against worldwide opponents, one-on-one or in lobbies, using Capcom’s proprietary rollback netcode.
- "Golden Fantasia & Rollback Netplay". MangaGamer Staff Blog. 2017-12-07. Retrieved 2019-10-22.
Of course, once a game goes worldwide, this no longer holds true, and something has to be done to account for network issues, which is why we made a point of implementing rollback netplay into our version of Umineko: Golden Fantasia.
- "Acceleration of SUGURI 2". Steam. Retrieved 2020-01-28.
Online and Split-screen Multiplayer with rollback netcode
- "Rollback Netcode and Chinese UI localization!". Steam Community. 2018-05-10. Retrieved 2019-10-22.
- Wong, Andy (2018-03-20). "Street Fighter 30th Anniversary Collection Arrives on May 29, 2018". PlayStation.Blog. Retrieved 2019-10-22.
Online play also features rollback technology that provides low-latency matches with the ability to adjust your own input buffer speed via the in-game menu to keep your online experience smooth.
- Digital Crafter Team (May 8, 2019). "Jesus is back!! Balance adjustment and new netcode tech (Roll back) online!". Steam Community. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
On Net code, we were using delay base before this update. And this time we changed to (Roll Back) method, it should bring you better input experience. Please give it a try!
- @CodeMystics (June 18, 2019). "We're thrilled to team up with @SNKPofficial and @SamuraiShodown to offer you an "aperitif" as you wait to #EmbraceDeath. Play the UNCENSORED SamSho V Special on Windows (Steam or GOG) now with all the features of the PS4 version of SSVS, even online play!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- @FightofAnimals (19 December 2019). "Rollback" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- @CodeMystics (January 22, 2020). "Thanks @SNKPofficial SNK for letting us bring #Garou: Mark of the Wolves into the Code Mystics rollback netcode family! :) PS4/Vita's patched & Steam/GOG versions are updated to our code too. (Fans of the Steam/GOG DotEmu version can still access it via beta code "dotemuversion"))" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Maiden & Spell". Retrieved 2020-01-28.
And yes, the online battles have rollback netcode.
- @FightMighty (February 14, 2020). "In addition to our single player and local VS modes, Mighty Fight Federation features both Online Quickplay and Lobby matches for up to 4 players built on a rollback netcode system! Steam Early Access is available now!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- @krispykaiser (April 23, 2020). "Before a release, we normally QC to make sure a game is running smoothly, but these are unusual times so we'd like to offer you a chance to beta test Code Mystics' newest rollback update on Steam: THE LAST BLADE 2" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- @MikeJMika (October 16, 2019). "It does have rollback. Switch suffers from how many simulations you can do for rollback due to CPU speed" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Smajstrla, Ann (2020-06-23). "Fan mod adds modern online features to 'Super Smash Bros. Melee'". Engadget. Retrieved 2020-08-02.
- Wong, Alistair (2020-08-01). "Fighting EX Layer Patched to Rollback Netcode in Latest Update". Siliconera. Retrieved 2020-08-06.
- @mossmouth (September 15, 2020). "FYI, Spelunky 2's online multiplayer uses rollback netcode and was designed for it from the beginning" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- @SNKPofficial (September 28, 2020). "Get ready because KOF 2002 UM is releasing an open community beta test for its upcoming rollback netcode patch on Steam!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- @GamesStun (November 10, 2020). "The new update for Dual Souls will include advanced training options to study complex scenarios as well as the #Rollback netcode!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- @ToughLoveArena (1 January 2021). "We want feedback on the rollback netcode, tutorials, and gameplay in general" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "[PRESS RELEASE] Guilty Gear -Strive- Closed Beta Test Sign-ups Start Today!" (Press release). Rolling Hills Estates, California: Arc System Works. 2020-03-18. Retrieved 2020-03-19.
- @DFCIACR (February 21, 2021). "The Open Beta Test (PC) for Dengeki Bunko Fighting Climax Ignition (DFCI) Unofficial Rollback has started" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Andy Chalk (2020-12-10). "Windjammers 2 is delayed until 2021 so developers can add rollback netcode". PC Gamer. Retrieved 2020-12-18.
- @BananaShiki (March 25, 2021). "THE NEW MELTY BLOOD HAS ROLLBACK" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- @StudiosofAether (April 1, 2021). "Rivals of Aether Rollback Open Beta arrives Summer 2021!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Jarrard, Chris (July 13, 2021). "Nickelodeon All-Star Brawl is from Slap City devs and may have rollback netcode". Shacknews. Retrieved July 13, 2021.
- @snk_oda (February 26, 2021). "Great to see lots of passionate #SNKRollback fans! You will be happy to hear that we have been working hard on an internal rollback solution for KOF XV from early in the dev cycle" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- @Mtl_Revolution (January 24, 2019). "Sorry, if we missed your question previously. It's gonna be a rollback netcode technique as same as in GGPO" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Slayers for Hire Kickstarter". Retrieved 2019-11-28.
We take netcode very seriously, and investigated several different solutions to give the best possible experience. We ended up deciding on Photon's Quantum netcode, which you can read all about on their website. Quantum is a deterministic, server-based, rollback netcode.
- @JollypunchGames (January 5, 2020). "I got good rollback netcode! We've been playing #FlyPunchBoom tournaments across continents, and it still feels good.Still in beta though. Coming this year! Fire" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Vortex Games. "Rushdown Revolt - Pre-Beta Testing". Steam. Retrieved 2020-08-08.
Vortex Rollback been in development for four years to fully embed it into every aspect of our game engine in order to minimize delay and rollback impacts.
- @mattrified (February 28, 2021). "Physical" test and demo of #MerFight's rollback/online" (Tweet) – via Twitter.