General Motors 122 engine

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General Motors logo.svg 122 engine
GM 2.2 OHV I4 rear.jpg
ManufacturerGeneral Motors
ConfigurationNaturally aspirated Straight-4
  • 1.8 L; 112.3 cu in (1,841 cc)
  • 2.0 L; 121.5 cu in (1,991 cc)
  • 2.2 L; 133.6 cu in (2,189 cc)
Cylinder bore89 mm (3.5 in)
Piston stroke
  • 74 mm (2.91 in)
  • 80 mm (3.15 in)
  • 88 mm (3.46 in)
Block materialCast Iron
Head material
  • Cast Iron (1982-1986)
  • Aluminum (1987-2003)
ValvetrainOHV 2 valves x cyl.
Compression ratio9.0:1
Fuel systemRochester carburetor
Throttle-body fuel injection
Multi-point fuel injection
Sequential multi-port FI
Fuel typeGasoline, E85, LPG
Oil systemWet sump
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Power output83–120 hp (62–89 kW)
Torque output108–140 lb⋅ft (146–190 N⋅m)
PredecessorGM Iron Duke engine

The 122 engine was designed by Chevrolet and was used in wide-array of General Motors vehicles. The 122 was similar to the first two generations of the General Motors 60° V6 engine; sharing cylinder bore diameters and some parts[citation needed]. The 122 was available in the US beginning in 1982 for the GM J platform compact cars and S-series trucks.

For the J cars it evolved through 2002 when it was replaced by GMs Ecotec line of DOHC 4-cylinder engines. In the S-10 related models it evolved through 2003 when it was known as the Vortec 2200. Production ceased consistent with the replacement of the S-series trucks with the GMT 355 sub-platform.

Generation I[edit]



The 1.8 L pushrod engine was the first engine to power the J-Body cars. Introduced with the models in 1982, the 1.8 used a 2-barrel Rochester carburetor and produced 88 hp (66 kW) at higher rpm. Acceleration in these cars was quite sluggish, with a test 1982 Pontiac J2000 accelerating from 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in 16.3 seconds, with a 14 mile (402 m) time of 20.6 seconds.




This engine was similar to the LQ5 however it did not use throttle body fuel injection, instead it had a 2-barrel carburetor. This engine was used in the Chevrolet S-10 and GMC S-15 compact pickup trucks and their Blazer and Jimmy counterparts until 1985, when it was replaced by the 2.5 L Tech IV engine. This engine produced 83 hp (62 kW) at 4600 RPM and 108 lb⋅ft (146 N⋅m) at 2400 RPM.



A stroked version of the 1.8 L engine, displacing 2.0 L, was introduced midway through 1982, to provide more low-rpm power for the J cars. This engine replaced the 1.8 L engine altogether and had throttle-body fuel injection. It produces 86 hp (64 kW).


Generation II[edit]



This engine replaced the LQ5 and was used from 1987 until 1989. It featured throttle body fuel injection and produced 90 hp (67 kW) and 108 lb⋅ft (146 N⋅m) of torque.



2.2 L OHV I4 engine
2200 OHV I4 engine


For the 1990 model year, GM replaced the 2.0 L engine with a stroked version displacing 2.2 L; with throttle-body fuel injection (TBI). Commonly called the 2.2, it produced 95 hp (71 kW) and 120 lb⋅ft (163 N⋅m) of torque.



For 1992, the 2.2 received multi-port fuel injection (MPFI) replacing the TBI version in the J-body cars increasing power to 110 hp (82 kW) and torque to 130 lb⋅ft (176 N⋅m). In the L-body cars it was converted straight to Sequential Fuel injection. In 1994, all 2.2 L engines were updated to sequential multi-port fuel injection and power increased to 120 hp (89 kW) with torque increasing to 140 lb⋅ft (190 N⋅m). The MPFI and SFI versions produced enough power to allow the 2.2 to replace the old Pontiac Iron Duke engine as the 4-cylinder offering in the S/T platform trucks and A-body cars. For 1996, it became known as the Vortec 2200 in the S/T trucks.

For 1998, the engine was revised for emissions regulations and became known as the 2200; this revision lowered power to 115 hp (86 kW) at 5000 rpm and torque to 135 lb⋅ft (183 N⋅m) at 3600 rpm. The engine was discontinued in 2003, replaced by the 2.2 L DOHC Ecotec engine. Although it displaces 134 cu. in, the 2.2 L OHV is still commonly referred to as the GM 122 today, and has been reputed for its simplicity, reliability and ease of maintenance in the J-body cars and S-Series trucks, and a few L-Body cars. The 2003 model LN2 is equipped with secondary air injection.[1]



The Vortec 2200 (RPO code L43) is an OHV straight-4 truck engine. This engine is equipped with secondary air injection, and is flex-fuel capable. It is entirely different from the Iron Duke having been the last North American iteration of the GM 122 engine. The 2200 uses an iron block and aluminum 2-valve pushrod cylinder head. Output is 120 hp (89 kW) at 5000 rpm and 140 lb⋅ft (190 N⋅m) at 3600 rpm. Displacement is 2.2 L; 133.6 cu in (2,189 cc) with an 89 mm × 88 mm (3.50 in × 3.46 in) bore and stroke. 2200s were built at GM's Tonawanda engine plant in Buffalo. This engine was replaced by the LN2 in September 2002.[2]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "2003 Truck Engines". General Motors. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  2. ^ "Vortec 2200 2.2L L4 (LN2) Truck Engine, 2003 model year" (doc). General Motors. Retrieved 16 April 2014.