Butterworth, Eastern Cape

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Butterworth, Main Street
Butterworth, Main Street
Flag of Butterworth
Butterworth is located in Eastern Cape
Butterworth is located in South Africa
Butterworth is located in Africa
 Butterworth shown within Eastern Cape
Coordinates: 32°20′S 28°09′E / 32.333°S 28.150°E / -32.333; 28.150Coordinates: 32°20′S 28°09′E / 32.333°S 28.150°E / -32.333; 28.150
Country South Africa
Province Eastern Cape
District Amathole
Municipality Mnquma
Established 1827
 • Total 26.34 km2 (10.17 sq mi)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 44,039
 • Density 1,700/km2 (4,300/sq mi)
Racial makeup (2011)[1]
 • Black African 98.2%
 • Coloured 0.7%
 • Indian/Asian 0.4%
 • White 0.5%
 • Other 0.2%
First languages (2011)[1]
 • Xhosa 92.7%
 • English 3.0%
 • Other 4.3%
Postal code (street) 4960
PO box 4960
Area code 047

Butterworth (also known as Gcuwa) is a town in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Butterworth has a population of 287,780 and is situated on the N2 national highway 111 km north of East London.[2][3][4]


The area around Butterworth was populated by Khoi San people, however they were gradually absorbed into the Xhosa people who arrived from further North by means of force.

Butterworth was first established as a Wesleyan mission station in 1827 north of the Great Kei River in British Kaffraria.[5] It was named after Joseph Butterworth. The mission station and white settlement of Butterworth was burnt down 3 times during the Cape Frontier Wars.[3] Nonetheless, it is one of the oldest white settlements in Eastern Cape. When the British seized the Cape of Good Hope, many of the Boers trekked north to establish their own republics. The discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) in South Africa spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the native inhabitants. The town was close to the seat of Hintsa ka Khawuta, chief of the Gcaleka people of the Xhosa tribe. It was of great strategic importance.

Around that time, a young girl, Nongqawuse, had a vision that her forebears would help the Xhosa drive the English out. The disastrous result weakened the Xhosa. The Ninth Frontier War spelled the end of the Xhosa, and the Transkei area was incorporated into the Cape Colony. But it was never quiet. There were raids between settlers and Xhosa, and turf wars between different Xhosa groups. Missions were established here and there to try to bring Christianity to the local people, with limited success.[6]

Butterworth is where historiographer and travel journalist Vuyo Bengu Makasi comes from. It is also the birthplace of Marmaduke Pattle, the highest scoring RAF ace of World War 2.

At the end of the Frontier Wars in 1878, traders began to settle here and the town has grown to become a small industrial centre. Butterworth became a municipality of the Cape Colony in 1904. The town was incorporated into the former Transkei bantustan during the apartheid years. It is one of the fastest growing towns in terms of the economy and the population.[7]


The town is overwhelmingly Black and Xhosa-speaking. According to the 2001 South African census, the "main place" of Butterworth had a population of 45,900. Of these, 45,142 (98.4%) were recorded as "Black", 345 (0.8%) as "Coloured", 213 (0.5%) as "Indian or Asian" and 200 (0.4%) as White. The most predominant language spoken at home was Xhosa (96.9%), followed by English (1.7%) and Afrikaans (0.5%). The town is 57% Female and 43% Male.


Butterworth is the main service area for Mnquma municipality, contributing 77% of the GDP in the municipality and is an important town in the new South Africa. It now has several major industrial sites, including Zitulele and Ibeka, on its outskirts. Its industries produce processed food, beverages, tobacco products, beer, textiles, clothing, leather goods, wood and wood products, chemicals, rubber and plastic products. It is on the Mthatha-East London railway line, but rarely sees a passenger train. This may change when the Bhisho government gets a main line passenger rail service operational.

Butterworth's town area is relatively small, including a small business district of middle-to-high income housing. The central town, established exclusively “white” before 1976, has since been occupied largely by black high-income groups. White occupancy has not been re-established post-1994. Development in Butterworth has followed the line of the N2 and thus resulted in a long, narrow settlement east of town towards Walter Sisulu University (WSU), about 5 km away. The N2 also runs through the CBD, which results in a clash of uses and congestion, with high speed road transport seeming to use the same space as pedestrians, hawkers and public service functions.[8] [9]


Tourism is important to this friendly little town. Attractions include Bawa Falls, Birding, Cape Vulture Colony, Collywobbles on Mbashe River, Gcuwa River Cascades and Historical sights. The small town of Butterworth is surrounded by beautiful countryside. People can go for day walks to the nearby villages such as Tobashana and experience the hospitality of traditional Xhosa living. Gcuwa Dam provides for a man-made lake, perfect for boating and fishing. Visitors to Butterworth will taste the flavor of the true South Africa.

Butterworth also offers a busy and entertaining nightlife, both for tourists and locals alike. Popular places include The Wayside Pub and Grill for those 18-21, and the notorious Drop Inn for the seasoned veterans of the Butterworth Club Scene. Kwa-Kiro offers a braai area and comfortable sofas for those who prefer sitting down rather than dancing the night away. Or if you fancy a chilled day of drinking and braaing (A term known to the locals as "Impolo") you can set up camp at Gcuwa Dam and bring your camp chairs and cooler boxes and enjoy the scenery. If you are looking for an authentic South African braai meat experience then "Tyiwa" is the place to go. It is conveniently located next to Msobomvu sports field so there is plenty of parking, the meat is locally sourced so it is always fresh and grilled to perfection. It also offers a great atmosphere where locals come to end their weekends on a high note. Braai is the South African term for barbecue.

Bawa Falls[edit]

Nearby Bawa Falls on the Qolorha River, has a sheer drop of nearly 300 ft, and is truly magnificent. The dirt road leading to the falls is just west of the town and is quite an adventure. Winding through the Transkei countryside, little has changed in the past 100 years. The district's scenery is attractive with its almost ever-green thorn trees and tropical flowers. The Bawa Falls has a popular picnic spot and the more adventurous hikers can camp overnight. The Cascades Falls on the Gcuwa (Butterworth) River has a reputed fall of 270 ft. Butterworth and is the starting point for a number of nature walks.

Religion and Hospitals[edit]

Wesleyan Mission-Premises, Butterworth, Kaffraria, Southern Africa (June 1851, VIII, p.65)[10]

The supreme being among the Xhosa is called uThixo. Christianity in one form or another is accepted by most people today. Cultural traditionalists are likely to belong to independent denominations that combine Christianity with traditional beliefs and practices.

The Church of the Province of Southern Africa has played an important role in the life of the Butterworth community. Today, retired Archbishop Desmond Tutu is seen as a significant spiritual leader. St Peter's Church is a beautiful example of 19th Century colonial architecture.[2][3][4]

Butterworth has two provincial hospitals: Butterworth Hospital in central town and Tafalofefe Hospital in the rural district about 15km east of Butterworth.[11]

Shopping Centres[edit]

Butterworth is also home to the first shopping centre in the area. October 24th and 25th 2012 saw the much-awaited launch of the new Fingoland Mall [12] development in the small town of Butterworth. The building of the shopping centre was a huge step forward for the Community and investors alike, as few small and underdeveloped towns are taken notice of for big-money developments such as Fingoland Mall.

The opening ceremony was held on the 24th of October and invited guests celebrated the launch of Fingoland Mall with talks from various guest speakers as well as live entertainment by local church groups and talented school choirs. It was also on this day that Dr. A.S Nkonyeni unveiled the plaque and carried out the ribbon cutting which officially opened the Shopping Centre for trading.

The celebration continued on the 25th of October with Butterworth resident and local soapie ‘Scandal’ star Tinah Mnumzana as emcee, as shoppers were treated to free music, dance and entertainment by DJ Gami and afro-soul artists, Nateaze.

Fingoland Mall extends over 12, 700m², which is less than half of the total footprint of the shopping Centre when complete after the third and last phase is built. As of December 2014, there are 51 tenants, which includes but isn’t limited to major national retailers, as well as accommodating no less than 10 micro-businesses that may wish to operate from less informal surroundings. On completion of the third phase, Fingoland Mall is expecting a minimum total of 100 shops.

The development has already created approximately 350 jobs, and by the end of the third phase, the total number of jobs created is expected to reach 1000. The benefits of the Fingoland Mall for Butterworth are unquantifiable, and with the continued support of both its investors, tenants and shoppers alike; generations to come will continue to reap the rewards. The launch of Fingoland Mall was an incredible success; a ‘coming together’ of the community and its leaders for a fantastic project that will continue to do great things for the development of those living and working in Butterworth town.


  1. ^ a b c d "Main Place Butterworth". Census 2011. 
  2. ^ a b Random House Compact World Atlas. Random House. 2006. p. 59. ISBN 0-375-72189-4. 
  3. ^ a b c Butterworth, Travelblog p.1 - 2
  4. ^ a b Tony Pinchuck, Barbara McCrea & Donald Reid, Rough guide to South Africa, Lesotho & Swaziland, Edition 3, Rough Guides, 2002. p. 425
  5. ^ British Kaffraria, map.
  6. ^ Jeffrey B. Peires, The dead will arise, Indiana University Press, 1989. pp 141 -159
  7. ^ Hazel Crampton, The Sunburnt Queen, Jacana Media, 2004. pp 60 - 63
  8. ^ Butterworth, Encyclopædia Britannica p.1
  9. ^ Butterworth, Aspire 2008 p 1
  10. ^ "Wesleyan Mission-Premises, Butterworth, Kaffraria, Southern Africa". Wesleyan Juvenile Offering. London: Wesleyan Mission-House. VIII: 65. June 1851. Retrieved 30 November 2015. 
  11. ^ Eastern Cape Dept of Health
  12. ^ Fingoland Mall Website