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Goitrogenic drugs and chemicals
Chemicals that have been shown to have goitrogenic effects include:
- Sulfadimethoxine, propylthiouracil, potassium perchlorate, and iopanoic acid.
- Some oxazolidines such as goitrin.
- Ions such as thiocyanate (from cigarette smoking for example) and perchlorate decrease iodide uptake by competitive inhibition and, as a consequence of reduced thyroxine and triiodothyronine secretion by the gland, cause, at low doses, an increased release of thyrotropin (by reduced negative feedback), which then stimulates the gland.
- Amiodarone inhibits peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine; also interferes with thyroid hormone action.
- Lithium inhibits thyroid hormone release.
- Phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, rifampin induce metabolic degradation of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
- Cassava, when crushed and not detoxified by soaking
- Soybeans (and soybean products such as tofu, soybean oil, soy flour, soy lecithin)
- Pine nuts
- Flax seed, flax seed contains cyanide which transforms into thiocyanate inside the body leading to hypothyroid syndrome.
- Bamboo shoots
- Sweet potatoes
- Vegetables in the genus Brassica[page needed], and other cruciferous vegetables
- Verhoeven DT, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA, van Poppel G (February 1997). "A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables". Chem. Biol. Interact. 103 (2): 79–129. doi:10.1016/S0009-2797(96)03745-3. PMID 9055870.
- Vanderpas J (2006). "Nutritional epidemiology and thyroid hormone metabolism". Annu. Rev. Nutr. 26: 293–322. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.26.010506.103810. PMID 16704348.
- Erdogan MF (2003). "Thiocyanate overload and thyroid disease". BioFactors (Oxford, England) (Review) 19 (3-4): 107–11. doi:10.1002/biof.5520190302. PMID 14757960.
- Mitchell, Richard Sheppard; Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson. Robbins Basic Pathology. Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2973-7. 8th edition.