Humvee replacement process

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The Humvee replacement process, undertaken by the U.S. Military is an effort to replace the current AM General Humvee multi-purpose motor vehicle. The Humvee has evolved several times since its introduction in 1984, and is now used in tactical roles for which it was not originally intended.[1] The U.S. Military is currently pursuing several initiatives to replace it, both in the short and long term. The short-term replacement efforts utilize Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) vehicles, while the long-term efforts currently focus on building requirements for the Humvee replacement and technology research and evaluation in the form of various prototype vehicles.

Short term[edit]

International MaxxPro Category 1 MRAP

In the short term, Humvees that were in service in Iraq were replaced by Category 1 MRAP (Mine Resistant Ambush Protected) armored vehicles, primarily the Force Protection Cougar H and the International MaxxPro.[2] The United States Marine Corps replaced all Humvees patrolling "outside the wire" with MRAP vehicles. The U.S. military began procuring a lighter vehicle under the MRAP All Terrain Vehicle (M-ATV) program in 2009.[3]

Long term[edit]

The Joint Light Tactical Vehicle will replace around 55,000 Humvees and traces back to 2005, but did not publicly emerge until January 2006. Early government requests for information noted: "In response to an operational need and an ageing fleet of light tactical wheeled vehicles, the joint services have developed a requirement for a new tactical wheeled vehicle platform that will provide increased force protection, survivability, and improved capacity over the current Up-Armoured High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (UAH) while balancing mobility and transportability requirements with total ownership costs." The joint service nature of the effort was assured through Congressional language in the Fiscal Year 2006 (FY06) Authorization Act, which mandated that any future tactical wheeled vehicle program would be a joint program.[4]

International FTTS UV Concept

The U.S. Military was seeking a long term replacement for the Humvee under the Future Tactical Truck Systems (FTTS) program, which was seeking to introduce a Maneuver Sustainment Vehicle and a Utility Vehicle. Navistar International and Lockheed Martin's proposals for the Utility Vehicle were selected for competition as well as the Armor Holdings proposal for the Maneuver Sustainment Vehicle.[5] In August 2006 they were tested at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds. Following this evaluation they were parked in The Pentagon courtyard for evaluation by higher ranking military officials. The JLTV program incorporated lessons learned from the earlier and now halted Future Tactical Truck Systems (FTTS) program and other associated efforts.[6]

The Office of Naval Research has also funded several projects to research other technologies that may be implemented on the Humvee replacement, including the Shadow RST-V and Georgia Tech's ULTRA AP, a combat concept vehicle based on the F350 chassis, but with a "blast bucket" passenger compartment, and Ultra 3T, a project with more advanced (but unproven) technologies.

In early 2011, DARPA initiated the eXperimental Crowd-derived Combat-support Vehicle (XC2V) Design Challenge to find a replacement design for the Humvee for which Local Motors served as a hub for the challenge. The challenge specifically aimed for a Combat Reconnaissance and Combat Delivery & Evacuation vehicle.[7][8] The design entries were open for voting on March 4th.[9] On June 27, a Local Motors XC2V was premiered at Carnegie Mellon University's National Robotics Engineering Center in Pittsburgh with President Obama attending.[10] On June 28, 2011, DARPA announced the selection of Local Motors’ XC2V FLYPMode as the winner of the competition. It was selected among 162 entries.[10][11] The XC2V went on to compete with vehicles from TARDEC's FED program such as British Ricardo's FED ALPHA[12] which appears to have been selected over FED BETA.[13]

In August 2015, Oshkosh Defense’s Light Combat Tactical All-Terrain Vehicle (L-ATV was announced as winner of the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) program which (with around 55,000 vehicles) will part-replace the Humvee.

The JLTV program (including numbers required and pricing) evolved considerably as the program developed and requirements stabilized. Oshkosh's L-ATV was selected as the winner of the JLTV program on 25 August 2015. The company was awarded a $6.75 billion low rate initial base contract with eight options to procure the first 16,901 vehicles for both the Army and Marines. Oshkosh CEO, Charles Szews, said the production contract award would involve more than 300 suppliers in 31 states across the country. The Army initially refused to detail why the L-ATV was chosen over its competitors (AM General and Lockheed Martin), likely owing to anticipations of protests from either or both of the losing bidders, these to be submitted within ten days of contract award.[14]

On 8 September it was disclosed that losing JLTV bidder Lockheed Martin would protest the award to Oshkosh. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) has 100 days to review the program and issue a decision on the protest.[15]

U.S. Army[edit]

The Army issued a request for information for a Humvee recapitalization program in January 2010. The Army asked Congress to shift funds from procuring Humvees to recapitalizing aging Humvees. This request was denied. A second request for information was planned and would be followed up by a request for proposals.

No Humvee procurements were planned beyond 2012. The Army's 260,000 truck fleet was planned to be reduced by 15 percent by fiscal year 2017.[16]

U.S. Marines[edit]

The United States Marine Corps planned to replace all Humvees patrolling "outside the wire" with MRAP vehicles. The Marines were to reduce their fleet of Humvees from 44,000 to 32,500.[17] The current plan is to reduce the Marine's fleet of light tactical vehicles from 24,600 to 18,500 by 2017. The planned end state is to have 3,500 A2 series Humvees, 9,500 ECV Humvees, and 5,500 Joint Light Tactical Vehicles.[18]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Grant Turnbull End of an icon: the rise and fall of the Humvee -, 2014-09-30. Retrieved 2015-01-27 "It was never intended to be a combat vehicle."
  2. ^ More MRAPs: Navistar’s MaxxPro Maintains the Pole Position
  3. ^ Oshkosh to make new M-ATV, Pentagon says. Army Times, 1 July 2009.
  4. ^ JLTV HMMWV replacement details and specifications
  5. ^
  6. ^ Andrew Feickert. "Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved March 19, 2015. 
  7. ^ "DARPA XC2V Design Challenge Explores Advantages of Crowd-Sourced Design" DARPA, March 15, 2011.
  8. ^ "Local Motors XC2V Crowdsourced Marine Assault Vehicle" P2P foundation, January 1, 2012
  9. ^ "Voting now open in DARPA XC2V Design Challenge"
  10. ^ a b "President Obama Recognizes Local Motors, DARPA and American Manufacturing" SEMA eNews Vol. 14, No. 26, June 30, 2011
  11. ^ "DARPA Selects XC2V to Replace HUMVEEs (with Video)" CarScoops, June 28, 2011
  12. ^ "FED ALPHA Military Vehicle by Ricardo" NewCarUpdate, February 28, 2013
  13. ^ "Micro Level Trends – Military Vehicles – The US Army Hums a New Tune For Detroit and the World" Investment automotives, July 26, 2013
  14. ^ "Oshkosh Beats Lockheed, AM General For Historic JLTV Win". Breaking Defense. Retrieved August 26, 2015. 
  15. ^ "Lockheed Martin Protests JLTV contract award to Oshkosh". 8 September 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015. 
  16. ^ Kate Brannen (27 January 2010). "Army wants to redirect Humvee funding". Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 10 February 2011. 
  17. ^ Gidget Fuentes (9 February 2011). "Commandant maps out future Corps". Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 10 February 2011. 
  18. ^ Marine Humvee Upgrade Seen as Inevitable -, February 2013