Joint Light Tactical Vehicle
|Joint Light Tactical Vehicle|
JLTV competitors and their prototypes, some used during the Technology Development phase.
|Type||light tactical vehicle|
|Place of origin||United States|
|Designer||United States Army|
|Unit cost||US$423,298 (FY13, inc R&D)|
|Variants||Combat Tactical Vehicle (CTV)
Combat Support Vehicle (CSV)
|Up to and including four M7 smoke grenade dischargers|
Road: 70 mph
Off road: varies
Reverse: 8 mph
The Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) is a United States military (specifically U.S. Army, USSOCOM, and U.S. Marine Corps) program to part-replace the Humvee that is currently in service with a family of more survivable vehicles with greater payload.
JLTV traces back to 2005 but publicly emerged in January 2006, with early government requests for information noting: "In response to an operational need and an ageing fleet of light tactical wheeled vehicles, the joint services have developed a requirement for a new tactical wheeled vehicle platform that will provide increased force protection, survivability, and improved capacity over the current Up-Armoured High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (UAH) while balancing mobility and transportability requirements with total ownership costs." The joint service nature of the effort was assured through Congressional language in the Fiscal Year 2006 (FY06) Authorization Act, which mandated that any future tactical wheeled vehicle program would be a joint program.
The JLTV program incorporates lessons learned from the earlier and now halted Future Tactical Truck Systems (FTTS) program and other associated efforts. JLTV has evolved throughout various development phases and milestones but variants will be capable of performing armament carrier, utility, command and control (shelter), ambulance, reconnaissance and a variety of other tactical and logistic support roles. JLTV will be manufactured to comply with the US Army's Long Term Armor Strategy (LTAS). The JLTV program was in danger of being outpaced by the rapid development of lightweight MRAPs.
The JLTV program (including numbers required and pricing) has evolved considerably as the program developed and requirements stabilized.
- 1 History
- 2 Design requirements
- 3 Versions
- 4 Gallery
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), which first entered service in 1985, was developed during the Cold War when improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and asymmetric warfare were not a major factor for military planners. The HMMWV's demonstrated vulnerability to IEDs and the difficulties and costs experienced in satisfactorily up-armoring HMMWVs led to the development of a family of more survivable vehicles with greater payload and mobility. JLTV was original reported as a one-for-one HMMWV replacement, however US DOD officials now emphasize that JLTVs are not intended to replace all HMMWVs.
The Joint Chief of Staff's Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) approved the JLTV program In November 2006, this beginning a 13-month Concept Refinement phase which is a pre-systems acquisition process designed to further develop the initial concepts resident in the Initial Capabilities Document (ICD). The Concept Refinement phase also includes an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA). At the conclusion of the Concept Refinement phase in December 2007, the Joint Program Office (JPO) JLTV Project Manager (PM) intended to transition the program directly into the Engineering, Manufacturing, and Development (EMD) phase. However, as the calendar date for the milestone approached, it became clear that the Milestone Decision Authority (MDA), Defense Acquisition Executive (DAE), John Young, would not support the JLTV program entering into the acquisition process at that time. He denied the request and instructed the Army and the Marine Corps to develop a more vigorous Technology Development (TD) phase. 
The DOD released a Request for Proposal (RFP) for the TD phase of the JLTV program on 5 February 2008. Industry proposals were due no later than 7 April. TD phase contract award was postponed in July 2008.
The following companies and partnerships responded to the TD phase RFP:
- Boeing, Textron and Millenworks
- General Dynamics and AM General (as 'General Tactical Vehicles')
- Force Protection Inc and DRS Technologies (officially rejected on 14 August 2008).
- BAE Systems and Navistar
- Northrop Grumman, Oshkosh Truck and Plasan
- Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems Land & Armaments Global Tactical Systems, Alcoa Defense and JWF Industries.
- Blackwater and Raytheon
On 29 October 2008, the Pentagon narrowed the field of vendors to Lockheed Martin, General Tactical Vehicles and BAE Systems/Navistar. Each team were awarded contracts worth between $35.9 million and $45 million to begin the next phase of the program, which at the time was stated to be worth $20 billion or more. The Northrop Grumman/Oshkosh group contested the awards but, their protest was denied by the Government Accountability Office on 17 February 2009.
Australia signed an agreement in February 2009 to fund nine of the first 30 JLTV prototypes. While a final decision has yet to be made, the Australian Government is now pursuing the Hawkei a domestically developed vehicle through Thales-Australia India became interested in the program in 2009. India is currently pursuing an indigenous solution. Israel and the UK have also expressed interest in the program.
On 1 June 2010 it was confirmed that all three contractors had delivered seven JLTV platforms for TD phase evaluation. The U.S. Army appeared to have reduced its support for the program at this time, omitting JLTV numbers from its tactical vehicle strategy published in June 2010. However, the U.S. Army clarified that JLTVs are slated to both replace and complement the Humvee.
JLTV's TD phase lasted 27 months and in May 2011 it was completed. In February 2011, the JLTV Program Office announced the award of the follow-on Engineering and Manufacturing Development phase contract would be delayed until January or February 2012 because the Army changed requirements for the JLTV, requiring it to have the same level of under body protection as the Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected All-Terrain Vehicle (M-ATV).
Upon exiting the TD phase CDD version 3.3 was published. By the time CDD version 3.3 was published, payload options had been reduced to only two. CDD version 3.3 dropped payload verbiage and replaced it with variants. From that point on there were only two required variants; The Combat Tactical Vehicle (CTV) configuration, which would replace the previous Category A and Category B configurations, would be a 4-seat vehicle with a 3,500 pound payload. The Category B variant was eliminated because it proved to be too heavy to meet the required weight of approximately 15,639 pounds to make it transportable by Army CH-47F and Marine Corps CH-53K helicopters. The Combat Support Vehicle (CSV), which would replace the previous Category C configuration, would be a 2-seat vehicle with a 5,100 pound payload. The two variants that appeared in CDD version 3.3 now had requirements for configurations. Configuration refers to the different types of mission packages that will be installed into each of the two variants. CDD version 3.3 required six configurations.
The draft Request for Proposals (RFP) for JLTV's EMD phase was released on 2 October 2011. This called for an average unit manufacturing cost between $230,000 and $270,000 across the JLTV family of vehicles. The cost target for the B-kit armor package remains at USD65,000. EMD phase requirements also created some trade space for industry by easing weight and mobility constraints. At this time JLTV was in danger of severe budget cuts and possible full cancellation in the wake of spiraling costs, delays and defense-wide budgetary cutbacks; it was also competing against the HMMWV Modernized Expanded Capacity Vehicle (MECV) program, the draft RfP for which was released on 11 August 2011. On 26 January 2012 the Request for Proposals for JLTV's EMD phase was released. Budget priorities for FY13 released on the same day included the termination of the HMMWV MECV Recap program in order to focus vehicle modernization resources on JLTV.
Not all of the TD phase contract award teamings remained in place for the EMD phase. By late March 2012 (bids due 27 March), it was clear that at least six teams had submitted responses to the EMD phase RFP, and following EMD phase contract awards on 23 August 2012, in September Hardwire LLC disclosed itself as a previously unknown seventh bidder. The bidders were:
- AM General (still at the time teamed with GTV for a separate offering) offered the Blast-Resistant Vehicle - Off Road (BRV-O), a product based on its own R&D, and a design that leveraged some of AM General's then recent experience with HMMWV MECV designs.
- BAE Systems (previously teamed with Navistar) realigned its team for the EMD phase to include Ford (Ford Motor Company's Power Stroke 6.7 liter turbocharged diesel engine; Ford had been considering participating in the JLTV's EMD competition with its own offering) and proposed a design that capitalized on earlier TD phase work with the Valanx.
- GTV dropped its TD phase developed design and opted to offer a lowest risk solution, a further development of the in-production MOWAG Eagle.
- Lockheed Martin opted to stay with its TD phase offering, albeit a version that according to the company, was 'hundreds of pounds lighter in weight.'
- Navistar, which broke away from BAE Systems for the EMD phase, offered a variant of its Saratoga light tactical vehicle, this unveiled in October 2011 as a middle-ground offering between the HMMWV and JLTV, the latter with its then current TD phase spec still technically in place.
- Oshkosh proposed a variant of the company's L-ATV, unveiled in October 2011. L-ATV has developmental origins that trace back to Oshkosh/Northrop-Grumman's failed initial JLTV proposal.
- Hardwire offered a proposal featuring a hybrid-electric drive train. Hardwire's armor solutions have been employed on MRAP vehicles, and the company is known for developing an innovative 'blast chimney' that it designed to provide an outlet for energy released in an underbelly blast. 
Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) phase
On 23 August 2012, the Army and Marine Corps selected the Lockheed Martin JLTV, the Oshkosh Defense L-ATV, and the AM General BRV-O as the winners of the Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) phase of the competition. The three companies were awarded a contract to build 22 prototype vehicles in 27 months to be judged by the services. Losing bidder Navistar filed a protest with the Government Accountability Office (GAO) over the evaluation criteria on 31 August 2012; the company withdrew the protest on 4 September 2012.
On 26 June 2013, Lockheed Martin completed the last of 22 JLTVs produced for the EMD phase. On 8 August 2013, Oshkosh delivered its first L-ATV JLTV prototype to the Army for government testing following a successful vehicle inspection by the Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA). The four-door multi-purpose variant and two-door utility variant were provided for evaluations. On 14 August 2013, both AM General and Lockheed delivered their 22 vehicles to the Army and Marine Corps to participate in a 14-month government evaluation and testing process.
On 27 August 2013, the Army and Marine Corps announced that full-scale testing of JLTV prototypes would begin the following week, with all three vendors having had 66 vehicles delivered. Each company delivered 22 vehicles and six trailers to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. Previous testing had already put the vehicles through more than 400 ballistic and blast tests on armor testing samples, underbody blast testing, and more than 1,000 miles in shakedown testing. Soldiers from the Army Test and Evaluation Command and personnel from the Defense Department's Office of Test and Evaluation would put the vehicles through realistic and rigorous field testing during 14 months of government performance testing. Testing was to be completed by FY 2015, with a production contract to be awarded to a single vendor for nearly 55,000 vehicles, with each vehicle coming off the assembly line not exceeding $250,000. The Army is to begin receiving JLTVs by FY 2018, and have all their vehicles planned to be delivered in the 2030s. On 3 September 2013, full-pace, full-scope JLTV testing began at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Yuma Proving Ground, and Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. The program is on track despite sequestration, but if budget issues are not worked out the schedule could slip. One vendor will be selected by July 2015, and produce 2,000 vehicles for three years of additional testing to fine-tune the assembly line and full-up the system.
Testing of the JLTV was temporarily halted in early October during the two-week U.S. Government shutdown of 2013. Civilian workers were furloughed and test sites were closed within hours. Work restarted immediately when the shutdown ended, though one site remained closed until 22 October. The Army and Marine Corps have vowed commitment to buying nearly 55,000 JLTVs even in the face of sequestration cuts. This level of support is given while major acquisition programs like the Ground Combat Vehicle were in danger of cuts (and eventually cancelled), which potentially meant the Army was favoring replacing Humvees more than the M2 Bradley. Army leaders worried that the Marines' priority with the Amphibious Combat Vehicle program could cause them to back out of JLTV procurement. However, the Marines said procurement plans for the two efforts did not overlap and should not conflict with each other. The number of light vehicles that will need to be reduced due to cuts is still being determined, but it is hoped that the cuts will be directed to the existing Humvee fleet rather than planned JLTV numbers.
On 1 October 2013, the Defense Department Inspector General launched a year-long audit of the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle program. It was one of about a dozen acquisition programs outlined in the IG's FY 2014 "audit plan." The audit was to determine whether Army and Marine officials were overseeing and managing the program effectively before low-rate production begins. A June 2013 report by the Congressional Research Service estimated the program cost at $23 billion, or $400,000 per vehicle; military leaders contend the unit cost will be $250,000. With fiscal pressures, program efforts are being challenged and focus is being put into oversight. The Army planned to issue a request for proposals to companies interested in bidding for production contracts in mid-November 2014, and to pick a winner possibly by July 2015. Discrepancies in unit cost have been attributed to different methods for analyzing cost. The Pentagon IG report concluded program officials "appropriately assessed the affordability" of the effort, and that average unit production cost remains stable at $250,000. All three vehicles completed Limited User Testing (LUT) and Production Readiness Reviews (PRRs) by mid-November 2014. The JLTV program, like every other weapons program, is still in danger of cuts with the return of sequestration in 2016.
The Army released the final JLTV RFP on 12 December 2014, clearing the way for AM General, Lockheed Martin, and Oshkosh Defense to submit their vehicle proposals. After a Milestone C decision and a firm-fixed-price contract is awarded in late 2015, the award will cover 17,000 vehicles for the Army and Marines during three years of low-rate production and five years of full-rate production. Both services are to receive operational vehicles in 2018. The Marines are procuring 5,500 until 2022, and the Army buying 49,099 until 2040. The three companies all submitted their final bids by 11 February 2015. On 25 February 2015, Secretary of the Army John McHugh told reporters that the U.S. Army will prioritize funding for JLTV if 2011 sequestration budget caps return in fiscal year 2016 (FY 2016).
According to Forecast International, TACOM has rescheduled JLTV's Milestone C decision for January 2018. The U.S. Army now expects the JLTV to achieve Initial Operational Capability in 2019. According to U.S. Department of Defense FY16 budget request documentation from February 2015, the current revised procurement objective for stands at 53,582 vehicles - 49,099 vehicles for the U.S. Army and 4,483 vehicles for the U.S. Marine Corps. The U.S. Army still expects Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) of the JLTV to commence in FY15. TACOM expects the JLTV will now enter full-rate production by FY18. The U.S. GAO estimates the Department of Defense will allocate about $53.5 billion for the JLTV program - $1.082 billion for RDT&E and at least $52.298 billion for procurement. Forecast International Weapons Group expects reduced defense budgets to cause lower initial production rates with a delay in the start of full-rate production.
Joint Light Tactical Vehicle design requirements included the following.
JLTV has been designed to comply with U.S. Army's Long Term Armor Strategy (LTAS).
The USMC requires a vehicle that can be transported by their current and planned systems. In April 2009, Marine Corps Commandant Gen. James Conway warned that the Marines “will not buy a vehicle that's 20,000 lb.”
The cabin heater can raise the crew compartment temperature from minus 40 to 65 degrees in one hour. The air-conditioner can drop the temperature from 120 to 90 degrees within 40 minutes. 
The JLTV will be equipped with a diagnostic monitoring system that will electronically alert the operator of equipment failures so that they can be fixed. The electronic monitoring will observe the fuel, air intake, engine, cooling, transmission, energy storage, power generation and vehicle speed as well as other systems.
The JLTV is to fill a capability gap in the light vehicle fleet for the 21st century strategy for a vehicle that balances performance, payload, and protection. It is to provide the same level of protection as an M-ATV while being more mobile and transportable, and have better network integration than the Humvee.
The Pentagon requires at least 600 mean miles before an essential function failure. The vehicle will be capable of traveling one terrain feature after having endured a single small caliber arms sized perforation to the fuel tank, engine oil reservoir, or coolant system. It will be able to run on two flat tires. The JLTV must also operate in altitudes from minus 500 feet to 12,000 feet and maintain full mission capability in temperatures from minus 40 degrees to 125 degrees F, according to established requirements. When temperatures drop well below zero, the JLTV must start within one minute with no external aids, kits or prior warming of the batteries. The vehicle must be capable of traveling 350 paved miles at 35 mph or 300 miles in operational terrain on a single tank of JP-8 fuel. Acceleration from 0 to 30 mph in seven seconds on dry, level, hard terrain is required, as is the ability to ford 60 inches of saltwater without a fording kit, in forward and reverse, while maintaining contact with the ground.
Other tactically driven mobility requirements include a 25-foot turning radius and the ability to climb 24-inch vertical obstacles in forward and reverse. JLTV must be able to drive off an 18-inch vertical step at 15 mph and sustain no mechanical damage. It will be capable of traversing a 20-degree V-ditch that is 25 feet wide at an approach angle of 45 degree. It can 'jump' a 6-inch parallel curb at 15 mph and traverse a 20-foot flight of stairs at 5 mph. It must climb a 60 percent dry, hard-surfaced gradient and traverse a 40 percent sideslope with no degradation in driver control.
JLTV is transportable by sea, rail, and air. The JLTV will be transportable on all classes of ocean-going transport ships with minimal dis-assembly. It is required to be rail-transportable on CONUS and NATO country railways. Air transportability will be by fixed-wing aircraft as large as or larger than the C-130 Hercules and sling-loadable with rotary-wing aircraft such as the CH-47/MH-47, and CH-53. The ambulance variant must be air-dropable by C-5 and C-17 fixed-wing aircraft. The JLTV can be prepared in 30 minutes for transport by aircraft, Maritime Prepositioning Force ships or rail. This is aided by an adjustable-height suspension.
Countermeasures and Survivability
The JLTV utilizes signature reduction techniques and materials. The JLTV mounts up to four M7 Light Vehicle Obscuration Smoke Systems.
The LTAS protection system follows an A-kit/B-kit principle, with vehicles designed 'fitted for, but not with', protection. Protection kits can be installed and uninstalled from vehicles in the field using only basic tools. The A-kit is fitted on the production line and is a combination of a limited amount of armouring, in difficult-to-access areas of the vehicle, together with a significant amount of armour installation attachments and required support structures. The bulk of the armour, the B-kit, is installed in the field on an 'as required' basis. Two soldiers can install B-kit armor in five hours. An 800-pound RPG protection kit can be installed in two hours at field-level maintenance and completed by the crew within 30 minutes.
The benefits of the A-kit/B-kit principle are that armour is only fitted when required, reducing vehicle wear and tear and, by default, whole life cycle costs. Improvements and/or upgrades to armour are also far easier to integrate into an appliqué solution. No quantity for JLTV armouring kits has yet been disclosed, but it is anticipated that the estimated $65,000 kits will be procured on a 'one kit to three vehicle' basis. The overall protection solution will include a spall liner to minimize perforation effects within a vehicle when the vehicle takes hostile fire.
The JLTV also has an automatic fire-extinguishing system to protect the crew cabin and engine compartment. Fires in the engine compartment are to be detected and extinguished within 10 seconds to minimize vehicle damage. In addition, the driver also has access to a small portable fire extinguisher. Fixed fuel tanks are self-sealing, mounted externally and shielded by the JLTV structure. Each crew seat has a combined seat and blast restraint device. Ingress time for a crew of four in combat equipment is 30 seconds or less. Egress with B-kit doors is within 10 seconds.
The JLTV could have polyfibroblast applied to it, a type of self-healing paint developed by the Office of Naval Research and Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory made to decrease vehicle maintenance. Development began in 2008 and created a powder consisting of microscopic liquid-filled polymer spheres that can be combined with standard primers. The substance lets paint scratches heal by breaking capsules and forming a coating over the exposed steel before corrosion takes place, cutting maintenance costs and allowing vehicles to operate in the field longer.
There are now two JLTV variants. In the Initial Capability Document (ICD) there were four payload options, this later reduced to three, Payload Category A, Payload Category B and Payload Category C. Variants share some capabilities, while certain configurations may have additional capabilities. All variants are transportable externally by CH-47 and CH-53 helicopters and internally by C-130 aircraft.
Payload Category A
Payload Category A vehicles were to fill the role of "Battlespace Awareness" with a payload capacity of 3,500 lb (1,600 kg).
General Purpose Mobility: General Purpose Mobility (JLTV-A-GP) was the only variant in Payload Category A, designed for general purpose utility vehicle for use by the Army and Marine Corps, with a four-person capacity. Unlike other variants, a C-130 is capable of transporting two vehicles at a time.
Payload Category B
Payload Category B vehicles was to fill the role of "Force Application" with a payload capacity of 4,000–4,500 lb (1,800–2,000 kg).
- Infantry Carrier: The Infantry Carrier (JLTV-B-IC) had a 6 person capacity, and was designed to carry a fire-team of troops. Each service may have gotten a different vehicle, or have used the same one.
- Reconnaissance, scout: Six-seat configuration for use by the U.S. Army.
- Reconnaissance, knight: Six-seat configuration for use by the U.S. Army.
- Command and Control on the Move: Four-seat command and control (JLTV-B-C2OTM) configuration for use by the U.S. Army.
- Heavy Guns Carrier: Heavy Guns Carrier for use by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps for convoy escort, military police, and patrol with four seats and a gunner position.
- Close combat weapons carrier: Four-seat close-combat weapons carrier for use by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps.
- Utility vehicle: Two-seat utility vehicle for use by the USMC.
- Ambulance: Ambulance configuration for use by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps. Three seats and two litters.
Payload Category C
Payload Category C vehicles were to fill the role of "Focused Logistics" with a payload of 5,100 lb (2,300 kg).
- Shelter carrier/utility/prime mover: Two-seat shelter carrier/utility/prime mover for use by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps.
- Ambulance: Higher capacity ambulance configuration for use by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps. Three seats and four litters.
By the time Capability Development Document (CDD) version 3.3 was published at the conclusion of JLTV's Technology Development (TD) phase payload options had been reduced to only two and payload verbage had been dropped, this replaced by reference to variants. From that point on the two current variants were required, the Combat Tactical Vehicle (CTV) and Combat Support Vehicle (CSV).
The previous Category B variant was eliminated because it proved to be too heavy to meet the required weight of approximately 15,639 lbs to make it transportable by Army Boeing Chinook CH-47F and Marine Corps Boeing CH-53K heavy-lift helicopters.
The Combat Tactical Vehicle (CTV) configuration replaces the previous Category A and Category B configurations and is a 4-seat vehicle with a 3,500 pound payload. The Combat Support Vehicle (CSV) replaces the previous Category C configuration and is a 2-seat vehicle with a 5,100 pound payload. The CTV and CSV variants that appeared in CDD version 3.3 had requirements for configurations. Configuration refers to the different types of mission packages that will be installed into each of the two variants. CDD version 3.3 required six configurations. CDD version 3.6 was published for entry into the EMD phase in August, this reducing from six to four the total number of to configurations required.
The two-seat variant now has one base vehicle platform: the Utility (UTL). The four-seat variant now has two base vehicle platforms: the Close Combat Weapons Carrier (CCWC) and the General Purpose (GP). Each base vehicle platform will be configured as a mission package configuration through the installation of mission packages. Mission packages include the GP, Heavy Guns Carrier (HGC), CCWC, and UTL.
General Tactical Vehicles JLTV during field trials.
The three variants of the Lockheed Martin JLTV.
AM General BRV-O JLTV on static display.
Oshkosh L-ATV Combat Tactical Vehicle (CTV) variant of the JLTV.
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