Hardwicke's woolly bat

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Hardwicke's Woolly Bat
Kerivoula hardwickii skull.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Vespertilionidae
Genus: Kerivoula
Species: K. hardwickii
Binomial name
Kerivoula hardwickii
(Horsfield, 1824)

Hardwicke's woolly bat (Kerivoula hardwickii) is a species of vesper bat in the family Vespertilionidae.

It is found in Bangladesh,[2] China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Singapore and Vietnam.

The bat typically inhabits the forest understory of these regions and roosts in hollow trees or dead clusters of leaves. As typical with understory bats, this species is slow flying and highly maneuverable.[3]

Known as රත් බොර කිරිවවුලා (meaning "reddish-brown kerivoula") in Sinhala.


The fur on the dorsal, or backside, of the bat is typically a smoky brown color while the ventral portion is a lighter greyish-brown color. A forearm length for this bat is typically 31–36 millimeters, and the ears are approximately 11–15 millimeters. This species also has a more prominent size difference in the size of its premolars than other Kerivoula species, such as Painted bat[4] Wing membrane is blackish-brown but translucent. The fur is very soft and of moderate length.

Association with pitcher plants[edit]

This small bat has been found roosting above the digestive fluid in the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes hemsleyana[5] (previously known as Nepenthes baramensis and informally as Nepenthes rafflesiana var. elongata),[6] which grows in the peat swamps and heath forests of Borneo.[7][8][9] This relationship appears to be mutualistic, with the plant providing shelter for the bats and in return receiving additional nitrogen input in the form of faeces. It has been estimated that the plant derives 33.8% of its total foliar nitrogen from the bats' droppings.[7]


  1. ^ Rosell-Ambal, G.; Tabaranza, B.; Heaney, L.; Molur, S. & Srinivasulu, C. (2008). "Kerivoula hardwickii". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T10974A3233035. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T10974A3233035.en. Retrieved 12 January 2018. 
  2. ^ http://eol.org/pages/1001185/details
  3. ^ Francis, Charles M. A field guide to the mammals of South-East Asia. New Holland Publishers, 2008.
  4. ^ Smith, Andrew T., and Yan Xie. A Guide to the Mammals of China. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2008. Print.
  5. ^ Scharmann, M. & T.U. Grafe 2013. Reinstatement of Nepenthes hemsleyana (Nepenthaceae), an endemic pitcher plant from Borneo, with a discussion of associated Nepenthes taxa. Blumea, published online on May 8, 2013. doi:10.3767/000651913X668465
  6. ^ Clarke, C., J.A. Moran & C.C. Lee 2011. Nepenthes baramensis (Nepenthaceae) – a new species from north-western Borneo. Blumea 56(3): 229–233. doi:10.3767/000651911X607121
  7. ^ a b Grafe, T.U., C.R. Schöner, G. Kerth, A. Junaidi & M.G. Schöner 2011. A novel resource–service mutualism between bats and pitcher plants. Biology Letters 7(3): 436–439. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.1141
  8. ^ Youngsteadt, E. 2011. Carnivorous plant feasts on bat dung Archived 2011-01-28 at the Wayback Machine.. ScienceNOW, January 25, 2011.
  9. ^ Davies, E. 2011. Bats in Borneo roost in carnivorous pitcher plants. BBC Earth News, January 26, 2011.