IBM i

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IBM i
IBM i.png
DeveloperIBM
OS familyOS/400
Working stateCurrent
Source modelClosed source
Initial release1988; 31 years ago (1988)
Latest release7.4 / April 23, 2019; 2 months ago (2019-04-23)
Marketing targetMinicomputer and enterprise server
Available inEnglish
PlatformsIBM Power Systems,
IBM PureSystems
Kernel typeshares many Microkernel (SLIC) and Virtual machine (TIMI) design philosophies
LicenseProprietary
Official websiteIBM i

IBM i is an operating system that runs on IBM Power Systems and IBM PureSystems. It was named OS/400 when it was introduced with the AS/400 line of computer systems in 1988, was later renamed i5/OS, and was renamed IBM i in 2008 when IBM Power Systems was introduced.

It is one of the operating systems supported on IBM Power Systems alongside AIX and Linux as well as on IBM PureSystems alongside AIX, Linux and Windows.

History[edit]

The early IBM System/36 and IBM System/38 series customers were a key target of the AS/400, so OS/400 (now known as IBM i), has built-in subsystems that provide backward compatibility with these earlier IBM general business systems. IBM i programs, like System/38 programs before them, contain both processor-independent "virtual" binary code and processor-dependent executable binary code. Compilers for IBM i produce the processor-independent code as their output; the operating system automatically translates the processor-independent code into the processor-dependent code as needed, without the need for source code or attention by IT personnel. Notably, when migrating from a legacy processor, the only effect that most organizations notice is that the program runs somewhat longer when it runs for the first time on the new computer. Migration consists of taking a backup from the old computer, and restoring it on the new.[1]

In 1999, IBM introduced logical partitioning (LPARs) with i5/OS to support multiple virtual systems on a single hardware footprint.

In 2014, IBM ported Node.js to IBM i.[2]

In 2018, IBM made available the Yum package manager and the capability to install open-source software via RPM packages.[3][4]

Features[edit]

IBM designed IBM i as a "turnkey" operating system, requiring little or no on-site attention from IT staff during normal operation. For example, IBM i has a built-in DB2 database which does not require separate installation. Disks are multiply redundant, and can be replaced on line without interrupting work. Hardware and software maintenance tasks are integrated. System administration has been wizard-driven for years, even before that term was defined. This automatic self-care policy goes so far as to automatically schedule all common system maintenance, detect many failures and even order spare parts and service automatically. Organizations using IBM i sometimes have sticker shock when confronting the cost of system maintenance on other systems.[1] However, the overall total cost of ownership for IBM i on IBM Power Systems is dramatically lower than other platforms. This is due to the integrated DB2 database and other components, system autonomy and lack of management personnel needed. [5]

Another remarkable feature is that this system was one of the earliest to be object-based. Unlike traditional operating systems like Unix and Windows NT there are no files, only objects of different types. It implemented one of the earliest-known systems for persistent objects. Further, the objects persist in very large, flat virtual memory, called a single-level store.[1]

Management Interfaces[edit]

IBM Navigator for i is a web-based tool for administration of the system, database, Apache web server, and WebSphere Application Server.

IBM i Access Client Solutions is a Java-based client and a user, development and systems management interface.

PASE[edit]

IBM i also provides an environment for AIX applications to run natively on the OS without the need for an AIX LPAR.[6]

AIX programs are binary compatible with IBM i when using its PASE (Portable Applications System Environment). PASE is essentially "an operating system within an operating system", supporting the most recent stable version of AIX. Most AIX 5L compatible binaries may be executed without modification or recompilation in the PASE environment. Exceptions to this are programs that contain direct calls to AIX kernel based APIs as there is no AIX kernel in PASE. If necessary an AIX program may be built directly in PASE using a standard AIX XL C/C++ compiler, for example if native APIs are to be used. In that case APIs are provided to translate between the AIX style pointers and the native 16 byte pointers. Support is provided for running both 32-bit and 64-bit AIX executables.

Open-source software[edit]

Open-source software available includes Apache HTTP Server, OpenSSL, Java, Ruby, PHP, Python, Node.js, gcc, Nginx, Git, and much more.[7]

Version[edit]

When IBM announced the new Power Systems line of servers on April 2, 2008, they renamed the operating system from i5/OS to IBM i[8] and changed the version identifier format from VxRxMx (Version, Release, Modification, e.g. V6R1M0) to the more standard format (e.g. 6.1).

The latest version of IBM i is 7.3, announced on April 12, 2016 and released on April 15, 2016 (Version Support Schedule).

With 7.1, IBM started delivering more updates to the operating system via Technology Refreshes. These Technology Refreshes enable further value to the operating system without the need of incurring point releases and allowing customers longer periods between upgrades. For 7.1, Technology Refresh 11 was released in October 2015. IBM i 7.2 Technology Refresh 9 was released in September 2018. IBM i 7.3 Technology Refresh 6 was released May 10, 2019.[9]

Version 7.2 was released in May 2014.[10]

Version 7.3 was released in April 2016.[11]

Version[12] Release date[13] End of Program
Support[14]
Old version, no longer supported: V1 1988-08-26 1993-05-31
Old version, no longer supported: V2R1 1991-05-24 1994-06-30
Old version, no longer supported: V2R1M1 1992-03-06 1994-06-30
Old version, no longer supported: V2R2 1992-12-18 1995-06-30
Old version, no longer supported: V2R3 1993-12-17 1996-05-31
Old version, no longer supported: V3R1 1995-06-21 1998-10-31
Old version, no longer supported: V3R2 1996-06-04 2000-05-31
Old version, no longer supported: V3R6 1995-12-22 1998-10-31
Old version, no longer supported: V3R7 1996-11-08 1999-06-30
Old version, no longer supported: V4R1 1997-08-29 2000-05-31
Old version, no longer supported: V4R2 1998-02-27 2000-05-31
Old version, no longer supported: V4R3 1998-09-11 2001-01-31
Old version, no longer supported: V4R4 1999-05-21 2001-05-31
Old version, no longer supported: V4R5 2000-07-28 2002-12-31
Old version, no longer supported: V5R1 2001-05-25 2005-09-30
Old version, no longer supported: V5R2 2002-08-30 2007-04-30
Old version, no longer supported: V5R3 2004-06-03 2009-04-30
Old version, no longer supported: V5R4 2007-04-20 2013-09-30
Old version, no longer supported: 6.1 2008-03-21 2015-09-30
Old version, no longer supported: 7.1 2010-04-23 2018-04-30
Older version, yet still supported: 7.2 2014-11-11 TBA
Older version, yet still supported: 7.3 2016-04-15 TBA
Current stable version: 7.4 2019-06-21 TBA
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still supported
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

See also[edit]

User groups[edit]

User groups have played a major part in the evolution of IBM i. COMMON is the world’s largest professional association of IBM technology users. It provides independent education, certification, advocacy and networking among users, IBM and related third-party solution providers.[15] The Large User Group (LUG),[16] whose membership consists of major corporations, is a major influence for current and future development of IBM i. Both COMMON and LUG work with IBM regularly to help provide constructive feedback and perspective to IBM i platform direction. The Young i Professionals (YIPS)[17] is a subset of COMMON that has been significant in influencing the direction of the IBM i.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Soltis, Frank, "Inside the AS/400"; Frank Soltis was the AS/400 system architect.
  2. ^ "Node.js". IBM i Technology Updates - Open Source Technologies.
  3. ^ "Open Source Has Never Tasted So Good!". IBM Systems Mangazine - Open Your i.
  4. ^ "IBM i Open Source using yum". IBM i Open Source.
  5. ^ "IBM i's TCO Advantage Widens, According to Reports". IT Jungle.
  6. ^ "IBM PASE for i". IBM.
  7. ^ "IBM i Open Source using yum". IBM i Open Source.
  8. ^ IBM Introduces the First in a New Generation of Power Systems
  9. ^ "IBM i Technology Refresh". http://www-01.ibm.com/common/ssi/ShowDoc.wss?docURL=/common/ssi/rep_ca/4/877/ENUSZP19-0254/index.html&lang=en&request_locale=en. IBM. External link in |website= (help); Missing or empty |url= (help)
  10. ^ "Planned Availability Date". IBM i 7.2 TR3 and IBM i 7.1 TR11 offer performance, usability, and integration enhancements.
  11. ^ "IBM i 7.3". IBM i 7.3 can deliver significant client value for database and security, and support for industry-leading workloads like analytics and mobile computing.
  12. ^ IBM i Technology Updates
  13. ^ IBM i Software lifecycle
  14. ^ IBM i Upgrade planning:Releases
  15. ^ "COMMON". COMMON. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
  16. ^ "LUG". LUG. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
  17. ^ "Young i Professionals (YIPS)". YIPS. Retrieved 2013-11-13.

External links[edit]