Iberian horses are thought to be among the oldest types of domesticated horses. Modern Iberian breeds tend to be of a Baroque horse type that resemble their most famous member, the Andalusian horse, in conformation.
The Lusitano, Sorraia and Garrano are of Portuguese origin, and the remaining are of Spanish. These include the Asturcón, Burguete, Caballo de Monte del País Vasco, Pura Raza Gallega, Pura Raza Española (Andalusian horse), Hispano-Árabe, Hispano-Bretón, Jaca Navarra, Losino, Monchino and Pottoka, as well as the Cavall Mallorquí, Mallorquín and Menorquín (subsets of the Balearic breed). Outside the FAO list, but in the Spanish catalog, a spinoff from the Sorraia, the Marismeño, has also been identified living in the environs of the Doñana National Park 
Roman writers mention in Hispania war horses, wild horses, and ''tieldones'' and small ''asturcones'' in the north.
List of commonly accepted Iberian horse breeds
|Breed||Country of registry||Breeding method||Number (approx.)||Comments|
|Andalusian horse (Pura Raza Española)||Spain, other countries||199,852|
|Basque Mountain Horse||Spain||semiferal||> 600||meat horse|
|Burguete||Spain||open field||4,814||Heavy work and meat horse. Has some mixture of Breton blood|
|Galician Pony (Pura Raza Gallega)||Spain||semiferal||1,526||Under the term faco or del país there are a number (perhaps over 20.000 ) of closely related semiferal horses not on the Stud Book|
|Hispano-Árabe||Spain, other countries||7,286||Of mixed Spanish / Arabian horse blood|
|Hispano-Bretón||Spain||open field||14,902||Work and meat. Of mixed Breton-native blood|
|Lusitano||Portugal, other countries||23,619||Includes Alter Real strain|
|Pirenenc Catalá||Spain||open field||7,133||Still not on FAO list but recognized in Spain since 2012. The type has partly blood from French heavy breeds|
|Pottoka||Spain, France||some semiferal||>2.600|
|Retuerta horse (Caballo de las retuertas)||Spain||feral||60-140||First described in 2005. Official recognition as distinct breed in 2016 |
- 'FAO breed list', accessed March 15, 2012, cites 3 Portuguese and 20 spanish breeds
- 'R.D. 2129/2008'[permanent dead link], accessed March 13, 2012, which is the official Spanish list. Only fomento and en peligro de extinción sections, which are the iberian breeds, list 15 breeds. The remaining breeds are of well-known foreign blood, or like the deporte español are recent developments
- Both lists are divergent, partly because the Spanish list is more recent-last changed July 2016- and partly because FAO list as different entities two Mallorquin horses -in Spanish and Catalan- as different breeds. The FAO lists also lacks another breed, Troton Español, which is bred solely in Mallorca
- Genetic characterization of the Spanish Trotter horse breed using microsatellite markers, Genetics and Molecular Biology, accessed November 5, 2009.
- Lopez, María S. et al.. "Mitochondrial DNA Insight On The Evolutionary History Of The Iberian Horses." Poroceedings of the XIV Plant and Animal Genome Conference, 2006. Web page accessed June 17, 2007 at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-06-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Royo, L.J., I. Álvarez, A. Beja-Pereira, A. Molina, I. Fernández, J. Jordana, E. Gómez, J. P. Gutiérrez, and F. Goyache (2005). "The Origins of Iberian Horses Assessed via Mitochondrial DNA". Journal of Heredity. 96 (6): 663–669. doi:10.1093/jhered/esi116. PMID 16251517. Retrieved 2008-12-15.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- The Retuertas horse; the "missing link" in the iberoamerican horse breed origin?, Vega-Plà et al 2005, available at eeap.org Archived 2014-04-07 at the Wayback Machine
- (A. Rodero et al, 2008) needs full cite
- Following classifications apply for the Breeding:
- For Spanish breeds, unless otherwise noted, we took the most actual data in 'the Spanish Official Breed Catalog on-line' (in spanish), accessed March 15, 2012. Data thus are from 2010 or 2011. Those gotten from FAO are data from 2001
- 'La Voz de Galicia', in Spanish, accessed February 12, 2016
- 'Fundaçao Alter Real' Archived 2012-03-26 at the Wayback Machine, in Portuguese, accessed May 16, 2012
- "Boe BOE-A-2016-7639". Retrieved 2017-01-14.
- Oelke, Hardy. "The Sorraia Horse, General Information". Sorraia Folheto Informativo. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
- 'Proceedings of the Regional Parliament of Madrid' (in Spanish) [permanent dead link]