|Artery||Radial artery of index finger, |
proper palmar digital arteries,
dorsal digital arteries
|Vein||Palmar digital veins, dorsal digital veins|
|Nerve||Dorsal digital nerves of radial nerve, proper palmar digital nerves of median nerve|
|Latin||Digitus II manus, digitus secundus manus, index|
The index finger (also referred to as forefinger, first finger, pointer finger, trigger finger, digitus secundus, digitus II, and many other terms), is the first finger and the second digit of a human hand. It is located between the first and third digits, between the thumb and the middle finger. It is usually the most dextrous and sensitive finger of the hand, though not the longest – it is shorter than the middle finger, and may be shorter or longer than the ring finger – see digit ratio.
The index finger has three phalanges. The index finger does not contain any muscles, but is controlled by muscles in the hand by attachments of tendons to the bones.
A lone index finger held vertically is often used to represent the number 1 (but finger counting differs across cultures), or when held up or moved side to side (finger-wagging), it can be an admonitory gesture. With the hand held palm out and the thumb and middle fingers touching, it represents the letter d in the American Sign Language alphabet.
Pointing with index finger may be used to indicate an item or person.
Around the age of one year, babies begin pointing to communicate relatively complex thoughts, including interest, desire, information, and more. Pointing in human babies can demonstrate the theory of mind, or ability to understand what other people are thinking. This gesture may form one basis for the development of human language. Non-human primates, lacking the ability to formulate ideas about what others are thinking, use pointing in much less complex ways. However, dogs and elephants do understand finger pointing.
In the Netherlands sticking up your index finger with your palm faced towards someone is a greeting.
Index finger in Islam
In Islam raising the index finger signifies the Tawhīd (تَوْحِيد), which denotes the indivisible oneness of God. It is used to express the unity of God ("there is no god but Allah"). The gesture has recently become widespread among supporters of political Islam and jihad, particularly members of ISIS, though its use does not necessarily signal extremism.
In Arabic, the index or fore finger is called musabbiḥa (مُسَبِّحة), mostly used with the definite article: al-musabbiḥa (الْمُسَبِّحة). Sometimes also as-sabbāḥa (السَّبّاحة) is used. The Arabic verb سَبَّحَ - which shares the same root as the Arabic word for index finger - means to praise or glorify God by saying: "Subḥāna Allāh" (سُبْحانَ الله).
Ancient Roman Use
Gestures in art
As an artistic convention, the index finger pointing at the viewer is in the form of a command or summons. Two famous examples of this are recruiting posters used during World War I by the United Kingdom and the United States.
- Digit ratio, comparative lengths of the index finger and ring finger and androgen levels in utero
- Extensor indicis muscle
- Fingering (disambiguation)
- Index (typography)
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- "first finger - definition of first finger in English | Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 2017-06-08.
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- Drißner, Gerald (2016). Islam for Nerds - 500 Questions and Answers. Berlin: createspace. p. 521. ISBN 978-1530860180.
- Zelinsky, Nathaniel (3 September 2014). "ISIS Sends a Message: What Gestures Say About Today's Middle East". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 12 August 2015.
- Brusati, Celeste; Enenkel, Karl A. E.; Melion, Walter (Nov 11, 2011). The Authority of the Word: Reflecting on Image and Text in Northern Europe, 1400-1700. Brill. p. 168. ISBN 9004215158.
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