Combined injectable contraceptive
|Combined Injectable Contraceptive|
|First use||about 1980|
|Failure rates (first year)|
|Duration effect||1 month|
|Advantages and disadvantages|
|Benefits||Especially good if poor pill compliance.|
Combined injectable contraceptive (CIC) monthly injection of a progestin and a synthetic estrogen taken to suppress fertility. Brand names include Cyclofem, Novafem, Mesigyna, Lunelle and Cyclo-Provera.
Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a different injectable contraceptive, containing just a progestin, given every three months.
Hormonal contraception works primarily by preventing ovulation, but it may also thicken the cervical mucus inhibiting sperm penetration. Hormonal contraceptives also have effects on the endometrium, that theoretically could affect implantation,
List of CICs
- Hydroxyprogesterone caproate 250 mg and estradiol valerate 5 mg (Chinese Injectable No. 1) – available in China
- Dihydroxyprogesterone acetophenide 150 mg and estradiol enanthate 10 mg (Deladroxate) – available in Latin America and Spain
- Medroxyprogesterone acetate 25 mg and estradiol cypionate 5 mg (Cyclo-Provera, Cyclofem, Feminena, Lunelle, Novafem)
- Norethisterone enanthate 50 mg and estradiol valerate 5 mg (Mesigyna)
- Megestrol acetate 25 mg and estradiol 3.5 mg (Mego-E)
CIC is administered by intramuscular injection into the deltoid, gluteus maximus, or anterior thigh. It is ideally administered every 28 to 30 days, though it has been demonstrated to be effective up to 33 days.
The most prominent side effects are menstrual irregularities during the first 3 to 6 months of use.
||The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (March 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
- October 5, 2000, Pharmacia received FDA approval for Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection.
- April 2003, Pharmacia acquired by Pfizer (makers of Depo-Provera (DMPA)).
- October 2003, Lunelle was discontinued in the U.S.
- Concept Foundation
- Extended cycle combined hormonal contraceptive
- Depo-Provera, a Long-acting reversible contraceptive that is injected every 3 months.
- Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition
- "FDA Approves Combined Monthly Injectable Contraceptive". Contraception Report. 12 (3). 2001. Archived from the original on September 26, 2006.
- Tamara Callahan MD , Aaron Caughey MD , Blueprints Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2013
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- Dc Dutta's Textbook of Obstetrics, 2014
- K. A. Petrie, A. H. Torgal, C. L. Westhoff, Matched-pairs analysis of ovarian suppressionduring oral vs. vaginal hormonal contraceptive use, „Contraception” 2011, t. 84, p. e2-3
- R. L. Birtch, O. A. Olatunbosum, R. A. Pierson, Ovarian follicular dynamics during conventional vs continuous oral contraceptive use, „Contraception” 2006, t. 73, p. 235. p. 239.
- K. Bugge, K. S. Richter, J. Bromer, et al., Pregnancy rates following in vitro fertilization are reduced with a thin endometrium, but are unrelated to endometrial thickness above 10 millimeters,„Fertility and Sterility” 2004, t. 82, p. S199.
- T. Fiumino, A. Kuwata, A. Teranischi et al., Significance of endometrium thickness to evaluate endometrial receptivity for embryos in natural cycle, „Fertility and Sterility” 2008, t. 90,p. S159.
- K. S. Richter, K. R. Bugge, J. G. Bromer, Relationship between endometrial thickness and embryo implantation, based on 1. 294 cycles of in vitro fertilization with transfer of two blastocyst-stage embryos, „Fertility and Sterility” 2007, t. 87, p. 53.
- Rivera R, Yacobson I, Grimes D (1999). "The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 181 (5 Pt 1): 1263–9. doi:10.1016/S0002-9378(99)70120-1. PMID 10561657.
- Newton JR, D'arcangues C, Hall PE (1994). "A review of "once-a-month" combined injectable contraceptives". J Obstet Gynaecol (Lahore). 4 Suppl 1: S1–34. doi:10.3109/01443619409027641. PMID 12290848.
- Rowlands, S (2009). "New technologies in contraception". BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 116 (2): 230–239. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2008.01985.x. ISSN 1470-0328.