Isobutyraldehyde

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Isobutyraldehyde
Isobutyraldehyde 200.svg
Ball-and-stick model of the isobutyraldehyde molecule
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
2-Methylpropanal
Other names
2-Methylpropionaldehyde
Identifiers
  • 78-84-2 checkY
3D model (JSmol)
605330
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.001.045 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 201-149-6
1658
RTECS number
  • NQ4025000
UNII
UN number 2045
  • InChI=1S/C4H8O/c1-4(2)3-5/h3-4H,1-2H3 checkY
    Key: AMIMRNSIRUDHCM-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
  • InChI=1/C4H8O/c1-4(2)3-5/h3-4H,1-2H3
    Key: AMIMRNSIRUDHCM-UHFFFAOYAE
  • CC(C)C=O
Properties
C4H8O
Molar mass 72.11 g/mol
Appearance colourless liquid
Odor Pungent; straw-like
Density 0.79 g/cm3
Melting point −65 °C (−85 °F; 208 K)
Boiling point 63 °C (145 °F; 336 K)
moderate
Solubility in other solvents miscible in organic solvents
-46.38·10−6 cm3/mol
1.374
Hazards
Main hazards flammable
GHS pictograms GHS02: FlammableGHS07: Exclamation mark
GHS Signal word Danger
H225, H319
P210, P233, P240, P241, P242, P243, P264, P280, P303+P361+P353, P305+P351+P338, P337+P313, P370+P378, P403+P235, P501
Flash point −19 °C; −2 °F; 254 K
Related compounds
Related alkyl aldehydes
Lilial

Hexyl cinnamaldehyde
2-Methylundecanal

Related compounds
Butyraldehyde
Propionaldehyde
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
checkY verify (what is checkY☒N ?)
Infobox references

Isobutyraldehyde is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCHO. It is an aldehyde, isomeric with n-butyraldehyde (butanal).[1] Isobutyraldehyde is made, often as a side-product, by the hydroformylation of propene. Its odour is described as that of wet cereal or straw. It undergoes the Cannizaro reaction even though it has alpha hydrogen atom. It is a colorless volatile liquid.

Synthesis[edit]

Isobutyraldehyde is produced industrially by the hydroformylation of propene. Several million tons are produced annually.[2]

Biological routes[edit]

In the context of butanol fuel, isobutyraldehyde is of interest as a precursor to isobutanol. E. coli as well as several other organisms has been genetically modified to produce isobutanol. α-Ketoisovalerate, derived from oxidative deamination of valine, is prone to decarboxylation to give isobutyraldehyde, which is susceptible to reduction to the alcohol:[3]

(CH3)2CHC(O)CO2H → (CH3)2CHCHO + CO2
(CH3)2CHCHO + NADH + H+ → (CH3)2CHCH2OH + NAD+

Other routes[edit]

It can also be produced using engineered bacteria.[4]

Strong mineral acids catalyse the rearrangement of methallyl alcohol to isobutyraldehyde.

Reactions[edit]

Hydrogenation of the aldehyde gives isobutanol. Oxidation gives methacrolein or methacrylic acid. Condensation with formaldehyde gives hydroxypivaldehyde.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Isobutyraldehyde is a retained trivial name under the IUPAC rules.Panico R, Powell WH, Richer JC, eds. (1993). "Recommendation R-9.1". A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds. IUPAC/Blackwell Science. ISBN 0-632-03488-2.
  2. ^ a b Boy Cornils, Richard W. Fischer, Christian Kohlpaintner "Butanals" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2000, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_447
  3. ^ Atsumi, Shota; Hanai, Taizo; Liao, James C. (January 2008). "Non-fermentative pathways for synthesis of branched-chain higher alcohols as biofuels". Nature. 451 (7174): 86–89. Bibcode:2008Natur.451...86A. doi:10.1038/nature06450. PMID 18172501. S2CID 4413113.
  4. ^ Atsumi, Shota; Wendy Higashide; James C. Liao (November 2009). "Direct photosynthetic recycling of carbon dioxide to isobutyraldehyde". Nature Biotechnology. 27 (12): 1177–1180. doi:10.1038/nbt.1586. PMID 19915552.