The source of Jones' rank of colonel is uncertain. He does not appear on lists of officers of the United States Army - either regular or volunteer. He may have had a commission in the Confederate Army or the Missouri State Guard which was formed from secessionist Missourians.
The Kingdom of Callaway was a county in Missouri which did not agree with the politics of either side in the American Civil War. As a result, it split off on its own for a time. What makes Callaway unique is that the Union general John B. Henderson signed a peace treaty with the Kingdom in October 1861, thus lending legitimacy to its existence.
Later the Union invaded Callaway and Jones' administration was unable to stop them.
Jones was subsequently captured by Union forces and convicted for treason at a court martial. He was originally sentenced to solitary confinement but the sentence was reduced to his being confined to the limits of the city of St. Louis. He remained in St. Louis for the remainder of the war.
After the war, he was active in Democratic Party politics and was elected a state representative in 1875. He suffered a heart attack while giving a speech in 1876 and died in 1879.
- Strauss, Erwin S. "How to Start Your Own Country." Paladin Press, 1997.