Jubba River

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Jubba River
Jubbarivermap.png
Map of the Jubba/Shebelle drainage basin
Location
CountrySomalia
Physical characteristics
Source 
 - locationConfluence of Dawa River and Ganale Dorya River
 - coordinates4°10′38″N 42°04′51″E / 4.1771°N 42.0809°E / 4.1771; 42.0809
Mouth 
 - locationIndian Ocean
 - coordinates0°14′58″S 42°37′51″E / 0.2495°S 42.6307°E / -0.2495; 42.6307Coordinates: 0°14′58″S 42°37′51″E / 0.2495°S 42.6307°E / -0.2495; 42.6307

The Jubba River (Somali: Wabiga Jubbada, Italian: Giuba) is a river in southern Somalia. It begins at the border with Ethiopia, where the Dawa and Ganale Dorya rivers meet, and flows directly south to the Indian Ocean, where it empties at the Goobweyn juncture.

History[edit]

The Jubba river near Jamaame.

Ajuran Empire[edit]

The Jubba River has a rich history of a once-booming sophisticated civilization and trade network conducted by the powerful Somalis that held sway over the Jubba river.

During the Middle Ages Jubba river was under the Ajuran Empire of the Horn of Africa which utilized the Jubba River for its plantations and was the only hydraulic empire in Africa. A hydraulic empire that rose in the 13th century AD, Ajuran monopolized the water resources of the Jubba River and Shebelle. Through hydraulic engineering, it also constructed many of the limestone wells and cisterns of the state that are still operative and in use today. Its rulers developed new systems for agriculture and taxation, which continued to be used in parts of the Horn of Africa as late as the 19th century.[1]

Through their control of the region's wells, the Garen rulers effectively held a monopoly over their nomadic subjects as they were the only hydraulic empire in Africa during their reign. Large wells made out of limestone were constructed throughout the state, which attracted Somali nomads with their livestock. The centralized regulations of the wells made it easier for the nomads to settle disputes by taking their queries to government officials who would act as mediators. Long distance caravan trade, a long-time practice in the Horn of Africa, continued unchanged in Ajuran times. Today, numerous ruined and abandoned towns throughout the interior of Somalia and the Horn of Africa are evidence of a once-booming inland trade network dating from the medieval period.[2]

With the centralized supervision of the Ajuran, farms in Afgooye, Bardhere and other areas in the Jubba and Shebelle valleys increased their productivity. A system of irrigation ditches known locally as Kelliyo fed directly from the Shebelle River and Jubba River into the plantations where sorghum, maize, beans, grain and cotton were grown during the gu (Spring in Somali) and xagaa (Summer in Somali) seasons of the Somali calendar. This irrigation system was supported by numerous dikes and dams. To determine the average size of a farm, a land measurement system was also invented with moos, taraab and guldeed being the terms used.

The urban centers of Mogadishu, Merca, Barawa, Kismayo and Hobyo and other respective ports became profitable trade outlets for commodities originating from the interior of the State. The Somali farming communities of the hinterland from Jubba and Shebelle valleys brought their crops to the Somali coastal cities, where they were sold to local merchants who maintained a lucrative foreign commerce with ships sailing to and coming from Arabia, Persia, India, Venice, Egypt, Portugal, and as far away as Java and China.[3]

Modern Period[edit]

Over two centuries passed until Baron Karl Klaus von der Decken ascended the lower reaches of the river on the small steamship Welf in 1863. He wrecked the steamship in the rapids above Baardheere, where the party was attacked by local Somalis, ending in the deaths of the Baron and three others in his party. The first European to explore widely and completely the course of the river was the Italian explorer Vittorio Bottego attended by Commander F.G. Dundas British Navy. Bottego and his expedition sailed 400 miles of the river in 1891. During his exploration Vittorio Bottego changed the name of the main affluent of Jubba -the Ganale river- in Ganale Doria after the famous Italian naturalist Giacomo Doria. [4][5]

Overview[edit]

Bridge over the Jubba river in Baardheere.

The Jubba basin region is primarily savanna, and is, ecologically speaking, the richest part of the country due to its fertile farmland. Native wild life include giraffes, cheetahs, lions, leopards, hyenas, buffalos, hippopotamus, crocodiles, oryx, gazelles, camels, ostriches, jackals and wild donkeys.

The Jubba River gives its name to the Somali administrative regions of Middle Juba and Lower Juba, as well as to the larger historical region of Jubaland. Major cities which the Jubba River passes by include Doollow, Luuq, Buurdhuubo, Beledhawo, Baardheere, Saakow, Buale, Kamasuma, and Goobweyn near Kismaayo.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The History of Somalia. p. 26. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
  2. ^ Cassanelli (1982), p. 149.
  3. ^ Journal of African History pg.50 by John Donnelly Fage and Roland Anthony Oliver
  4. ^ 1892; Il Giuba esplorato, 1895
  5. ^ F.G. Dundas, "Expedition up the Jub River through Somali-Land, East Africa", Geographical Journal, 1 (March 1893), pp. 209-222

External links[edit]