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The Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast (Russian: Кара-Киргизская АО, transliterated as Kara-Kirgizskaya AO), in the former region of Soviet Central Asia, was created on 14 October 1924 within the Russian SFSR from the predominantly Kyrgyz part of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. On 15 May 1925 it was renamed into the Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast. On 11 February 1926 it was reorganized into the Kirghiz ASSR (Not to be confused with the Kirghiz ASSR, which was the first name of Kazak ASSR). On 5 December 1936 it became the Kirghiz SSR, one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union.
Kara-Kirghiz is a former name for the Kyrgyz that literally means "the black Kirghiz (= Kyrgyz)", in reference to the colour of tents the nomads used.