- Not to be confused with the 14th-century Khidr (Khan of Golden Horde).
Khizr Khan ibn Malik Sulaiman (reigned 1414–21) was the founder of the Sayyid dynasty, the ruling dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, in northern India soon after the invasion of Timur and the fall of the Tughlaq dynasty. He used to be the governor of Multan under the Tughlaq ruler, Firoz Shah Tuglaq. He was known to be an able administrator. He did not take up any royal title from fear of Amir Timur and contended himself with the titles of Rayat-i-Ala (Sublime Banners) and Masnad-i-Aali or (Most High Post). During his reign, coins were struck in the name of Amir Timur and after his death in the name of his successor Shah Rukh. After his death on 20 May 1421, he was succeeded by his son Mubarak Khan, who took the title of Muizz-ud-Din Mubarak Shah.
Ancestry and early life
A contemporary writer Yahya Sirhindi mentioned in his Takhrikh-i-Mubarak Shahi that Khizr Khan was a descendant of the Prophet of Islam, but his conclusion was based only on a testimony of the saint Jalal-ud-Din Bukhari. Malik Mardan Daulat, the Governor of Multan adopted Khizr Khan's father Malik Sulaiman as his son. After the death of Malik Shaikh, son of Malik Mardan, he was succeeded by Malik Sulaiman as the governor of Multan. After the death of Malik Sulaiman the governorship of Multan was conferred on Khizr Khan by Firuz Shah Tughlaq. But in 1395 he was expelled from Multan by Sarang Khan, brother of Mallu Iqbal Khan. He fled to Mewat and later joined Timur. It is believed that before departure, Timur appointed Khizr Khan his viceroy at Delhi but he could only establish his control over Multan, Dipalpur and parts of Sindh. Soon he started his campaign and defeated Mallu Iqbal Khan. After defeating Daulat Khan Lodi, he entered Delhi victoriously on 6 June 1414.
After his accession to the throne, Khizr Khan appointed Malik-us-Sharq Malik Tuhfa as his wazir and he was given the title of Taj-ul-Mulk and he remained in office till 1421. The fief of Saharanpur was given to Sayyid Salim. Abdur Rahman received the fiefs of Multan and Fatehpur. In 1414, an army led by Taj-ul-Mulk was sent to suppress the rebellion of Har Singh, the Raja of Katehar. Raja fled to the forests but finally he was compelled to surrender and agree to pay tributes in future. In July, 1416 an army led by Taj-ul-Mulk was sent to Bayana and Gwalior. It plundered the peasants in the name of realizing the amount equivalent to the tributes to be paid. In 1417, Khizr Khan obtained permission from Shah Rukh to have his own name also suffixed to that of Shah Rukh. In 1418, Har Singh revolted again but he was defeated completely by Taj-ul-Mulk.
(Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq)
|Shah of Delhi
- Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
- Mahajan, V. D. (2007) , History of Medieval India, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, pp.237-9
- Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2006). The Delhi Sultanate, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.125-8