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Kol Nidre /
Kol Nidrei has had an eventful history, both in itself and in its influence on the legal status of the Jews. Introduced into the liturgy despite the opposition of some rabbinic authorities, it was attacked in the course of time by some rabbis and in the 19th century expunged from the prayer book by many communities of western Europe.
The term Kol Nidrei refers not only to the actual declaration, but is also popularly used as a name for the entire Yom Kippur evening service.
- 1 Form of the chant
- 2 Origin
- 3 Language
- 4 Method of recitation
- 5 Text
- 6 Explanation of terms and variants
- 7 Historical controversies
- 8 Reform in the 19th century
- 9 The Ashkenazi melody
- 10 Similarities to Christian plainsong
- 11 Popular culture
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
- 15 Notable musical performances and adaptations
- 16 Sources
Form of the chant
Before sunset on the eve of Yom Kippur ("Day of Atonement"), the congregation gathers in the synagogue. The Ark is opened and two people take from it two Torah scrolls. Then they take their places, one on each side of the cantor, and the three (beeing beth din or rabbinical court) recite:
By the authority of the Court on High and by authority of the court down here, by the permission of One Who Is Everywhere and by the permission of this congregation, we hold it lawful to pray with sinners.
This invitation to outcasts is not specifically for Kol Nidre but for the whole of the Day of Atonement, it being obvious that when even sinners join in repenting, the occasion is worthy of Divine clemency. This announcement was introduced by Rabbi Meir of Rothenburg (late 13th century), and endorsed by the Maharil (Rabbi Yaakov ben Moshe Levi Moelin, early 15th century). The last word, usually translated as sinners or transgressors (העבריינים) is used in the Talmud (Niddah 13b; Shabbat 40a) for apostates or renegades, indicating something worse that the usual reprobates, namely someone who is no longer identified with the Jewish community. Their inclusion in the Yom Kippur service is a temporary expedient, and does not operate as a remission of their sins or rejoin them to the congregation.
The cantor then chants the passage beginning with the words Kol Nidre with its touching melodic phrases, and, in varying intensities from pianissimo (quiet) to fortissimo (loud), repeats twice (for a total of three iterations) (lest a latecomer not hear them) the following words (Nusach Ashkenaz):
All vows we are likely to make, all oaths and pledges we are likely to take between this Yom Kippur and the next Yom Kippur, we publicly renounce. Let them all be relinquished and abandoned, null and void, neither firm nor established. Let our vows, pledges and oaths be considered neither vows nor pledges nor oaths.
The leader and the congregation then say together three times, "May all the people of Israel be forgiven, including all the strangers who live in their midst, for all the people are in fault." (quoting Numbers 15:26.) The leader then says: "O pardon the iniquities of this people, according to Thy abundant mercy, just as Thou forgave this people ever since they left Egypt." And then the leader and congregation say together three times, "The Lord said, 'I pardon them according to your words.'" (quoting Numbers 14:20). The Torah scrolls are then put back in the Ark, and the customary evening service begins.
The vows and pledges being annulled by this ceremony are of a limited category. As the ArtScroll Mahzor explains it: "There is a dangerous and erroneous misconception among some people that the Kol Nidrei nullification of vows—whether past or future—... gives people the right to break their word or to make insincere promises that will have no legal force. This is not the case. The Kol Nidrei declaration can invalidate only vows that one undertakes on his own volition. It has no effect on vows or oath imposed by someone else, or a court. Also, the invalidation of future vows takes effect only if someone makes the vow without having in mind his previous Kol Nidrei declaration. But if he makes the vow with Kol Nidrei in mind—thus being openly insincere in his vow—the vow is in full force." Moreover, as Rabbi Yechiel of Paris explained in a Disputation that took place before the King and Queen of France in 1240, "Only the erroneously broken vows are annulled, that nobody might commit the sin of intentionally breaking vows."
Philip Birnbaum, in his edition of the Mahzor, comments on this passage: "It refers to vows assumed by an individual for himself alone, where no other persons or interests are involved. Though the context makes it perfectly obvious that no vows or obligations towards others are implied, there have been many who were misled into believing that by means of this formula all their vows and oaths are annulled. In the eleventh century Rabbi Meir ben Samuel (Rashi's son-in-law) changed the original wording of Kol Nidré so as to make it apply to the future instead of the past, that is, to vows that one might not be able to fulfill during the next year." This is the Nusach Ashkenaz version, the Nusach Sefard version still refers to the past year. However The Complete ArtScroll Machzor, Yom Kippur, Nusach Sefard has the future with the past included in brackets.
Kol Nidrei is not a prayer, it makes no requests and is not addressed to God, rather, it is a juristic declaration before the Yom Kippur prayers begin. It follows the juridical practice of requiring three men as a tribunal, the procedure beginning before sundown, and of the proclamation being announced three times.
The date of the composition of the declaration and its author are alike unknown; but it was in existence at the Geonic period (589–1038 CE). There was a common theory that it commenced during and because of a period of extreme persecution, in which Jews were forced at sword's point to convert (either to Christianity or Islam) and that Kol Nidre was supposed to nullify that forced conversion.
The tendency to make vows to God was strong in ancient Israel; the Torah found it necessary to caution against the promiscuous making of vows: "When you make a vow [neder] to the LORD your God, do not put off fulfilling it, for the LORD your God will require it of you, and you will have incurred guilt; whereas you incur no guilt if you refrain from vowing. You must fulfill what has crossed your lips and perform what you have voluntarily vowed to the LORD your God, having made the promise with your own mouth." (Deuteronomy 23:22–24, Jewish Publ'n Soc. 1999 translation).
As one commentary puts it, "it is considered a fearsome sin for one to violate his vows and oaths and the Sages regard it as an extremely serious matter for one to approach the Days of Judgment [meaning the High Holy Days] with such violation in hand." Rash vows to God that for whatever reason were not fulfilled created painful religious and ethical difficulties for those who had made them; this led to an earnest desire for dispensation from them. Therefore, halakha allowed for the absolution from a vow ('hattarat nedarim'), which might be performed only by a scholar, or an expert on the one hand, or by a board of three Jewish laymen on the other.
This rite declared that the petitioners, who were seeking reconciliation with God, solemnly retracted their vows and oaths they had made to God during the period intervening between the previous Day of Atonement and the present one; this rite made them null and void from the beginning, entreating in their stead pardon and forgiveness from God. This is in accordance with the older text of the formula as it is preserved in the Siddur of Amram Gaon.
Adoption into the prayer services
The readiness with which vows were made and the facility with which they were annulled by the scribes gave the Karaites an opportunity to attack rabbinic Jews. This may have encouraged the geonim (leaders of early medieval Babylonian Jewry) to minimize the power of dispensation. Yehudai Gaon of Sura (760 CE), author of the Halakot Pesukot, forbade the study of the Nedarim, the Talmudic treatise on oaths. Thus the Kol Nidre was discredited in both of the Babylonian academies and was not accepted by them.
Amram Gaon in his edition of the Siddur calls the custom of reciting the Kol Nidre a foolish one ("minhag shetut"). According to others however, it was customary to recite the formula in various lands of the Jewish dispersion, and it is clear likewise from Amram's Siddur that the usage was widespread as early as his time (9th century) in Spain. But the geonic practice of not reciting the Kol Nidre was long prevalent; it has never been adopted in the Catalan or in the Algerian ritual, nor in the French regions of Carpentras or Avignon.
Together with the Kol Nidre another custom was developed, which is traced to Meir of Rothenburg (d. 1293). This is the recital before the Kol Nidre of the formula mentioned beginning "Bi-yeshivah shel ma'alah" (By authority of the Heavenly Court...), which has been translated above, and which gives permission to transgressors of the Law or to those under a ban "to pray with the congregation", or, according to another version, to the congregation "to pray with the transgressors of the Law." This addition was subsequently endorsed by the Rabbi of Mainz, Jacob ben Moses Moelin, "the Maharil" (died 1427). From Germany this custom spread to southern France, Spain, Greece, and probably to northern France, and was in time generally adopted. It has been suggested that Kol Nidre originated with this invitation to avaryanim (sinners) to join the congregation's prayers, as an effort to inspire their return or at least prevent losing them completely, rather than as a mechanism for coping with Christian or Muslim persecution.
At one time it was widely believed that the Kol Nidre was composed by Spanish "Marranos", Jews who were forced to convert to Christianity, yet who secretly maintained their original faith. This idea has been shown to be incorrect, as the prayer pre-dates this era (circa 15th century) by many centuries. However, this prayer was indeed used by the Marranos and it is possible that its great significance and wide usage derives from this persecution. As Kol Nidre clearly predated the Spanish Inquisition, it was supposed that it may have commenced during the Visigothic period in Spain (7th century), but this theory has serious weaknesses, such as its adoption by Jewish communities around the world, even in liturgical communities that did not experience such persecution. It may be that it was simply inspired by the Talmudic instructions about avoiding oaths.
A very different reason for Kol Nidre was suggested by the Zohar; God has already threatened and vowed terrible punishments upon the Jewish people for their sins, but by our own demonstration that we can unbind ourselves from vows using Kol Nidre we hope to persuade God to similarly annul His own vows of calamity. As stated in the Orot Sephardic mahzor:
According to the holy Zohar, Kol Nidre is recited on Yom Kippur because, at times, the Heavenly judgment is handed down as an 'avowed decree' for which there can normally be no annulment. By reciting the Kol Nidre annulment of vows at this time, we are asking of God that He favor us by annuling any negative decrees of judgment that await us, even though we are undeserving of such annulment.
Adoption into Yom Kippur services
Originally, the annulment of vows was performed on Rosh Hashana, the New Year, ten days before Yom Kippur. The Talmud (Nedarim 23b) says, "Who wished to cancel his vows of a whole year should arise on Rosh Hashanah and announce, 'All vows that I will pledge in the coming year shall be annulled.'" There is, in fact, a ritual that is supposed to take place the day before Rosh Hashana (because one does not do such chores on a holy day), known as hatarat nedarim (annulment of vows), where the individual presents himself before a tribunal of three and recites a Hebrew formula, very different from that of Kol Nidrei, asking for annulment of every vow or pledge or prohibition that he swore "while I was awake or dreaming", "whether they were matters relating to money, or to the body, or to the soul".... The tribunal responds by reciting three times, "May everything be permitted you, may everything be forgiven you, may everything be allowed you. There does not exist any vow, oath, ... or curse. But there does exist pardon, forgiveness, and atonement." The individual then concludes with a brief statement: "I cancel from this time onward all vows and all oaths ... that I will accept upon myself, whether while awake or in a dream .... from this moment I preemptively regret them and declare of all of them they shall be utterly null and void...."
So, from a time before the composition of Kol Nidrei there was a corresponding ritual intended for Rosh Hashana. It is believed that Kol Nidrei was added to the liturgy of Yom Kippur, ten days after Rosh Hashana, because that service is much more solemn, because the Day of Atonement is entirely attuned to the theme of repentance and remorse, because (despite the great importance of Rosh Hashana) Yom Kippur services are better attended, and perhaps because Yom Kippur itself is once referred to as Rosh Hashana in Scripture (Ezekiel 40:1). Such reasons were enumerated by, among others, Asher ben Jehiel (early 14th century). There may be an additional reason — perhaps the annulment of vows was moved to, or repeated at, the commencement of the Day of Atonement in order to minimize the risk that new vows would be made in the ten-day interval between the repudiation of vows on Rosh Hashana and the Day of Atonement, and, more than the rather dry legalistic Rosh Hashana declaration, Kol Nidre includes an emotional expression of penitence that sets the theme for the Day of Atonement.
Change of tense from past to future
An important alteration in the wording of the Kol Nidre was made by Rashi's son-in-law, Rabbi Meir ben Samuel (early 12th century), who changed the original phrase "from the last Day of Atonement until this one" to "from this Day of Atonement until the next". Thus, the dispensation was not a posteriori and concerning unfulfilled obligations of the past year, but was a priori, making reference to vows one might not be able to fulfill or might forget to observe during the ensuing year. Meir ben Samuel likewise added the words "we do repent of them all", since real repentance is a condition of dispensation. The reasons for this change were that an "ex post facto" annulment of a vow was meaningless and, furthermore, that no one might grant to himself a dispensation, which might be given only by a board of three laymen or by a competent judge. Additionally, the Talmudic discussion of annulment of vows speaks of negating vows to be made in the future. Finally, there was the distinct probability that a person would die with unfulfilled vows having been made since the previous Day of Atonement, so annulling these vows in advance might diminish the weight such unkept vows imposed on him at his death.
It was Rabbeinu Tam, however, who accounted for the alteration made by his father, as already stated, and who also tried to change the perfect tense of the verbs ("which we have vowed", "have sworn", etc.) to the imperfect. Whether the old text was already too deeply rooted, or whether Rabbeinu Tam did not correct these verbal forms consistently and grammatically, the old perfect forms are still retained at the beginning of the formula, but a future meaning is given to them.
The alteration made by Meïr ben Samuel, which agreed with Isaac ibn Ghayyat's view, was accepted in the German, northern French, and Polish rituals and in those dependent on them, but not in the Spanish, Roman, and Provençal rituals. The old version is, therefore, usually called the "Sephardic". The old and new versions are sometimes found side by side. Because it is traditional to recite Kol Nidrei three times, some Sephardic communities and even some Ashkenazic communities (especially in Israel) make a point of reciting both versions (usually referring to the previous Yom Kippur in the first two iterations and the next Yom Kippur in the third).
In the Siddur of Amram (9th century; printed 1865, Warsaw, p. 47) and in the Roman Mahzor (ca. 1486; printed 1541 folio 232b, p. 63) the Kol Nidrei is written in Hebrew, and therefore begins Kol Nedarim. Both Hebrew versions refer to vows of the year just concluded, rather than vows made in the coming year. The two Hebrew versions are slightly different from each other. The Amram's version was apparently written unpointed but a pointed version of Amram's Hebrew version is given in Birnbaum. Amram's Hebrew version is the one used in Balkan (Romanian) and Italian liturgy. Otherwise, Ashkenaz and Sefardic liturgy has adopted Rabbenu Tam's Aramaic text. The words "as it is written in the teachings of Moses, thy servant", which were said in the old form before the quotation of Numbers 15:26, were canceled by Meir of Rothenburg.
There has been some criticism from scholars fluent in Aramaic that the text of Kol Nidre has grammatical errors; however, any efforts to introduce corrections have been frustrated because the changes would not comport with the traditional, and much-beloved, melody.
Method of recitation
As to the manner in which the hazzan (cantor) is to recite the Kol Nidrei, the Mahzor Vitry (early 12th century) gives the following directions: "The first time he must utter it very softly like one who hesitates to enter the palace of the king to ask a gift of him whom he fears to approach; the second time he may speak somewhat louder; and the third time more loudly still, as one who is accustomed to dwell at court and to approach his sovereign as a friend." However, Rabbi Meier ben Yitzchak of Worms (11th century), author of Akdamut, would sing it only twice, the Aleppo community would sing it seven times, and Rabbi Jacob Molin (of Mainz, the "Maharil", died 1427) would sing it repeatedly in various tunes to ensure that latecomers would hear it.
The number of Torah-scrolls taken out for the Kol Nidrei varied according to different customs. In some places it was one; in others, two, three, seven, or even all. The first Torah-scroll taken out is called the Sefer Kol Nidrei.
Although Kol Nidrei is printed in every prayerbook for Yom Kippur, and it is commonly thought of as being the beginning of Yom Kippur, technically speaking it must be performed before the commencement of Yom Kippur, since such juridical business cannot take place on a holy day. Kol Nidrei should be recited before sunset, since dispensation from a vow may not be granted on the Sabbath or on a feast-day, unless the vow refers to one of these days. However, some communities (apparently Sephardic and in the minority) consider it proper to wait until nightfall, when Yom Kippur officially begins, before reciting Kol Nidre. The men of the congregation wear their prayer shawls, one of the few times in the year that these are worn in the evening. It would appear, in most congregations, that a sort of compromise has been adopted; Kol Nidre begins just before sundown, so by the time its last repetition is finished nightfall has commenced or is on the very cusp of commencing.
The following provides the traditional Aramaic text, which (except for the one line connecting one Day of Atonement to another, as noted) is nearly identical in both Ashkenaz and Sefardic liturgies, with an English gloss.
|Aramaic Text||English Gloss|
|כָּל נִדְרֵי, וֶאֱסָרֵי, וּשְבוּעֵי, וַחֲרָמֵי, וְקוֹנָמֵי, וְקִנוּסֵי, וְכִנוּיֵי, דִנְדַרְנָא, וּדְאִשְתַּבַּעְנָא, וּדְאַחֲרִמְנָא עַל נַפְשָׁתָנָא. •מִיוֹם כִּפּוּרִים שֶׁעָבַר עַד יוֹם כִּפּוּרִים זֶה, וּ־־• ♦מִיוֹם כִּפּוּרִם זֶה עַד יוֹם כִּפּוּרִים הַבָּא עָלֵינוּ לְטוֹבָה.♦ בְּכֻלְהוֹן אִחֲרַטְנָא בְהוֹן. כֻּלְהוֹן יְהוֹן שָׁרָן, שְׁבִיקין, שְׁבִיתִין, בְּטֵלִן וּמְבֻטָלִין, לָא שְׁרִירִין, וְלָא קַיָמִין. נִדְרָנָא לָא נִדְרֵי, וֶאֱסָרָנָא לָא אֱסָרֵי, וּשְׁבוּעָתָנָא לָא שְׁבוּעוֹת.||All vows, and prohibitions, and oaths, and consecrations, and konams and konasi and any synonymous terms, that we may vow, or swear, or consecrate, or prohibit upon ourselves, •from the previous Day of Atonement until this Day of Atonement and ...• ♦from this Day of Atonement until the [next] Day of Atonement that will come for our benefit.♦ Regarding all of them, we repudiate them. All of them are undone, abandoned, cancelled, null and void, not in force, and not in effect. Our vows are no longer vows, and our prohibitions are no longer prohibitions, and our oaths are no longer oaths.|
This is immediately followed by the recitation of the Biblical verse (in Hebrew rather than Aramaic), Numbers 15:26, "The whole community of the Children of Israel, and the proselyte dwelling among them, shall be forgiven, for all of them were without premeditation." This verse is considered part and parcel of the Kol Nidre recitation, and different regional traditions have woven it into the recitation in various ways.
Explanation of terms and variants
The many different terms for vows and pledges used in Kol Nidrei can be confusing, especially because the English language is poor in short equivalent terms that express the same nuances. These terms are almost exclusively religious pledges of various kinds: That something will be done (or not done) or given in exchange for a prayer being answered, that something will be done (or not done) for religious purposes or to show religious devotion, that a thing will be used only for religious purposes (e.g., as a tool used for building or repairing the Temple) and never for mundane purposes, that a thing will be given to the Temple or treated as if it were already given to the Temple, and so forth; and to make this declaration all the more clear, every possible synonym for such pledging and for nullification or cancellation of such pledges is used.
Such vows, it is obvious, are sometimes made impulsively or in moments of panic, desperation or some other strong emotion, and would be impossible, impractical, or ruinous to fulfill (e.g. the impetuous "vow" – נדר neder [using the first word in the Kol Nidre list] — made by Jephthah, in Judges 11:30, to sacrifice his daughter in return for victory in battle; a "self-imposed obligation" (in the KJV "binding oneself") – אסר osar [using the second word in the Kol Nidre list] which is the term used repeatedly in Numbers chapter 30 to describe a sort of commitment a wife might make that the husband could nullify; the regretted "oath" – שׁבע shava [using the third word in the Kol Nidre list] – made at Mizpah to cause the tribe of Benjamin to dwindle nearly to extinction, Judges 21:7; a similar shava made by Saul, which would have resulted in his son's execution but for the acclamation of the entire army, First Samuel, chapt. 14, etc.). The next word (in some editions) "consecration" -חרמי haromay is used for things whose use is devoted (usually to the Temple) as in Leviticus 27:21 & 28. After this point Amram's Hebrew version ceases to list forms of vows and shifts to synonyms for the making of vows, the list in the present day Kol Nidre uses Aramaic non-Biblical synonyms for pledges, which do not have equivalents in Biblical Hebrew, such as קונמי konamay - used in the Talmud for a vow by which a tool or furnishing is forbidden for mundane use because pledged to Temple usage, and קנוסי kinusay - used in the Talmud as a synonym for konamay. Though these promises to God may have been ill-considered, the failure to keep them is a recurring offense – and acting as if promises made to God were so trifling that they could be thoughtlessly forgotten is a further offense; the only remedy is, first, to admit that these promises will never be fulfilled, by formally cancelling them – which is one of the purposes of the Kol Nidrei, and then to repent for them – which is the purpose of the Day of Atonement. It has even been suggested that Kol Nidrei includes vows that had been fulfilled, because the Torah forbids the making of vows, so that even those which were kept required atonement. There is also a kabbalistic or spiritual purpose to Kol Nidrei: God has vowed, in Scripture, to punish Jewry for its sins; therefore by demonstrating that we can and do cancel our own vows, we hope to induce God to cancel his own dire decrees.
Kol Nidrei also admits our moral inconstancy. We made promises and pledges to God, often at a peak feeling of devotion or gratitude—or of desperation, but our good intentions are short-lived, and we allowed the promises to slip from our attention.
The text presented here is taken from the ArtScroll Mahzor for Yom Kippur (Ashkenaz ed.), which uses the formula "from this Day of Atonement to the next" in its main text but allows the alternative ("from the last Day of Atonement to this Day") as a parenthetical option. The Hebrew version of Kol Nidrei set out in the Siddur of Rav Amram Gaon (ca. 870) uses the formula "from the last ... to this ...", and similarly De Sola Pool. Wolf von Heidenheim's mahzor uses "from this Day ... to the next ...", and similarly Adler, and Birnbaum. The Rinat Yisroel combines both, "from the last ... to this..., and from this....", and similarly the Syrian and other Sefardic or Mizrahi traditions set forth in the Orot mahzor and the Bagdadi version.
The Sefardic and Mizrahi traditions add one or two more synonyms for pledges (such as harem). Some Ashkenaz and Sefardic editions omit "and any synonymous terms" — וכנויי — that appears here in the first sentence.
Use by anti-semites
The Kol Nidrei prayer has been used by non-Jews as a basis for asserting that an oath taken by a Jew may not be trusted. Historically, this accusation was leveled so often and so persistently that many non-Jewish legislators considered it necessary to have a special form of oath administered to Jews ("Oath More Judaico"), and many judges refused to allow them to take a supplementary oath, basing their objections chiefly on this prayer. As early as 1240 in the Disputation of Paris, Yechiel of Paris was obliged to defend Kol Nidrei against these charges. The Russian government, in 1857, decreed that the prayerbooks must include, as an introduction to Kol Nidrei, a Hebrew explanation to the readers of the limited nature of the vows that could be released by this ceremony.
As Prof. Ismar Elbogen said in his monumental study of Jewish Liturgy:
It is well known how many baseless accusations the text of [Kol Nidre] has aroused against Jews in the course of centuries. But nowhere in the sources can any interpretation of a morally offensive nature be found, for the [rabbinic] authorities agree unanimously that the text has in view only obligations undertaken by an individual toward himself or obligations respecting cultic regulations of the community.
Rabbis have always pointed out that the dispensation from vows in Kol Nidrei refers only to those an individual voluntarily assumes for himself alone and in which no other persons or their interests are involved. The first verse ends with a qualifier for all the forms of pledges and vows being annulled—עַל נַפְשָׁתָֽנָא—"regarding ourselves"—by which this formula is limited to annulling only those vows that would affect only ourselves but not vows that would affect any other person. The formula is restricted to those vows between man and God alone; they have no effect on vows made between one man and another. No vow, promise, or oath that concerns another person, a court of justice, or a community is implied in Kol Nidrei. It does not matter if a vow was made to one or more non-Jews, such a vow cannot be annulled. According to Jewish doctrine, the sole purpose of this prayer is to give protection from divine punishment in case of violation of the vow.
... Not all vows or oaths could be absolved. A vow or oath that was made to another person, even be that person a child or a heathen, could not be annulled except in the presence of that person and with his consent; while an oath which a man had taken in a court of justice could not be absolved by any other authority in the world.
As pointed out above, many rabbis state that the vows referred to are applicable only to the individual, and not interpersonally. Moreover, the Biblical verse quoted at the end clearly refers to vows that were unintentionally unkept, not premeditatedly broken. It refers only to vows between the person making them and God, such as "I swear that if I pass this test, I'll pray every day for the next 6 months!" or simply "I swear that I will stop smoking this year!"
Because this declaration has often been held up by anti-Semites as proof that Jews are untrustworthy, the Reform movement removed it from the liturgy - temporarily, but there was enough popular demand for its restoration. In fact, the reverse is true: Jews cherish this ritual because they take vows so seriously that they consider themselves bound even if they make the vows under duress or in times of stress when not thinking straight. This ritual gave comfort to those who were forcibly converted to Christianity, yet felt unable to break their vow to follow Christianity. In recognition of that history, the Reform movement restored this recitation to its liturgy.
Five geonim (rabbinic leaders of medieval Babylonian Jewry) were against while only one was in favor of reciting the formula. Even so early an authority as Saadia Gaon (early 10th century) wished to restrict it to those vows extorted from the congregation in the synagogue in times of persecution ("Kol Bo"), and he declared explicitly that the "Kol Nidre" gave no absolution from oaths an individual took during the year.
Judah ben Barzillai, a Spanish author of the 12th century, in his work on Jewish law "Sefer ha-'Ittim", declares that the custom of reciting the Kol Nidre was unjustifiable and misleading, since many ignorant persons believe that all their vows and oaths are annulled through this formula, and consequently they take such obligations on themselves carelessly.
For the same reason Rabbenu Yerucham, who lived in Provence about the middle of the 14th century, inveighed against those who, trusting to the "Kol Nidrei", made vows recklessly, and he declared them incapable of giving testimony. The Karaite Judah Hadassi, who wrote the "Eshkol ha-Kofer" at Constantinople in 1148 (see Nos. 139, 140 of that work), likewise protested against the Kol Nidrei. Among other opponents of it in the Middle Ages were the Ritva Yom Tov Asevilli (ca. 1330) in his "Ḥiddushim"; Isaac ben Sheshet, rabbi in Saragossa (d. 1406), Responsa, No. 394 (where is also a reference to the preceding); the author of the "Kol Bo" (15th century); and Leon of Modena (d. 1648 [see N. S. Libowitz, Leon Modena, p. 33, New York, 1901]). In addition, nearly all printed maḥzorim contain expositions and explanations of the "Kol Nidre" in the restricted sense mentioned above.
Reform in the 19th century
Yielding to the numerous accusations and complaints brought against "Kol Nidrei" in the course of centuries, the rabbinical conference held at Brunswick in 1844 decided unanimously that the formula was not essential, and that the members of the convention should exert their influence toward securing its speedy abolition.
The decision of the conference was accepted by many congregations of western Europe and in all the American Reform Judaism congregations, which while retaining the melody substituted for the formula a German hymn or a Hebrew psalm (particularly Psalm 130), or changed the old text to the words, "May all the vows arise to thee which the sons of Israel vow unto thee, O Lord, ... that they will return to thee with all their heart, and from this Day of Atonement until the next," etc. Naturally there were many Orthodox opponents of this innovation, among whom M. Lehmann, editor of the Israelit, was especially prominent. In 1961, Kol Nidrei, in its full Aramaic text, was restored to the Reform liturgy, so strong was its sentimental appeal. Among Reconstructionist Jews, it was briefly omitted from the liturgy and then restored but with a slightly revised text that limited its application only to those vows that operated "to estrange ourselves from those who have offended us or to give pain to those who have angered us".
At other times and places during the 19th century emphasis was frequently laid upon the fact that "in the 'Kol Nidrei' only those vows and obligations are implied that are voluntarily assumed, and that are, so to speak, taken before God, thus being exclusively religious in content; but that those obligations are in no wise included that refer to other persons or to non-religious relations." Even before 1844, some rabbis and congregations (not all of them Liberal) had ceased reciting Kol Nidre: It is not found in the Berlin 1817 prayerbook, nor the Hamburg prayerbooks of 1819 and 1841, and the famous pioneer of Modern Orthodoxy, Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch, had omitted it during Yom Kippur services at least twice. In 1840, Rabbi Leopold Stein (who later became the Rabbi of Frankfurt on Main) published a volume of German language prayers and hymns offered as additions or alternatives to the traditional ones, and for a substitute for Kol Nidre he provided the hymn (apparently his own work), "O Tag des Herrn!" (O Day of the Lord); adding a lengthy footnote that said, "That much though is certain and cannot be denied by anyone -- that the [Kol Nidre] formula is by no means suited to introduce the holiest of all days, and that it would have been more suitable for any occasion but that of the eve of the exalted Day of Atonement." An English translation - "O come, day of God" - of Stein's hymn was used, in the place of Kol Nidre, in the American Reform Union Prayer Book (1945 & 1963) - the 1894 edition of the Union Prayer Book had a slightly different English translation but it appears that some editions between then and 1945 were defective and erroneously omitted most of the pages (this page among them) for the eve of 'Atonement Day', but Kol Nidre was returned to the Reform liturgy in subsequent prayerbooks.
In the opinion of some Jewish writers, the principal factor that preserved the religious authority of the Kol Nidrei is its plaintive melody.
The Ashkenazi melody
[Kol Nidre] has been fortunate in the melody to which it is traditionally chanted. It fulfils the counsel offered by Judah the Pious in the thirteenth century, "chant your supplications to God in a melody that makes the heart weep, and your praises of Him in one that will make it sing. Thus you will be filled with love and joy for Him that seeth the heart." Its fame has spread far beyond the synagogue. A noted non-Jewish poet declared, "Such a mysterious song, redolent of a People's suffering, can hardly have been composed by one brain, however much inspired." (quoting Lenau).
It is commonly said that the tune for Kol Nidre is missinai - unchanged since Moses climbed down from Mount Sinai - In the early 17th century, Rabbi Mordechai Jaffe of Prague, known as the Levush, mentioned that all cantors knew a set melody which was traditional for Kol Nidre. Jaffe was actually complaining that the widespread and solid adherence to this melody was hampering his efforts to introduce corrections into the lyrics. And yet there are probably no two synagogues in which the melody is chanted note for note absolutely the same. So marked is the variation in the details of the melody that a critical examination of the variants shows an approach toward agreement in the essentials of the first strain only, with transformations of the greatest diversity in the remaining strains. These divergences, however, are not radical, and they are no more than are inherent in a composition not due to a single originator, but built up and elaborated by many in turn, and handed on by them in distinct lines of tradition, along all of which the rhapsodical method of the hazzanut has been followed.
The musical structure of the Ashkenazi Kol Nidrei is built upon a simple groundwork, the melody being an intermingling of simple cantillation with rich figuration. The opening of Kol Nidre is what the masters of the Catholic plain-song term a "pneuma", or soul breath. Instead of announcing the opening words in a monotone or in any of the familiar declamatory phrases, a hazzan of South Germany prefixed a long, sighing tone, falling to a lower note and rising again, as if only sighs and sobs could find utterance before the officiant could bring himself to inaugurate the Day of Atonement.
Similarities to Christian plainsong
Pianist Emil Breslauer of the 19th century was the first to draw attention to the similarity of these strains with the first five bars of the sixth movement of Beethoven's C sharp minor quartet, op. 131, "adagio quasi un poco andante".
An older coincidence shows the original element around which the whole of Kol Nidre has been built up. The pneuma given in the Sarum and Ratisbon antiphonaries (or Roman Catholic ritual music-books) as a typical passage in the first Gregorian mode (or the notes in the natural scale running from "d" to "d" ["re" to "re"]), almost exactly outlines the figure that prevails throughout the Hebrew air, in all its variants, and reproduces one favorite strain with still closer agreement.
The original pattern of these phrases seems to be the strain of melody so frequently repeated in the modern versions of Kol Nidre at the introduction of each clause. Such a pattern phrase, indeed, is, in the less elaborated Italian tradition, repeated in its simple form five times consecutively in the first sentence of the text, and a little more elaborately four times in succession from the words "nidrana lo nidre".
The northern traditions prefer at such points first to utilize its complement in the second ecclesiastical mode of the Church, which extends below as well as above the fundamental "re". The strain, in either form, must obviously date from the early medieval period, anterior to the 11th century, when the practice and theory of the singing-school at St. Gall, by which such typical passages were evolved, influenced all music in those French and German lands where the melody of Kol Nidre took shape.
Thus, then, a typical phrase in the most familiar Gregorian mode, such as was daily in the ears of the Rhenish Jews, in secular as well as in ecclesiastical music, was centuries ago deemed suitable for the recitation of the Absolution of Vows, and to it was afterward prefixed an introductory intonation dependent on the taste and capacity of the officiant. Many times repeated, the figure of this central phrase was sometimes sung on a higher degree of the scale, sometimes on a lower. Then these became associated; and so gradually the middle section of the melody developed into the modern forms.
Inspiration for other musical pieces
The prayer and its melody has been the basis of a number of pieces of classical music, including a setting of the prayer by Arnold Schoenberg, a piece for solo cello and orchestra by Max Bruch, a string quartet by John Zorn, and others.
The Electric Prunes album Release of An Oath, subtitled and commonly called The Kol Nidre after the title of its first and thematically most central track, is based on a combination of Christian and Jewish liturgy.
Comedian Lewis Black frequently references the Kol Nidre in some of his shows and his first book, Nothing's Sacred, referring to it as the spookiest piece of music ever written, claiming that it may have been the piece to inspire all of Alfred Hitchcock's musical scores.
Kol Nidre plays a climactic role in several film and television adaptations of The Jazz Singer, originally a play by Samson Raphaelson. In the 1927 film version, Kol Nidre is sung by notable Jewish entertainer Al Jolson. In the 1959 television version, it is sung by Jewish comedian Jerry Lewis. Jewish pop singer Neil Diamond performs the song in the 1980 film version.
Musician and filmmaker Nicolas Jolliet uses the sitar, surbahir, tabla, oud, dumbek and other exotic instruments in his "Kol Nidre Goes East", which was recorded on the Caribbean island of St. Lucia and evolves from traditional ragas into a seductive Reggae beat. It is housed in the Judaica Sound Archives at Florida Atlantic University.
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- this last transliteration seems to be used almost exclusively for the musical arrangement by Max Bruch
- "Kol Nidre". The New Encyclopedia of Judaism (1st ed. 2002).
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). . The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
- e.g., Scherman, Nosson, The Complete ArtScroll Machzor, Yom Kippur, Nusach Ashkenaz (1986, Brooklyn, Mesorah Publ'ns) pp. 52, 57.
- Nulman, Macy, Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayers (1993, NJ, Jason Aronson) p. 119. Reuven Hammer, Entering the High Holy Days (1998, Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society) p. 111. This was substantiated by the Talmudic teaching that "Any community fast in which sinners do not participate, is not considered a [valid] fast." (Kerisus 6b).
- Marcus Jastrow, A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi and the Midrashic Literature (1903 NY) [vol. 2.] page 1040, col. 2; Jacobson, Bernhard S., Days of Awe (orig. 1936, Engl. trans. 1978, Tel Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) p. 116. Reuven Hammer, Entering the High Holy Days (1998, Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society) p. 111.
- Jacobson, Bernhard S., Days of Awe (orig. 1936, Engl. trans. 1978, Tel Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) pages 116-117.
- Translation of Philip Birnbaum, from High Holiday Prayer Book, Hebrew Publishing Company, NY, 1951. Birnbaum's translation is somewhat streamlined as he declined to attempt to translate separately each listed synonym for a vow, but simply referred to them collectively as "all personal oaths and pledges". The several synonyms are expressed in the English gloss further in this article.
- Note: The Hebrew text lists a set of terms for oaths and legal declarations. Each term is a technical term for a distinct type of formal legal declaration with a distinctive legal meaning in Jewish law as described in the Talmud. For a discussion of these terms and an explanation of the meaning of each, see "General Introduction", The Schottenstein Edition of the Talmud, Tractate Nedarim, Volume 1. Mesorah Publications Limited
- Scherman, Nosson, The Complete ArtScroll Machzor, Yom Kippur, Nusach Ashkenaz (1986, Brooklyn, Mesorah Publ'ns) p. 53; italics as in original.
- Jacobson, Bernhard S., Days of Awe (orig. 1936, Engl. trans. 1978, Tel Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) p. 118.
- Birnbaum, Philip, High Holy Day Prayer Book (1951, New York, Hebrew Publishing Company) p. 490; italics as in original.
- Nulman, Macy, Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayers (1993, NJ, Jason Aronson) pp. 203–204; Encyclopaedia Judaica (2nd ed. 2007) vol. 12, s.v. Kol Nidrei p. 276; Munk, Elie, The World of Prayer (1963, NY, Feldheim) vol. 2, pp. 230–236; Kieval, Herman, "The Curious Case of Kol Nidre", Commentary vol. 46, nr. 4, Oct. 1968 pp. 53–58, reprinted as "The Paradox of Kol Nidre" in Goodman, Phillip, The Yom Kippur Anthology (1971, Phil., Jewish Publ'n Soc.) p. 84 et seq.
- "KOL NIDRE - JewishEncyclopedia.com". www.jewishencyclopedia.com.
- Spector, Johanna, The Kol Nidre - At Least 1200 Years Old, Journal of Synagogue Music, vol. 38 (Fall 2008), page 156, citing a Cairo Geniza letter by Palto Gaon (fl. 857) "that Kol Nidre was recited by popular demand in the Geonic Academy at the Babylonian city of Pumbadita long before the practice was introduced to the larger and better-known Academy at Sura."
- Idelsohn, Abraham Z., Jewish Liturgy and its Development (1932, NY, Henry Holt) pages 227-228; Davidson, Israel, "Kol Nidre", The American Jewish Year Book: 5684, vol. 25 (1923, Philadelphia, Jewish Public'n Soc.) pages 186-187.
- Scherman, Nosson, et al., The Complete ArtScroll Machzor: Rosh Hashanah (Ashkenazic) (1985, Brooklyn, Mesorah Publ'g) p. 2 (commentary to the Rosh Hashanah ritual for annulment of vows).
- Scherman, Nosson, The Complete ArtScroll Machzor, Yom Kippur, Nusach Ashkenaz (1986, Brooklyn, Mesorah Publ'ns) p. 54; Nulman, Macy, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ, Jason Aronson) p. 204.
- (orig. ca. 870; printed 1865, Warsaw, Coronel ed., p. 47; text with pointing published in Birnbaum's High Holyday Prayerbook, p. 491.
- The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (1942, NY) s.v. Kol Nidre, vol. 6, p. 440; Jewish Encyclopedia (1904, NY) s.v. Kol Nidre, vol. 7 p. 540.
- Jewish Encyclopedia (1904, NY) s.v. Kol Nidre, vol. 7 p. 540; Idelsohn, Abraham Z., Jewish Liturgy and its Development (1932, NY, Henry Holt) p. 228.
- Bloch, Abraham P., The Biblical and Historical Background of Jewish Customs and Ceremonies (1980, NY, KTAV Publ'g House) page 172.
- Idelsohn, Abraham Z., Jewish Liturgy and its Development (1932, NY, Henry Holt) p. 227.
- Hertz, Joseph H., Authorised Daily Prayer Book (rev. ed. 1948, NY, Bloch Publ'g Co.) page 892.
- Idelsohn, Abraham Z., Jewish Liturgy and its Development (1932, NY, Henry Holt) pp. 227–228; Markman, Sidney D. Jewish Remnants in Spain: Wanderings in a lost world (2003, Mesa, Ariz., Scribe Publ'rs) p. 136. But it has been pointed out that Marrano attachment or usage of Kol Nidrei has long been assumed rather than documented; Saperstein, Marc, "The 'Marrano' connection to Kol Nidre" in Hoffman, Lawrence A., All These Vows: Kol Nidre (2011, Woodstock, Vt., Jewish Lights Publ'g) p. 31 et seq.
- Hertz, Joseph H., Authorised Daily Prayer Book (rev. ed. 1948, NY, Bloch Publ'g Co.) page 893.
- Davidson, Israel, "Kol Nidre", The American Jewish Year Book: 5684, vol. 25 (1923, Philadelphia, Jewish Public'n Soc.) pages 186-187.
- Toledano, Eliezer, The Orot Sephardic Yom Kippur Mahazor (1997, Lakewood, NJ, Orot) pages xx and 79. This citation from the Zohar is evidently from the Tikunei haZohar, a passage beginning with the words "Rabbi Simon stood", which is printed in relatively few mahzorim - in Ashkenazic (if included at all) it occurs before the invitation to outcasts, in the ArtScroll Yom Kippur mahzor page 57 (noted there as recited "in some congregations" and described as "esoteric in the extreme"), and when in Sephardic mahzorim after the recitation of Kol Nidre but before the blessing upon the government, as in Orot mahzor page 86 (there without an English translation) [also, Nulman, Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer, page 188, s.v. Kam Rabbi Shimon], but not in the Birnbaum, Adler, Rinat Yisroel, Heindenheim, and many other mahzorim. Also see: Munk, Elie, The World of Prayer (1963, NY, Feldheim) vol. 2, pages 236-237.
- Scherman, Nosson, et al., The Complete ArtScroll Machzor: Rosh Hashanah (Ashkenazic) (1985, Brooklyn, Mesorah Publ'g) pp. 2–5; Mahzor Rinat Yisroel: Rosh Hashana (Ashkenazic) (1979, Jerusalem) p. 13–14; Nulman, Macy, Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayers (1993, NJ, Jason Aronson) p. 302 s.v. "Shime'u na Rabbotai". It is still found in many Orthodox prayerbooks. However, it does not appear in the Birnbaum mahzor, the Orot Sephardic mahzor, the Adler mahzor, and some others (perhaps because this is an individual, not a congregational, ritual).
- Nulman, Macy, Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ, Jason Aronson) pp. 202–203; Jacobson, Bernhard S., Days of Awe (orig. 1936, Engl. trans. 1978, Tel Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) pp. 111–112; Gershon, Stuart W., Kol Nidrei, Its Origin, Development, and Significance (1994, NJ, Jason Aronson) pp. 58–59; Davidson, Israel, "Kol Nidre", The American Jewish Year Book 5684 (1923, NY) p. 185; Kieval, Herman, "The Curious Case of Kol Nidre", Commentary vol. 46, nr. 4, Oct. 1968 pp. 53–58, reprinted as "The Paradox of Kol Nidre" in Goodman, Phillip, The Yom Kippur Anthology (1971, Phil., Jewish Publ'n Soc.) pp. 85–86.
- Scherman, Nosson, The Complete ArtScroll Machzor, Yom Kippur, Nusach Ashkenaz (1986, Brooklyn, Mesorah Publ'ns) p. 54; Nulman, Macy, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ, Jason Aronson) p. 204; Davidson, Israel, "Kol Nidre", The American Jewish Year Book 5684 (1923, NY) pp. 183–184.
- Jewish Encyclopedia (1904, NY) s.v. Kol Nidre, vol. 7 pp. 540–541; Davidson, Israel, "Kol Nidre", The American Jewish Year Book 5684 (1923, NY) p. 184; Bloch, Abraham P., The Biblical and Historical Background of Jewish Customs and Ceremonies (1980, NY, KTAV Publ'g House) page 173.
- Nulman, Macy, Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ, Jason Aronson) p. 203.
- Jewish Encyclopedia (1904, NY) s.v. Kol Nidre, vol. 7 p. 541.
- Nulman, Macy, Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ, Jason Aronson) p. 203; Toledano, Eliezer, The Orot Sephardic Yom Kippur Mahazor (1997, Lakewood, NJ, Orot) p. 78.
- Birnbaum, Philip, High Holyday Prayer Book (1951, NY, Hebrew Pub'g Co.) footnote on p. 491.
- Jacobson, Bernhard S., Days of Awe (orig. 1936, Engl. trans. 1978, Tel Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) p. 113; Encyclopaedia Judaica (2nd ed. 2007) s.v. Kol Nidrei, vol. 12 p. 277. Birnbaum's English translation of the customary Aramaic text of Kol Nidrei is considerably shorter than most other translations since he does not attempt to find an equivalent for each synonym for a vow and simply says "all personal oaths and pledges".
- Davidson, Israel, "Kol Nidre", The American Jewish Year Book 5684 (1923, NY) p. 189.
- Rabbi Mordechai Jaffe of Prague(early 17th cent.), Levush Malkhut (1818, Berditchev)("The whole Kol Nidre text that the cantors now chant is faulty and ungrammatical. It starts in the singular and finishes in the plural ..."), quoted in Deshen, Shlomo, The Kol Nidre Enigma: An Anthropological View of the Day of Atonement Liturgy, Ethnology, vol. 18, nr. 2 (April 1979) page 123; Munk, Elie, The World of Prayer (1963, NY, Feldheim) vol. 2, pages 235-236.
- Idelsohn, Abraham Z., Jewish Music: Its Historical Development (1929, NY, Henry Holt) page 159; Idelsohn, Abraham Z., Jewish Liturgy and Its Development (1932, NY, Henry Holt) page 374.
- Scherman, Nosson, The Complete ArtScroll Machzor, Yom Kippur, Nusach Ashkenaz (1986, Brooklyn, Mesorah Publ'ns) p. 54; Nulman, Macy, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ, Jason Aronson) p. 204; Toledano, Eliezer, The Orot Sephardic Yom Kippur Mahazor (1997, Lakewood, NJ, Orot) p. 76.
- Steinsaltz, Adin, A Guide to Jewish Prayer (2000, NY, Schocken) p. 200.
- Toledano, Eliezer, The Orot Sephardic Yom Kippur Mahazor (1997, Lakewood, NJ, Orot) p. 78.
- Steinsaltz, Adin, A Guide to Jewish Prayer (2000, NY, Schocken) p. 200; Kieval, Herman, "The Curious Case of Kol Nidre", Commentary vol. 46, nr. 4, Oct. 1968 pp. 53–58, reprinted as "The Paradox of Kol Nidre" in Goodman, Phillip, The Yom Kippur Anthology (1971, Phil., Jewish Publ'n Soc.) pp. 95–96.
- e.g., Scherman, Nosson, The Complete ArtScroll Machzor, Yom Kippur, Nusach Ashkenaz (1986, Brooklyn, Mesorah Publ'ns) p. 843 (note nr.91), "The chazzan [cantor] should prolong the recitation of Kol Nidre until it is certainly night .... If Kol Nidre is over before nightfall, chapter of Tehillim [Psalms] should be recited...."
- Hyams, Ario S., "Kol Nidre: The Word in Absolute Music", Journal of Synagogue Music, vol. 5, nr. 2 (June 1974) pages 22-23.
- Nulman, Macy, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ, Jason Aronson) page 355, s.v. venislah.
- This word is the third in the ArtScroll edition; a comparison of just a few machzorim – ArtScroll, Birnbaum, Adler, and Rinat Yisroel – showed that different editions, presumably following various regional traditions, had very slight differences - in the order of the synonyms and a very few times an addition of a synonym for a sort of vow.
- Rosenberg, Arnold S., Jewish Liturgy as a Spiritual System (1997, NJ, Jason Aronson Inc.) page 168.
- Jastrow, Marcus, A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalami and the Midrashic Literature [i.e., of Aramaic] (1903, NY & London) page 1335 right column, s.v. קונם.
- Jastrow, Marcus, A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalami and the Midrashic Literature [i.e., of Aramaic] (1903, NY & London) page 1393 left column, s.v. קנס.
- Rabbeinu Yonah of Gerona (ca. 1200–1263), Shaarei Teshuva: The Gates of Repentance (written c. 1260, first printed 1505) "Third Gate", paragraph 74; "[I]f the delay in the fulfillment of his vows proceeds from forgetfulness, he is punished for this too; for, knowing that forgetfulness is common in a man, he should have reminded himself of his vows and constantly brought them to heart, so as not to forget them, as it is said, 'It is a snare for a man rashly to say, "Holy", and after vows to make inquiry' (Proverbs 20:25)." (English translation published by Feldheim Publishers, NY, 1967, p. 193).
- Scherman, Nosson, The Complete ArtScroll Machzor, Yom Kippur, Nusach Ashkenaz (1986, Brooklyn, Mesorah Publ'ns) p. 52 (commentary to Kol Nidrei Service); Gold, Avi, in Scherman, Nosson, Yom Kippur—its significance, laws, and prayers (1989, Brooklyn, Mesorah Publ'ns) p. 130; Munk, Elie, The World of Prayer (1963, NY, Feldheim) vol. 2, pp. 230–231; Davidson, Israel, "Kol Nidre", The American Jewish Year Book 5684(1923, NY) pp. 185–186.
- Arzt, Maz, Justice and Mercy: Commentary on the Liturgy of the New Year and Day of Atonement (1963, NY, Holt, Rinehart and Winston) p. 202.
- Scherman, Nosson, The Complete ArtScroll Machzor, Yom Kippur, Nusach Ashkenaz (1986, Brooklyn, Mesorah Publ'ns) p. 58.
- reprinted in Birnbaum, Philip, High Holyday Prayer Book (1951, NY, Hebrew Publ'g Co.) p. 491.
- de Sola Pool, David, Prayers for the Day of Atonement, according to the custom of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews (2nd ed., 1943, NY, Union of Sephardic Congregations) p. 26.
- von Heidenheim, Wolf, Mahzor [L'Arvit Yom Kippur] (German-Hebrew ed. 1905, vol. 6, Rodelheim) p. 28.|http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b2505777;view=1up;seq=34
- Adler, Herbert M., Service of the Synagogue: Day of Atonement (1923, London, Routledge) p. 15
- Birnbaum, Philip, High Holyday Prayer Book (1951, NY, Hebrew Publ'g Co.) p. 489.
- Tal, Shlomo, Mahzor Rinat Yisroel, Yom Kippur, Ashkenaz(1979, Jerusalem) p. 40.
- Toledano, Eliezer, The Orot Sephardic Yom Kippur Mahazor (1997, Lakewood, NJ, Orot) Syrian version pp. 79–80 and the version for "many" Sefardic/Mizrahi congregations pp. 84–85, and some recite—in the course of the three repetitions—both alternatives, p. 78.
- Hotsin, Shlomo, Sefer Hayim Tovim, Mahzor Yom Kippur, minhag Bagdadi, (1891, Baghdad) [p. 21].
- Rabbi Toledano's Orot Sephardic Yom Kippur Mahazor has the following terms for vows not used in the ArtScroll Ashkenaz version: nidooyay נדוּיי (anathematize), and koonachay קוּנחי (vows of abstinence) and includes, after "that we have sworn", verses saying "that we have banned, that we have accepted as forbidden [for mundane purposes], that we have anathematized, or that we have prohibited ourselves".
- Of the mahzorim already mentioned, the word appears in the Heidenheim, ArtScroll, Rinat Yisroel, and Adler editions, but is lacking in the Rav Amram, Birnbaum, Orot, Bagdadi, and De Sola Pool editions.
- The Jewish encyclopedia cites the following references:
- Wagenseil, Tela Ignea, Disputatio R. Jechielis. p. 23
- Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenthum, vol. ii., ch. ix., pp. 489 et seq. Königsberg, 1711
- Bodenschatz, Kirchliche Verfassung der Heutigen Juden, part ii., ch. v., § 10, Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1748
- Rohling, Der Talmudjude, pp. 80 et seq., Münster, 1877
- The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (1942, NY) s.v. Kol Nidre, vol. 6, p. 441; Jacobson, Bernhard S., Days of Awe (orig. 1936, Engl. trans. 1978, Tel Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) p. 117.
- Elbogen, Ismar, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (1913, German edition, page 154; Engl.transl. 1993, Philadelphia, Jewish Publ'n Soc.) page 128, emphasis added.
- Jacobson, Bernhard S., Days of Awe (orig. 1936, Engl. trans. 1978, Tel Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) p. 111.
- Bloch, Joseph S. (1850–1923), Israel and the Nations (published in German 1922, English transl. 1927, Vienna) p. 282. "It makes no difference whatever whether the oath was sworn to a Jew or to an inferior idolater. The rabbis point out the sad end of King Zedekiah of Judea as a just punishment of God for his having broken the oath that he had sworn to the pagan king of Babylonia, Nebuchadnezzar...."(referring to Zedekiah's presumed oath of fealty when Nebuchadnezzar had installed him on the throne, violated when Zedekiah mounted an insurrection, Second Kings 24:17–25:7). By the same token, the peace treaty made with the Gibeonites was adhered to notwithstanding that the Gibeonites had obtained it by fraud (Joshua, chap. 9).
- Jacobs, Joseph; Max Schloessinger; Cyrus Adler; Francis L. Cohen. "The Jewish Encyclopedia: Kol Nidre".
- Hertz, J.H., Pentateuch and Haftorahs (1st ed. 1936, 2nd ed. 1960, London: Soncino Press) in "Additional Note to Numbers", 2nd ed p. 730, emphasis in original; and quoted in Kieval, Herman, "The Curious Case of Kol Nidre", Commentary vol. 46, nr. 4, Oct. 1968 pp. 53–58, reprinted as "The Paradox of Kol Nidre" in Goodman, Phillip, The Yom Kippur Anthology (1971, Phil., Jewish Publ'n Soc.) p. 87.
- Petuchowski, Jakob J., Prayerbook Reform in Europe: The Liturgy of European Liberal and Reform Judaism (1968, NY, World Union for Progressive Judaism Ltd.) chapter 15; Friedland, Eric L., The Historical and Theological Development of the Non-Orthodox Prayerbooks in the United States, doctoral dissertation, 1967, NY, Brandeis Univ.) chapter 11; Gershon, Stuart W., Kol Nidrei, Its Origin, Development, and Significance (1994, NJ, Jason Aronson) chapter 11; Hoffman, Lawrence A., Gates of Understanding 2: Appreciating the Days of Awe [companion volume to Stern, Chaim, Gates of Repentance, a Reform prayerbook for the High Holydays](1984, NY, Central Conference of American Rabbis) pp. 114–119 and 201–202.
- The Jewish encyclopedia cites the following references:
- Toledot Adam we-Ḥawwah, ed. 1808, section 14, part iii., p. 88
- Zunz, "G. V." p. 390
- Protocolle der Ersten Rabbiner Versammlung, p. 41, Brunswick, 1844; Petuchowski, Jakob J., Prayerbook Reform in Europe (1968, NY, World Union for Progressive Judaism) pages 336-337 (the entire chapter 15 is devoted to New Versions of Kol Nidre).
- see ib. 1863, Nos. 25, 38; Kieval, Herman, "The Curious Case of Kol Nidre", Commentary vol. 46, nr. 4, Oct. 1968 pp. 53–58, reprinted as "The Paradox of Kol Nidre" in Goodman, Phillip, The Yom Kippur Anthology (1971, Phil., Jewish Publ'n Soc.) p. 92; Friedland, Eric L., The Historical and Theological Development of the Non-Orthodox Prayerbooks in the United States, a Ph.D. dissertation for the Brandeis Univ. Dept of Near Eastern & Judaic Studies (June 1967) page 238.
- Rosenberg, Arnold S., Jewish Liturgy as a Spiritual System (1997, NJ, Jason Aronson Inc.) page 169.
- Kieval, Herman, "The Curious Case of Kol Nidre", Commentary vol. 46, nr. 4, Oct. 1968 pp. 53–58, reprinted as "The Paradox of Kol Nidre" in Goodman, Phillip, The Yom Kippur Anthology (1971, Phil., Jewish Publ'n Soc.) p. 92.
- Allg. Zeit. des Jud. 1885, p. 396
- Petuchowski, Jakob J., Prayerbook Reform in Europe (1968, NY, World Union for Progressive Judaism) pages 337-340.
- Friedland, Eric L., The Historical and Theological Development of the Non-Orthodox Prayerbooks in the United States, a Ph.D. dissertation for the Brandeis Univ. Dept of Near Eastern & Judaic Studies (June 1967) pages 241-244.
- E.g., Mordechai Jaffe (cantor of Prague, early 17th century), quoted in Gershon, Stuart W., Kol Nidrei, Its Origin, Development, and Significance (1994, NJ, Jason Aronson) pp. 90, 96, and 130; Hoffman, Lawrence A., Gates of Understanding 2: Appreciating the Days of Awe [companion volume to Stern, Chaim, Gates of Repentance, a Reform prayerbook for the High Holydays](1984, NY, Central Conference of American Rabbis) p. 202; Davidson, Israel, "Kol Nidre", The American Jewish Year Book 5684 (1923, NY) p. 191. And similarly, Hyams, Ario S., "Kol Nidre: The Word in Absolute Music", Journal of Synagogue Music, vol. 5, nr. 2 (June 1974) pages 21-26.
- Hertz, Joseph H., Authorised Daily Prayer Book (rev. ed. 1948, NY, Bloch Publ'g Co.) page 893.
- Nulman, Macy, Concise Encyclopedia of Jewish Music (1975, NY, McGraw-Hill) s.v. Kol Nidre, page 144.
- Idelsohn, Abraham Z., Jewish Music: Its Historical Development (1929, NY, Henry Holt) pages 159-160.
- Nulman, Macy, Concise Encyclopedia of Jewish Music (1975, NY, McGraw-Hill) s.v. Kol Nidre, page 142.
- Abraham Zvi Idelsohn analyzed the melody of Kol Nidre in his article "Der Juedische Tempelsang" in Guido Adler ed., Handbuch der Musikgeschichte (Frankfurt, Germany, 1924 - and reprinted several times) vol. 1, page 152, which is summarized in English in Spector, Johanna, The Kol Nidre - At Least 1200 Years Old, Journal of Synagogue Music, vol. 33 (Fall 2008) pages 153-156.
- Kennaway, "Discography"
- Multiple performances of Kol Nidre
- Article about Kol Nidre in Ha'aretz
- Jolliet Kol Nidre
- an ad for an ArtScroll edition of the Yom Kippur prayerbook, showing ("View Pages" in "excerpts") an English gloss for every Aramaic word
- Sheet music for Max Bruch's arrangement for Kol Nidre
Notable musical performances and adaptations
- Kol Nidre sung by Perry Como, RCA LPM-3188, 1953
- Kol Nidre sung by Johnny Mathis, orchestration by Percy Faith, Columbia Records CK 64891, 1958
- Kol Nidrei for cello and orchestra by Max Bruch, Julian Lloyd Webber, soloist, 1998