Jerry Lewis

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Jerry Lewis
Jerry Lewis - 1960s.jpg
Lewis in the 1960s
Born
Joseph Levitch

(1926-03-16)March 16, 1926
DiedAugust 20, 2017(2017-08-20) (aged 91)
Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S.
Occupation
  • Comedian
  • actor
  • singer
  • film director
  • film producer
  • screenwriter
  • humanitarian
Years active1931[1]–2017
Spouse(s)
Patti Palmer
(m. 1944; div. 1980)

SanDee Pitnick (m. 1983)
Children7, including Gary Lewis
Websitejerrylewiscomedy.com
Signature
Jerry Lewis signature.svg

Joseph Levitch[a] (March 16, 1926 – August 20, 2017), better known by his stage name Jerry Lewis, was an American comedian, actor, singer, filmmaker and humanitarian and dubbed as "The King of Comedy" and "The Total Filmmaker". Lewis gained his career breakthrough with fellow singer Dean Martin, billed as Martin & Lewis, in 1946 and would perform together for ten years until an acrimonious break up of the partnership in 1956.

Lewis pursued a solo career as a filmmaker and comedian, starring in several successful movies, ventured into behind-the-scenes work as a director, producer and screenwriter, performed comedy routines on stage and released several albums as a singer, selling millions of records. Throughout his career, he raised awareness for muscular dystrophy, while as national chairman of the Muscular Dystrophy Association. Lewis also had a lifelong friendship with Sammy Davis Jr.

Early life and beginnings[edit]

Lewis was born on March 16, 1926 in Newark, New Jersey, to Daniel "Danny" Levitch (1902 – 1980), a master of ceremonies and vaudevillian, who performed under the stage name Danny Lewis, from New York whose parents immigrated to the United States from the Russian Empire, and Rachael "Rae" Levitch (née Brodsky; 1903 – 1983), a WOR pianist and Danny's music director from Warsaw.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Reports as to his birth name are conflicting; in Lewis' 1982 autobiography, he claimed his birth name was Joseph, after his maternal grandfather, but his birth certificate,[11][12] the 1930 U. S. Census, and the 1940 U. S. Census all name him as Jerome.[13][14][15][16]

Lewis said that he ceased using the names Joseph and Joey as an adult to avoid being confused with Joe E. Lewis and Joe Louis.[8] Reports as to the hospital in which he was born conflict as well, with biographer Shawn Levy claiming he was born at Clinton Private Hospital and others claiming Newark Beth Israel Hospital.[17][18][19][20] Other claims of his early life also conflict with accounts made by family members, burial records, and vital records.

He was a "character" even in his teenage years, pulling pranks in his neighborhood including sneaking into kitchens to steal fried chicken and pies. He dropped out of Irvington High School in the tenth grade. By age 15, he had developed his "Record Act" miming lyrics to songs while a phonograph played offstage. He landed a gig at a burlesque house in Buffalo, but his performance fell flat and was unable to book any more shows. Lewis worked as a soda jerk and a theater usher for Suzanne Pleshette's father Gene at the Paramount Theater[21][22][23][24][25] to make ends meet.

A veteran burlesque comedian, Max Coleman, who had worked with Lewis' father years before, persuaded him to try again. Irving Kaye,[26][27][28][29] a Borscht Belt comedian, saw Lewis' mime act at Brown's Hotel in Loch Sheldrake, New York, the following summer, and the audience was so enthusiastic that Kaye became Lewis' manager and guardian for Borscht Belt appearances.[30] During World War II, he was rejected for military service because of a heart murmur.[31]

Career[edit]

Performing with Dean Martin[edit]

Lewis with Dean Martin in 1950

Lewis initially gained attention as part of a double act with singer Dean Martin, who served as straight man to Lewis' zany antics as the Martin and Lewis comedy team. They were different from other duo acts of the time because they played to each other and had ad-libbed improvisational segments within their planned routines.

After forming in 1946, they quickly rose to national prominence, first with their popular nightclub act, then as stars of their NBC radio program The Martin and Lewis Show.[32] The two made appearances on early live television on their June 20, 1948 debut broadcast on Toast of the Town (later renamed as The Ed Sullivan Show on September 25, 1955) on CBS.[33] This was followed by a guest stint on The Milton Berle Show, then their appearance on NBC's Welcome Aboard on October 3, 1948.

In 1950, Martin and Lewis signed with NBC to be one of a series of weekly rotating hosts of The Colgate Comedy Hour, a live Sunday evening broadcast. Lewis, writer for the team's nightclub act, hired Norman Lear and Ed Simmons as regular writers for their Comedy Hour material.[34][35] Their Comedy Hour shows consisted of stand-up dialogue, song and dance from their nightclub act and movies, backed by Dick Stabile's big band, slapstick and satirical sketch comedy, Martin's solo songs, and Lewis' solo pantomimes or physical numbers.

Martin and Lewis often broke character, ad-libbing and breaking the fourth wall. While not completely capturing the orchestrated mayhem of their nightclub act, the Comedy Hour displayed charismatic energy between the team and established their popularity nationwide. By 1951, with an appearance at the Paramount Theater, they were a cultural phenomenon, attracting crowds rivaled only by Frank Sinatra earlier and later by Elvis Presley and The Beatles. The duo began their film careers at Paramount Pictures as ensemble players, in a 1949 film adaptation of the radio series My Friend Irma and its sequel My Friend Irma Goes West (1950).

Soon after, Martin and Lewis starred in their own vehicles in 14 new movies, At War with the Army (1950), That's My Boy (1951), Sailor Beware (1952), Jumping Jacks (1952), The Stooge (1952), Scared Stiff (1953), The Caddy (1953), Money from Home (1953), Living It Up (1954), 3 Ring Circus (1954), You're Never Too Young (1955), Artists and Models (1955), Pardners (1956) and Hollywood or Bust (1956). All 16 films were produced by Hal B. Wallis.

They also starred as cameos in Bing Crosby and Bob Hope's film Road to Bali (1952). Hope and Crosby would do the same in Lewis and Martin's Scared Stiff a year later. Attesting to the duo's popularity, DC Comics published The Adventures of Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis from 1952 to 1957. In 1954, the team appeared on episode 191 of What's My Line? as mystery guests, appeared on the 27th annual Academy Awards in 1955 and appeared on The Steve Allen Show and The Today Show in 1956.

The Martin and Lewis films were reliable financial successes for Paramount, and hugely popular with audiences. In later years, both Lewis and Martin admitted frustration, and were critical of Wallis for his formulaic and trite film choices, restricting them to narrow, repetitive roles. As Martin's roles in their films became less important over time, Lewis receiving the majority of critical acclaim, the partnership came under strain.

Martin's participation became an embarrassment in 1954 when Look magazine published a publicity photo of the team for the magazine cover but cropped Martin out.[36] The partnership ended with their final nightclub act on July 24, 1956 (exactly 10 years to the day of their debut as a duo). Both Martin and Lewis went on to highly successful solo careers, and neither would comment on the split nor consider a reunion. However, they would occasionally be seen at the same public events, though never together.

Going solo[edit]

Late 1950s and 1960s[edit]

After his partnership with Martin ended in 1956, Lewis and his wife Patty took a vacation in Las Vegas to consider the direction of his career. He felt his life was in a crisis state: "I was unable to put one foot in front of the other with any confidence. I was completely unnerved to be alone".[31] While there, he received an urgent request from his friend Sid Luft, who was Judy Garland's husband and manager, saying that she couldn't perform that night in Las Vegas because of strep throat,[31] and asking Lewis to fill in.

Lewis had not sung alone on stage since he was five years old, twenty-five years before, but he appeared before the audience of a thousand nonetheless, delivering jokes and clowning with the audience while Garland sat off-stage, watching. He then sang a rendition of a song he'd learned as a child, "Rock-a-Bye Your Baby with a Dixie Melody" along with "Come Rain or Come Shine." Lewis recalled, "When I was done, the place exploded. I walked off the stage knowing I could make it on my own".[31]

At his wife's pleading, Lewis used his own money to record the songs on a single.[37] Record company Decca Records heard it, liked it and insisted he record an album for them.[38] The single of Rock-a-Bye Your Baby went to #10 and the album Jerry Lewis Just Sings went to #3 on the Billboard charts, staying near the top for four months and selling a million and a half copies.[31][39]

With the success of that album he recorded the additional albums More Jerry Lewis (an EP of songs from this release was released as Somebody Loves Me), and Jerry Lewis Sings Big Songs For Little People (later reissued with fewer tracks as Jerry Lewis Sings For Children). Non-album singles were released, and It All Depends On You, hit the charts in April and May 1957, but peaked at only #68. Further singles were recorded and released by Lewis into the mid-1960s.

But these were not Lewis's first foray into recording, nor his first appearance on the hit charts. During his partnership with Martin, they made several recordings together, charting at #22 in 1948 with the 1920s chestnut That Certain Party and later mostly re-recording songs highlighted in their films. Also during the time of their partnership, but without Martin, he recorded numerous novelty-comedy numbers for adults as well as records specifically intended for the children's market.

Having proven he could sing and do live shows, he began performing regularly at the Sands Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas, beginning in late 1956, which marked a turning point in his life and career. The Sands signed him for five years, to perform six weeks each year and paid him the same amount they had paid Martin and Lewis as a team.[38] The critics gave him positive reviews: "Jerry was wonderful. He has proved that he can be a success by himself," wrote one.[38] He continued with club performances in Miami, New York, Chicago and Washington.

Such live performances became a staple of his career and over the years he performed at casinos, theaters and state fairs coast-to-coast. In February 1957, he followed Garland at the Palace Theater in New York and Martin called on the phone during this period to wish him the best of luck.[38] "I've never been happier," said Lewis. "I have peace of mind for the first time."[38] Lewis established himself as a solo act on TV starting with the first of six appearances on What's My Line? from 1956 to 1966.

He guest appeared on both Tonight Starring Jack Paar and The Ed Sullivan Show and beginning in January 1957, in a number of solo TV specials for NBC. He starred in his adaptation of "The Jazz Singer" for Startime. Lewis hosted the Academy Awards three times, in 1956, 1957 and the 31st Academy Awards in 1959, which ran twenty minutes short, forcing Lewis to improvise to fill time.[40] DC Comics, switching from Martin and Lewis, published a new comic book series titled The Adventures of Jerry Lewis, running from 1957 to 1971.

Lewis would remain at Paramount, becoming a comedy star in his own right and his first solo movie was The Delicate Delinquent (1957), marking Lewis' debut as film producer. It originally had been planned as the next Martin and Lewis film. He and Martin had made two films with director Frank Tashlin, whose background as a Looney Tunes cartoon director suited Lewis' brand of humor. After starring in The Sad Sack (1957), Lewis made more films with Tashlin starting with Rock-A-Bye Baby (1958) and The Geisha Boy (1958).

Occasionally twice, Martin invited Lewis on stage, in 1958 and 1961, but the split was too serious for them to reconcile. Lewis starred in Don't Give Up The Ship (1959) and then cameo appeared in Li'l Abner (1959). After his contract with Wallis ended, Lewis had several movies under his belt and was eager to flex his creative muscle. He was free to deepen his comedy with pathos, believing, "Funny without pathos is a pie in the face. And a pie in the face is funny, but I wanted more." In 1959, a contract between Paramount and Jerry Lewis Productions was signed specifying a payment of $10 million plus 60% of the profits for 14 films over seven years.[41]

This contract made Lewis the highest paid individual Hollywood talent to date and was unprecedented in that he had unlimited creative control, including final cut and the return of film rights after 30 years. Lewis' clout and box office were so strong (his films had already earned Paramount $100 million in rentals[42]) that Barney Balaban, head of production at Paramount at that time, told the press, "If Jerry wants to burn down the studio I'll give him the match!"[43]

Lewis in 1973

He had finished his film contract with Wallis with Visit to a Small Planet (1960) and wrapped up production on his own film Cinderfella (1960), directed by Tashlin. The movie was postponed for a Christmas 1960 release. Paramount Pictures, needing a quickie motion picture for its summer 1960 schedule, held Lewis to his contract to produce one.[44] As a result, he made his debut as film director of and starred in The Bellboy (1960).

Using the Fontainebleau Hotel in Miami as his setting — on a small budget, with a very tight shooting schedule — Lewis shot the film during the day and performed at the hotel in the evenings.[44] Bill Richmond collaborated with him on many of the sight gags. Lewis later revealed that Paramount was not happy about financing a "silent movie" and withdrew backing. Lewis used his own funds to cover the movie's $950,000 budget.

Lewis followed "The Bellboy" by directing several more movies he co-wrote with Richmond, including The Ladies Man (1961), where Lewis constructed a three-story dollhouse-like set spanning two sound stages. The set was equipped with state of the art lighting and sound, eliminating the need for boom mics in each room.

His next feature The Errand Boy (1961), was one of the earliest films about moviemaking, utilizing all of Paramount's backlot and offices. Lewis then starred in his first special in three years The Wacky World of Jerry Lewis. He appeared in an episode of Celebrity Golf followed by a guest spot on an episode of The Garry Moore Show. He then starred in Tashlin's It's Only Money (1962).

Lewis took on as guest host on The Tonight Show during the transition from Jack Paar to Johnny Carson in 1962. His appearance on the show scored the highest ratings thus far in late night, surpassing other guest hosts and Paar. The three major networks began a bidding war, wooing Lewis for his own talk show, which debuted the following year. Lewis then directed, co-wrote and starred in the smash hit The Nutty Professor (1963).

A parody of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, it featured him as a socially awkward professor inventing a serum that turns him into a handsome but obnoxious ladies man. It is largely considered to be Lewis' finest and most memorable film (being selected in 2004 for preservation in the U.S. National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant"). Lewis then appeared in a cameo role in the United Artists epic It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963).

He starred next in Tashlin's Who's Minding the Store? (1963) and then hosted The Jerry Lewis Show, a 13-week lavish, big-budget show for ABC, that aired from September to December in 1963. The show suffered in the ratings, beleaguered by technical and other difficulties, including the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, which left the country in a somber mood. Lewis co-wrote and starred in The Patsy (1964), his satire about the Hollywood star-making industry.

His last film collaboration with Tashlin was The Disorderly Orderly (1964), which Lewis not only starred in but executive produced. After that, he then directed, co-wrote and appeared in The Family Jewels (1965) about a young heiress who must choose among six uncles, one of whom is up to no good and out to harm the girl's beloved bodyguard who practically raised her. Lewis played all six uncles and the bodyguard.[45] This Diamond Ring, a song sung by Lewis' son Gary Lewis and his band was featured in the film.

In 1965, Lewis was interviewed on The David Susskind Show, then on to co-star in Boeing Boeing (1965), his last film for Paramount while Tony Curtis was the movie's lead and is based on the French stage play.[46] He received a Golden Globe nomination for this role. Lewis directed and appeared on an episode of Ben Casey, an early dramatic role, appeared on The Andy Williams Show and Hullabaloo with his son Gary Lewis. In 1966, after 17 years, Lewis left Paramount, which changed ownership while its new executives declined to renew his 1959 profit sharing contract.[citation needed]

Lewis went on to do new movies for other studios, starting with Three on a Couch (1966), then as guest on The Merv Griffin Show alongside Richard Pryor. Lewis starred in Way...Way Out (1966), appeared on The Sammy Davis Jr. Show, then had cameos in Batman, Laugh In, was a panelist on Password and in a pilot for Sheriff Who. Lewis returned with a new version of The Jerry Lewis Show, this time as a one-hour variety show for NBC, which ran from 1967 to 1969.[47] He would next direct and star in The Big Mouth (1967) and starred on Run For Your Life.

Lewis made an appearance on The Danny Thomas Hour, starred in Don't Raise the Bridge, Lower the River (1968) and then appear as a guest on Playboy After Dark, surprising friend Sammy Davis Jr. in 1968. Lewis went on to star in and produce Hook, Line & Sinker (1969) and afterwards, guest starred in an episode of Jimmy Durante Presents the Lennon Sisters Hour.

1970s and later years[edit]

Lewis performing

In 1970, Lewis guest appeared on The Red Skelton Show, then contributed to some scripts for Filmation's animated show Will the Real Jerry Lewis Please Sit Down. He later guest hosted The Mike Douglas Show and then directed an episode of The Bold Ones. He made guest appearances on The Hollywood Palace, The Engelbert Humperdinck Show, The Irv Kupcinet Show, The Linkletter Show, The Real Tom Kennedy Show and A Christmas Night with the Stars.

Lewis then directed and made his first offscreen voice performance as a bandleader in One More Time (1970), a sequel to the 1968 film Salt and Pepper, at times turning stars Peter Lawford and Davis Jr. into something of an erstwhile faux Martin and Lewis. His next film was Which Way to the Front? (1970) and guest spots on The Carol Burnett Show, The Rolf Harris Show and The Kraft Music Hall in 1971.

Lewis then directed and starred in the partly unreleased The Day the Clown Cried (1972), a drama set in a Nazi concentration camp. Lewis rarely discussed the film, but stated litigation over post-production finances and copyright prevented the film's completion and theatrical release. During his book tour for Dean and Me he also said a factor for the film's burial was that he was not proud of the effort.

Lewis explained his reason for choosing the project and the emotional difficulty of the subject matter in an interview with an Australian documentary film crew.[48] A 31-minute version was shown on the German television station ARD, in the documentary Der Clown. It was later put on DVD and shown at Deutsches Filminstitute

Within historical context, the movie was the earliest attempt by an American motion picture director to address the subject of The Holocaust, preceding by thirteen years Claude Lanzmann's groundbreaking film Shoah,[49] and more than twenty years, Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List and Life is Beautiful, dealing with similar themes. Significant speculation continues to surround the film. Following this, Lewis would take a break from the movie business for several years.

In 1973, Lewis was a guest on The Dick Cavett Show and NBC Follies. He then appeared on Celebrity Sportsman in 1974. Next, Lewis appeared as guest on both Cher and Dinah! in 1975. Lewis then guested on an episode of Tony Orlando and Dawn. In September 1976, Sinatra shocked Lewis by bringing Dean Martin on stage during the 11th annual Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon.

As Martin and Lewis embraced, the audience cheered and the phones lit up, resulting in one of the telethon's most profitable years. Lewis reported the event was one of the three most memorable of his life. Lewis quipped, "So, you working?", which he stated was a call-back to a remark he'd made to Martin when they first met. Martin, playing drunk, replied that he was "at the Meggum" (meaning the MGM Grand). The reunion made international headlines and is considered one of the most iconic moments in TV history.[50]

Lewis would return the surprise the following year by walking onto the Aladdin stage in Las Vegas during Martin and Sinatra's performance and exchanged jokes for several minutes.[51] Lewis then starred in a revival of Hellzapoppin with co-star Lynn Redgrave, but closed on the road before reaching Broadway.[52] In 1979, he guest hosted as ringmaster of Circus of the Stars.

Lewis in 1981

After 11 years of absence, Lewis returned to the big screen in Hardly Working (1981), which he directed and starred in. Despite being panned by critics, it eventually earned $50 million. In 1982, Lewis was a guest on Late Night with David Letterman. In 1983, Lewis co-starred in Martin Scorsese's film The King of Comedy, as a late-night TV host, plagued by two obsessive fans, played by Robert De Niro and Sandra Bernhard. He received wide critical acclaim and a BAFTA nomination for this serious dramatic role.

Lewis guest hosted Saturday Night Live and also starred in Cracking Up a.k.a. Smorgasbord (1983) and Slapstick (Of Another Kind) (1984), then starred in two French films, To Catch a Cop a.k.a. The Defective Detective (1984) and How Did You Get In? We Didn't See You Leave (1984), both of which had their distribution under Lewis' control; Lewis stated that they would never be released in American movie theaters and on home media.

He then hosted a syndicated talk show for Metromedia, which was not continued beyond the scheduled five shows. In 1985, Lewis directed an episode of the Showtime series Brothers. In 1986, Lewis appeared at the first Comic Relief, where he was the only performer to receive a standing ovation and after that, he was interviewed on Classic Treasures. Lewis also starred in the ABC televised movie Fight For Life (1987).

In 1987, 31 years after his first double act with Martin, Lewis performed in Las Vegas with Davis Jr. That same year, he also learned of the death of Martin's son Dean Paul Martin and attended the funeral, which lead to a more substantial reconciliation with Martin. In 1988, Lewis hosted America's All-Time Favorite Movies, then was interviewed by Howard Cosell on Speaking of Everything. He then starred in five episodes of the CBS program Wiseguy.

The filming schedule of the show forced Lewis to miss the Museum of the Moving Image's opening with a retrospective of his work. In 1989, Lewis joined Martin on stage, for what would be Martin's final live performance, at Bally's Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas. Lewis wheeled out a cake on Martin's 72nd birthday, sang "Happy Birthday" to him and joked, "Why we broke up, I'll never know".[53] Again, their appearance together made headlines. He then appeared in Cookie (1989).

In 1991, Lewis guest starred in and directed an episode of the FOX series Good Grief. In 1992, Lewis had a cameo in Mr. Saturday Night (1992), appeared as a guest on The Arsenio Hall Show, The Whoopi Goldberg Show and Inside The Comedy Mind. Lewis did a three-part retrospective for The Disney Channel entitled Martin & Lewis: Their Golden Age of Comedy, using previously unseen kinescopes from his personal archive, highlighting his years as part of a team with Martin and as a soloist.

In 1993, he was the first of a series of 'classic' comedians to guest star in Mad About You, playing an eccentric billionaire. He appearanced on Larry King Live many times and co-starred in the film Arizona Dream (1993) as a car salesman uncle to as his nephew. Lewis then starred as the 'Comedy Legend' father of a young comic in Funny Bones (1995).

Lewis' role serves as the metaphorical pivot in 20th Century comedy, from slapstick anarchists to clever storytellers.[54] Both Arizona Dream and Funny Bones were tongue-in-cheek roles for independent films. In 1995, realizing a lifelong ambition, Lewis made his Broadway debut, as a replacement cast member, in a revival of Damn Yankees.[55] Playing the devil, he was reportedly paid the highest sum in Broadway history at the time.[56]

He performed in both the national and London runs of the musical. Lewis missed three performances of the live show in four-plus years, one being Martin's funeral. He was then interviewed by James Lipton on Inside the Actors Studio. In 1996, Lewis served as executive producer of The Nutty Professor remake, starring Eddie Murphy. Lewis would next appear on the 12th annual American Comedy Awards in 1998.

In 2000, Lewis appeared as a guest on The Martin Short Show, then on Russell Gilbert Live and executive produced The Nutty Professor II: The Klumps. In 2003, Lewis did guest appearances on Your World with Neil Cavuto and did a guest voice as Professor Frink's father in a Treehouse of Horror episode of The Simpsons. He then made a cameo in Miss Cast Away and the Island Girls in 2004. In 2005, Lewis went on make guest appearances on Late Night with Conan O' Brien and Live with Kelly.

In 2006, he guest starred in an episode of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit as Munch's uncle. Lewis sang and recorded the duet song "Time After Time" with Dean Martin's daughter, Deana Martin, for her album Memories Are Made of This. He then appeared on the 81st Academy Awards in 2009.

Lewis at the Cannes Film Festival in 2013

Lewis made a musical theatre play of The Nutty Professor[57][58] at the Tennessee Performing Arts Center in Nashville in 2012. In Brazil, Lewis appeared in Till Luck Do Us Part 2 (2013), a sequel to the 2012 film Till Luck Do Us Part. In 2014, Lewis was guest on The Talk and on The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon. In 2015, Lewis guest appeared on The World Over with Raymond Arroyo.

Lewis starred in a small role in The Trust (2016) and a serious lead role in his final film Max Rose (2016), which premiered at the Cannes Film Festival.[59] He was a guest on WTF with Marc Maron and in December, expressed interest in another movie.[60] Lewis' last appearance was in an episode of Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee.

Video assist[edit]

During production of The Bellboy, Lewis pioneered the technique of using video cameras and multiple closed circuit monitors,[61] which allowed him to review his performance instantly. This was necessary since he was acting as well as directing. His techniques and methods of video assist, documented in his book and his USC class, enabled him to complete most of his films on time and under budget since reshoots could take place immediately instead of waiting for the dailies.

Man in Motion,[62] a featurette for Three on a Couch, features the video system, named "Jerry's Noisy Toy"[63] and shows Lewis receiving the Golden Light Technical Achievement award for its development. Lewis stated he worked with the head of Sony to produce the prototype. While he initiated its practice and use, and was instrumental in its development, he did not hold a patent.[64][65] This practice is now commonplace in filmmaking.

Film class and ventures[edit]

Starting in 1967, Lewis taught a film directing class at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles for a number of years. His students included George Lucas, whose friend Steven Spielberg sometimes sat in on classes.[66] Lewis screened Spielberg's early film Amblin' and told his students, "That's what filmmaking is all about."[67] The class covered all topics related to filmmaking, including pre and post production, marketing and distribution and filming comedy with rhythm and timing.[68]

His book The Total Film Maker (1971), was based on 480 hours of his class lectures.[69] Lewis traveled to medical schools for seminars on laughter and healing with Dr. Clifford Kuhn and also did corporate and college lectures, motivational speaking and promoted the pain-treatment company Medtronic.

Critical acclaim in France[edit]

While Lewis was popular in France for his duo films with Dean Martin and his solo comedy films, his reputation and stature increased after the Paramount contract, when he began to exert total control over all aspects of his films. His involvement in directing, writing, editing and art direction coincided with the rise of auteur theory in French intellectual film criticism and the French New Wave movement. He earned consistent praise from French critics in the influential magazines Cahiers du Cinéma and Positif, where he was hailed as an ingenious auteur.

His singular mise-en-scene, and skill behind the camera, were aligned with Howard Hawks, Alfred Hitchcock and Satyajit Ray. Appreciated too, was the complexity of his also being in front of the camera. The new French criticism viewed cinema as an art form unto itself, and comedy as part of this art. Lewis is then fitted into a historical context and seen as not only worthy of critique, but as an innovator and satirist of his time.[70] Jean-Pierre Coursodon states in a 1975 Film Comment article, "The merit of the French critics, auteurist excesses notwithstanding, was their willingness to look at what Lewis was doing as a filmmaker for what it was, rather than with some preconception of what film comedy should be."

Not yet curricula at universities or art schools, Cinema Studies and Film theory were avant-garde in early 1960s America. Mainstream movie reviewers such as Pauline Kael, were dismissive of auteur theory, and others, seeing only absurdist comedy, criticized Lewis for his ambition and "castigated him for his self-indulgence" and egotism.[71] "The total film-maker, so admired in France, made Hollywood uncomfortable, since the system has always operated otherwise."

Appreciation of Lewis became a misunderstood stereotype about "the French", and it was often the object of jokes in American pop culture.[72] "That Americans can't see Jerry Lewis' genius is bewildering," says N. T. Binh, a French film magazine critic. Such bewilderment was the basis of the book Why the French Love Jerry Lewis.[73] In response to the lingering perception that French audiences adored him, Lewis stated in interviews he was more popular in (Germany), Japan and Australia.

Activism with MDA[edit]

Lewis was also a world-renowned humanitarian, philanthropist and "number one volunteer" who supported fundraising for research into muscular dystrophy. In 1951, Lewis and Martin made their first appeal for the Muscular Dystrophy Association (formerly the Muscular Dystrophy Associations of America) in early December during the finale of The Colgate Comedy Hour. In 1952, after another appeal, Lewis hosted New York area telethons until 1959 and in 1954, has fought Rocky Marciano in a boxing bout for MDA's fund drive.

Airing every Labor Day weekend for 44 years from 1966 to 2010, The Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon was the most successful fundraising event on television

In 1956, Lewis was named national chairman of the Muscular Dystrophy Association,[74] then in late 1966, the live annual Labor Day event of The Jerry Lewis MDA Labor Day Telethon (also referred to as Jerry Lewis Extra Special Special, Jerry Lewis Super Show and Jerry Lewis Stars Across America) debuted in syndication and would air each year.

The first show would air on one TV station, which is New York-based WNEW. In 1968, Ed McMahon (famously known as announcer, second banana and sidekick to Johnny Carson on The Tonight Show) would began his involvement on the telethon and would co-anchor the event with Lewis every year until 2008. The program was seen on 150 local stations (known as the MDA "Love Network") throughout the United States.

For decades, the legendary broadcast originated from different locations including New York, Las Vegas and Hollywood and was the most successful fundraising event in the history of television. The show, with Lewis as its iconic host and emcee and help from a legion of top celebrities and entertainers, raised billions of dollars during the years. In 1977, Lewis was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize for his work with the charity.

In its first year, the show raised over $1 million.[citation needed] By 1990, pop culture had shifted its view of disabled individuals and the telethon format. Lewis and the telethon's methods were criticized by disabled-rights activists who believed the show was "designed to evoke pity rather than empower the disabled." [75] The activists said the telethon perpetuated prejudices and stereotypes, that Lewis treated those he claimed to be helping with little respect, and that he used offensive language when describing them.[76]

Lewis rebutted the criticism and defended his methods saying, "If you don't tug at their heartstrings, then you're on the air for nothing." [77] The activist protests represented a very small minority of countless MDA patients and clients who had directly benefitted from Lewis' MDA fundraising. It is not known if the disabled-rights activists raised funds to assist other clients afflicted with Muscular Dystrophy.

In 1998, Lewis' telethon became the first ever to be viewed around the globe via internet simulcast by RealNetworks on MDA's website. He received a Governors Award in 2005 and the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award in 2009, in recognition of his fight for the cause and his efforts for MDA. On August 3, 2011, it was announced that Lewis would no longer host the MDA telethons[78] and that he was no longer associated with the Muscular Dystrophy Association[79]

"Smile", "What the World Needs Now Is Love" and "You'll Never Walk Alone" have been forever associated throughout the program's 44-year run. The first song served as the intro, the second for the timpani and tote board cues and the third to close the show. A tribute to Lewis was held during the 2011 telethon (originally was to be Lewis' final show bearing his name with MDA) and then on May 1, 2015, it was announced that in view of "the new realities of television viewing and philanthropic giving", the telethon was being discontinued.[80]

In early 2016, Lewis broke a five-year silence during a special taped message at MDA's brand re-launch event at Carnegie Hall in New York City for the organization on its website in honor of its rebranding marking his first (and as it turned out, his final) appearance in support of MDA since his final telethon in 2010 and the end of his tenure as national chairman in 2011.[citation needed]

Lewis raised an estimated $2.6 billion in donations for the cause.[81] MDA's website states, "Jerry's love, passion and brilliance are woven throughout this organization, which he helped build from the ground up, courted sponsors for MDA, appeared at openings of MDA care and research centers, addressed meetings of civic organizations, volunteers and the MDA Board of Directors, successfully lobbied Congress for federal neuromuscular disease research funds, made countless phone calls and visits to families served by MDA.

During Lewis' lifetime, MDA-funded scientists discovered the causes of most of the diseases in the Muscular Dystrophy Association's program, developing treatments, therapies and standards of care that have allowed many people living with these diseases to live longer and grow stronger."[82] Over 200 research and treatment facilities were built with donations raised by the Jerry Lewis Telethons.

Other activities[edit]

Lewis opened a camera shop in 1950, then in 1969, Lewis agreed to lend his name to "Jerry Lewis Cinemas", offered by National Cinema Corporation as a franchise business opportunity for those interested in theatrical movie exhibition. Jerry Lewis Cinemas stated that their theaters could be operated by a staff of as few as two with the aid of automation and support provided by the franchiser in booking film and other aspects of film exhibition. A forerunner of the smaller rooms typical of later multi-screen complexes, a Jerry Lewis Cinema was billed in franchising ads as a "mini-theatre" with a seating capacity of between 200 and 350.

In addition to Lewis's name, each Jerry Lewis Cinemas bore a sign with a cartoon logo of Lewis in profile.[83] Initially 158 territories were franchised, with a buy-in fee of $10,000 or $15,000 depending on the territory, for what was called an "individual exhibitor". For $50,000, Jerry Lewis Cinemas offered an opportunity known as an "area directorship", in which investors controlled franchising opportunities in a territory as well as their own cinemas.[84] The success of the chain was hampered by a policy of only booking second-run, family-friendly films.

Eventually the policy was changed, and the Jerry Lewis Cinemas were allowed to show more competitive movies. But after a decade the chain failed and both Lewis and National Cinema Corporation declared bankruptcy in 1980.[85] In 1973, Lewis appeared on the 1st annual 20-hour Highway Safety Foundation telethon, hosted by Davis Jr. and Monty Hall. In 1990, Lewis wrote and directed a short film for UNICEF's How Are The Children? anthology exploring the rights of children worldwide. The eight-minute segment, titled Boy, was about a young white child in a black world and being subjected to quiet, insidious racism, and outright racist bullying.[86]

In 2010, Lewis met with seven-year-old Lochie Graham, who shared his idea for "Jerry's House", a place for vulnerable and traumatized children. Lewis and Graham entered into a joint partnership for an Australian and a U.S.-based charity and began raising funds to build the facility in Melbourne.[87][88] On September 12, 2016, Lewis lent his name and star power to Criss Angel's HELP (Heal Every Life Possible) charity event.

Lewis kept a low political profile for many years, having taken advice reportedly given to him by President John F. Kennedy, who told him "Don't get into anything political. Don't do that because they will usurp your energy".[89] Nevertheless, he campaigned and performed on behalf of both JFK and Robert F. Kennedy. Lewis was a supporter of the Civil Rights Movement. For his 1957 NBC special, Lewis held his ground when southern affiliates objected to his stated friendship with Sammy Davis Jr. In a 1971 Movie Mirror magazine article, Lewis came out against the Vietnam War, when his son, Gary, returned from service traumatized. He vowed to leave the country rather than send another of his sons.

Lewis once stated political speeches should not be at the Oscars. "I think we are the most dedicated industry in the world. And I think that we have to present ourselves that night as hard-working, caring and important people to the industry. We need to get more self-respect as an industry".[90] In a 2004 interview with The Guardian, Lewis was asked what he was least proud of, to which he answered, "Politics". Not his politics, but the world's politics – the madness, the destruction, the general lack of respect.

He lamented citizens' lack of pride in their country, stating, "President Bush is my president. I will not say anything negative about the president of the United States. I don't do that. And I don't allow my children to do that. Likewise when I come to England don't you do any jokes about 'Mum' to me. That is the Queen of England, you moron." "Do you know how tough a job it is to be the Queen of England?"[91]

In a December 2015 interview on EWTN's World Over with Raymond Arroyo, Lewis expressed opposition to the United States letting in Syrian refugees, saying "No one has worked harder for the human condition than I have, but they're not part of the human condition if 11 guys in that group of 10,000 are ISIS. How can I take that chance?"[92] In the same interview, he criticized President Barack Obama for not being prepared for ISIS, while expressing support for Donald Trump, saying he would make a good president because he was a good "showman". He also added that he admired Ronald Reagan's presidency.[93][94][95]

In 1998, at the Aspen U.S. Comedy Arts Festival, when asked which women comics he admired, Lewis answered, "I don't like any female comedians." "A woman doing comedy doesn't offend me but sets me back a bit." [96] He later clarified his statements saying, "Seeing a woman project the kind of aggression that you have to project as a comic just rubs me wrong." "I cannot sit and watch a lady diminish her qualities to the lowest common denominator." Lewis explained his attitude as that of an older generation and said women are funny, but not when performing 'broad' or 'crude' humor.

He went on to praise Lucille Ball as "brilliant" and said Carol Burnett is "the greatest female entrepreneur of comedy." On other occasions Lewis expressed admiration for female comedians Totie Fields, Phyllis Diller, Kathleen Freeman, Elayne Boosler, Whoopi Goldberg and Tina Fey. During the 2007 MDA Telethon, Lewis used the word "fag" in a joke, for which he apologized.[97] Lewis used the same word the following year on Australian television.[98] In 2017, Lewis invited the world's most influential minds of comedy to join him at the inaugural Legionnaires of Laughter.[citation needed]

Personal life[edit]

Relationships and children[edit]

Lewis wed Patti Palmer[99][100][101] (later Lewis, née Esther Grace Calonico;[8][102] born 1922[103]), an Italian American[103] singer with Ted Fio Rito,[8] on October 3, 1944, and the two had six children together, five biological, Gary Levitch (later Lewis)[8][104] (born 1946), Scott (born 1956), Christopher[105] (born 1957), Anthony[106] (born 1959), and Joseph[107][108] (1964 – 2009), and one adopted, Ronald[106] (born 1949). It was an Interfaith marriage; Lewis was Jewish and Palmer was Catholic. Palmer filed for divorce from Lewis in 1980, after 35 years of marriage, citing Lewis' extravagant spending and infidelity on his part, and it was finalized in 1983.[109][110][111] All of Lewis' children and grandchildren from his marriage to Palmer were excluded from inheriting any part of his estate.[106][112] While married to Palmer, Lewis openly pursued relationships with other women and gave unapologetic interviews about his infidelity, revealing his affairs with Marilyn Monroe and Marlene Dietrich to People in 2011.[113] His eldest son, Gary, publicly called his father a "mean and evil person" and said that Lewis never showed him or his siblings any love or care.[111]

Lewis' second wife was Sandra "SanDee" Pitnick,[114] a stewardess who met Lewis after winning a bit part in his film, Hardly Working. They were wed on February 13, 1983, in Key Biscayne, Florida[115] and had one child together, an adopted daughter named Danielle (born 1992).[109][116][117][118][119][120][121]

During his marriage to Palmer, Lewis purportedly had an affair with model Lynn Dixon (née Esther Lynn Schaffel, born 1920), by whom he allegedly had an illegitimate daughter, Suzan Minoret[122] (née Uchitel;[123] born 1952).[124][125][111] While Lewis never publicly denied or confirmed his relationship to Minoret, genetic testing performed in 2009 by professionals hired by Inside Edition determined there was more than an 88% likelihood that Minoret was Lewis' daughter.[126][127] She was later adopted by her step-father and mother's second husband, nightclub owner and restaurateur Hy Jason Uchitel.[128][123][129] According to Minoret, she met Lewis as an adult only once and after that meeting, Lewis' agent ordered her to not contact the entertainer again and her requests to visit him in the hospital were denied by staff.[130]

Stalking incident[edit]

In February 1994, a man named Gary Benson was revealed to have been stalking Lewis and his family.[131] Benson subsequently served four years in prison.[132]

Illness and death[edit]

Lewis suffered from a number of chronic health problems, illnesses and addictions related both to aging and a back injury sustained in a comedic pratfall. The fall has been stated as being either from a piano while performing at the Sands Hotel and Casino on the Las Vegas Strip on March 20, 1965,[133][134] or during an appearance on The Andy Williams Show.[135] In its aftermath, Lewis became addicted to the painkiller Percodan for thirteen years.[133] He said he had been off the drug since 1978.[134] In April 2002, Lewis had a Medtronic "Synergy" neurostimulator implanted in his back,[136] which helped reduce the discomfort. He was one of the company's leading spokesmen.[134][136]

Lewis suffered numerous heart problems throughout his life; he revealed in the 2011 documentary Method to the Madness of Jerry Lewis, that he suffered his first heart attack at age 34 while filming Cinderfella in 1960.[137][138] In December 1982, he had another heart attack. Several months later, in February 1983, Lewis underwent emergency open-heart double-bypass surgery.[139] En route to San Diego from New York City on a cross-country commercial airline flight on June 11, 2006, Lewis suffered another heart attack.[140] It was discovered that he had pneumonia, as well as a severely damaged heart. He underwent a cardiac catheterization days after the heart attack, and two stents were inserted into one of his coronary arteries, which was 90 percent blocked.[141] The surgery resulted in increased blood flow to his heart and allowed him to continue his rebound from earlier lung problems. Having the cardiac catheterization meant canceling several major events from his schedule, but Lewis fully recuperated in a matter of weeks.

In 1999, Lewis' Australian tour was cut short when he had to be hospitalized in Darwin with viral meningitis.[citation needed] He was ill for more than five months. It was reported in the Australian press that he had failed to pay his medical bills. However, Lewis maintained that the payment confusion was the fault of his health insurer. The resulting negative publicity caused him to sue his insurer for US$100 million.[142]

In addition to his decades-long heart problems, Lewis had prostate cancer,[143] type 1 diabetes,[134][144] and pulmonary fibrosis.[133] Prednisone[133] treatment in the late 1990s for pulmonary fibrosis resulted in considerable weight gain and a startling change in his appearance. In September 2001, Lewis was unable to perform at a planned London charity event at the London Palladium. He was the headlining act, and he was introduced but did not appear. He had suddenly become unwell, apparently with heart problems.[145]

He was subsequently taken to the hospital. Some months thereafter, Lewis began an arduous, months-long therapy that weaned him off prednisone and he lost much of the weight gained while on the drug. The treatment enabled him to return to work. On June 12, 2012, he was treated and released from a hospital after collapsing from hypoglycemia at a New York Friars Club event. This latest health issue forced him to cancel a show in Sydney.[146] In an October 2016 interview with Inside Edition, Lewis acknowledged that he might not star in any more films, given his advanced age, while admitting, through tears, that he was afraid of dying, as it would leave his wife and daughter alone.[147] In June 2017, Lewis was hospitalized at a Las Vegas hospital for a urinary tract infection.[148]

Lewis died at his home in Las Vegas, Nevada, at 9:15 a.m. (PDT) on August 20, 2017, at the age of 91.[32] The cause was end-stage cardiac disease and peripheral artery disease.[149] In his will, Lewis left his estate to his second wife of 34 years, SanDee Pitnick, and their daughter, and intentionally excluded his sons from his first marriage as well as their descendants.[150]

Tributes and legacy[edit]

For almost two decades, from the late '40s to the mid-'60s, "Lewis was a virtually unprecedented force in American popular culture."[151] Widely acknowledged as a comic genius, Lewis influenced successive generations of comedians, comedy writers, performers and filmmakers.[152] As Lewis was often referred to as the bridge from Vaudeville to modern comedy, Carl Reiner wrote after Lewis' death, "All comedians watch other comedians, and every generation of comedians going back to those who watched Jerry on the Colgate Comedy Hour were influenced by Jerry. They say that mankind goes back to the first guy ... which everyone tries to copy. In comedy that guy was Jerry Lewis."[153]

Jerry Lewis was the most profoundly creative comedian of his generation and arguably one of the two or three most influential comedians born anywhere in this century.

 —The King of Comedy, 1996

Lewis "single-handedly created a style of humor that was half anarchy, half excruciation. Even comics who never took a pratfall in their careers owe something to the self-deprecation Jerry introduced into American show business." [71] His self-deprecating humor can be found in Larry David or David Letterman.

Lewis' comedy style was physically uninhibited, expressive, and potentially volatile. He was known especially for his distinctive voice, facial expressions, pratfalls, and physical stunts. His improvisations and ad-libbing, especially in nightclubs and early television were revolutionary among performers. It was "marked by a raw, edgy energy that would distinguish him within the comedy landscape." [154] Will Sloan, of Flavorwire wrote, "In the late '40s and early '50s, nobody had ever seen a comedian as wild as Jerry Lewis."[155] Placed in the context of the conservative era, his antics were radical and liberating, paving the way for future comedians Richard Pryor, Steve Martin, Andy Kaufman, Paul Reubens, and Jim Carrey. Carrey wrote: "Through his comedy, Jerry would stretch the boundaries of reality so far that it was an act of anarchy ... I learned from Jerry",[156] and "I am because he was".[157]

Acting the bumbling and stammering 'everyman', Lewis used tightly choreographed, sophisticated sight gags, physical routines, verbal double-talk and malapropisms. "You cannot help but notice Lewis' incredible sense of control in regards to performing—they may have looked at times like the ravings of a madman but his best work had a genuine grace and finesse behind it that would put most comedic performers of any era to shame."[158] They are "choreographed as exactly as any ballet, each movement and gesture coming on natural beats and conforming to the overall rhythmic form which is headed to a spectacular finale: absolute catastrophe."[159]

Lewis' work, specifically his self-directed films, have warranted steady reappraisal. Richard Brody in The New Yorker said, Lewis was "one of the most original, inventive, ... profound directors of the time."[160] and "one of the most skilled and original comic performers, verbal and physical, ever to appear on screen." Film critic and film curator for the Museum of Modern Art, Dave Kehr wrote in The New York Times of Lewis' "fierce creativity", "the extreme formal sophistication of his direction" and, Lewis was ". ... one of the great American filmmakers."

As a filmmaker who insisted on the personal side of his work—who was producer, writer, director, star, and over-all boss of his productions in the interest of his artistic conception and passion—he was an auteur by temperament and in practice long before the word traveled Stateside.

 —The New Yorker, 2017

"Lewis was an explosive experimenter with a dazzling skill, and an audacious, innovatory flair for the technique of the cinema. He knew how to frame and present his own adrenaline-fuelled, instinctive physical comedy for the camera."[161]

Lewis was in the forefront in the transition to independent filmmaking, which came to be known as New Hollywood in the late 1960s. Writing for the Los Angeles Times in 2005, screenwriter David Weddle lauded Lewis' audacity in 1959 "daring to declare his independence from the studio system."[162] Lewis came along to a studio system in which the industry was regularly stratified between players and coaches. The studios tightly controlled the process and they wanted their people directing. Yet Lewis regularly led, often flouting the power structure to do so. Steven Zeitchik of the LA Times wrote of Lewis, "Control over material was smart business, and it was also good art. Neither the entrepreneur nor the auteur were common types among actors in mid-20th century Hollywood. But there Lewis was, at a time of strict studio control, doing both." [163]

No other comedic star, with the exceptions of Chaplin and Keaton in the silent era, dared to direct himself. "Not only would Lewis' efforts as a director pave the way for the likes of Mel Brooks and Woody Allen, but it would reveal him to be uncommonly skilled in that area as well." "Most screen comedies until that time were not especially cinematic—they tended to plop down the camera where it could best capture the action and that was it. Lewis, on the other hand, was interested in exploring the possibilities of the medium by utilizing the tools he had at his disposal in formally innovative and oftentimes hilarious ways." [164] "In Lewis' work the way the scene is photographed is an integral part of the joke. His purposeful selection of lenses, for example, expands and contracts space to generate laughs that aren't necessarily inherent in the material, and he often achieves his biggest effects via what he leaves off screen, not just visually but structurally." [165]

As a director, Lewis advanced the film comedy genre with innovations in the areas of fragmented narrative, experimental use of music and sound technology, and near surrealist use of color and art direction.[166][167][168] This prompted his peer, filmmaker Jean Luc Godard to proclaim, "Jerry Lewis ... is the only one in Hollywood doing something different, the only one who isn't falling in with the established categories, the norms, the principles. ... Lewis is the only one today who's making courageous films. He's been able to do it because of his personal genius".[169] Jim Hemphill for American Cinematheque wrote, "They are films of ambitious visual and narrative experimentation, provocative and sometimes conflicted commentaries on masculinity in post-war America, and unsettling self-critiques and analyses of the performer's neuroses."

Intensely personal and original, Lewis' films were groundbreaking in their use of dark humor for psychological exploration.[170] Justin Chang of the Los Angeles Times said, "The idea of comedians getting under the skin and tapping into their deepest, darkest selves is no longer especially novel, but it was far from a universally accepted notion when Lewis first took the spotlight. Few comedians before him had so brazenly turned arrested development into art, or held up such a warped fun house mirror to American identity in its loudest, ugliest, vulgarest excesses. Fewer still had advanced the still-radical notion that comedy doesn't always have to be funny, just fearless, in order to strike a nerve".[171]

Before 1960, Hollywood comedies were screwball or farce. Lewis, from his earliest 'home movies, such as How to Smuggle a Hernia Across the Border, made in his playhouse in the early 1950s, was one of the first to introduce satire as a full-length film. This "sharp-eyed" satire continued in his mature work, commenting on the cult of celebrity, the machinery of 'fame', and "the dilemma of being true to oneself while also fitting into polite society." Stephen Dalton in The Hollywood Reporter wrote, Lewis had "an agreeably bitter streak, offering self-lacerating insights into celebrity culture which now look strikingly modern. Even post-modern in places." Speaking of The King of Comedy, "More contemporary satirists like Garry Shandling, Steve Coogan and Ricky Gervais owe at least some of their self-deconstructing chops to Lewis' generously unappetizing turn in Scorsese's cult classic."[172]

Lewis was an early master of deconstruction to enhance comedy. From the first Comedy Hours he exposed the artifice of on-stage performance by acknowledging the lens, sets, malfunctioning props, failed jokes, and tricks of production. As Jonathan Rosenbaum wrote: Lewis had "the impulse to deconstruct and even demolish the fictional "givens" of any particular sketch, including those that he might have dreamed up himself, a kind of perpetual auto-destruction that becomes an essential part of his filmmaking as he steadily gains more control over the writing and direction of his features."[173] His self directed films abound in behind-the-scene reveals, demystifying movie-making. Daniel Fairfax writes in Deconstructing Jerry: Lewis as a Director, "Lewis deconstructs the very functioning of the joke itself". ... quoting Chris Fujiwara, "The Patsy is a film so radical that it makes comedy out of the situation of a comedian who isn't funny."[174] The final scene of The Patsy is famous for revealing to the audience the movie as a movie, and Lewis as actor/director.[175] Lewis wrote in The Total Filmmaker, his belief in breaking the fourth wall, actors looking directly into the camera, despite industry norms.[176] More contemporary comedies such as The Larry Sanders Show, Curb Your Enthusiasm, and The Office continue this method.

Robert DeNiro and Sandra Bernhard (both of whom starred with Lewis in The King of Comedy) reflected on his death, Bernhard said, "It was one of the great experiences of my career, he was tough but one of a kind". De Niro said, "Jerry was a pioneer in comedy and film. And he was a friend. I was fortunate to have seen him a few times over the past couple of years. Even at 91, he didn't miss a beat ... or a punchline. You'll be missed."[177] There was also a New York Friars Club roast in honor of Lewis with Sarah Silverman and Amy Schumer.[178][179][180][181] Martin Scorsese recalls working with him on The King of Comedy, "It was like watching a virtuoso pianist at the keyboard".[182][183][184][185][186][187][188][189][190] Lewis was the subject of a documentary Jerry Lewis: Method to the Madness.[191][192][193][194][195][196][197]

Peter Chelsom, director of Funny Bones wrote, "Working with him was a masterclass in comic acting – and in charm. From the outset he was generous." "There's a very thin line between a talent for being funny and being a great actor. Jerry Lewis epitomized that. Jerry embodied the term "funny bones": a way of differentiating between comedians who tell funny and those who are funny." [198] Director Daniel Noah recalling his relationship with Lewis during production of Max Rose wrote, "He was kind and loving and patient and limitlessly generous with his genius. He was unbelievably complicated and shockingly self-aware."[199]

Actor and comedian Jeffrey Tambor wrote after Lewis' death, "You invented the whole thing. Thank you doesn't even get close."[200]

There have been numerous retrospectives of Lewis' films in the U.S. and abroad, most notably Jerry Lewis: A Film and Television Retrospective at Museum of the Moving Image, the 2013 Viennale, the 2016 Melbourne International Film Festival, The Innovator: Jerry Lewis at Paramount, at American Cinematheque in Los Angeles, and Happy Birthday Mr. Lewis: The Kid Turns 90, at MOMA. Lewis is one of the few performers to have touched every aspect of 20th Century American entertainment, appearing in vaudeville, burlesque, the 'borsht belt', nightclubs, radio, Classical Hollywood Cinema (The 'Golden Age'), Las Vegas, television: variety, drama, sit-coms and talk shows, Broadway and independent films.

On August 21, 2017, multiple hotel marquees on the Las Vegas Strip honored Lewis with a coordinated video display of images of his career as a Las Vegas performer and resident.[201] From 1949, as part of Martin and Lewis, and from 1956 as a solo, Lewis was a casino showroom headliner, playing numerous dates over the decades. It was also the home for the annual Labor Day MDA telethon.

On June 25, 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed Jerry Lewis among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire.[202]

In popular culture[edit]

Between 1952 and 1971, DC Comics published a 124-issues comic book series with Lewis as one (later, the only) main protagonist, titled The Adventures of Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis. In The Simpsons, the character of Professor Frink is based on Lewis' Julius Kelp from The Nutty Professor.[203] In Family Guy, Peter recreates Lewis' 'Chairman of the Board' scene from The Errand Boy. Comedian, actor and friend of Lewis, Martin Short satirized him on the series SCTV in the sketches "The Nutty Lab Assistant", "Martin Scorsese presents Jerry Lewis Live on the Champs Elysees!", "The Tender Fella", and "Scenes From an Idiots Marriage",[204][205][206] as well as on Saturday Night Live's "Celebrity Jeopardy!".[207]

Also on SNL, the Martin and Lewis reunion on the 1976 MDA Telethon is reported by Chevy Chase on Weekend Update.[208] Comedians Eddie Murphy and Joe Piscopo both parodied Lewis when he hosted SNL in 1983. Piscopo also channeled Jerry Lewis while performing as a 20th-century stand-up comedian in Star Trek: The Next Generation; in the second-season episode "The Outrageous Okona", Piscopo's Holodeck character, The Comic, tutors android Lieutenant Commander Data on humor and comedy.[209] Comedian and actor Jim Carrey satirized Lewis on In Living Color in the sketch "Jheri's Kids Telethon".[210] Carrey had an uncredited cameo playing Lewis in the series Buffalo Bill on the episode "Jerry Lewis Week".[211] He also played Lewis, with impersonator Rich Little as Dean Martin, on stage. Actor Sean Hayes portrayed Lewis in the made-for-TV movie Martin and Lewis, with Jeremy Northam as Dean Martin.[212] Actor Kevin Bacon plays the Lewis character in the 2005 film Where The Truth Lies, based on a fictionalized version of Martin and Lewis.[213] In the satiric novel, Funny Men, about singer/wild comic double act, the character Sigmund "Ziggy" Blissman, is based on Lewis.

John Saleeby, writer for National Lampoon has a humor piece "Ten Things You Should Know About Jerry Lewis".[214] In the animated cartoon Popeye's 20th Anniversary, Martin and Lewis are portrayed on the dais.[215] The animated series Animaniacs satirized Lewis in several episodes. The voice and boyish, naive cartoon character SpongeBob SquarePants is partially based on Lewis, with particular inspiration from his film The Bellboy.[216][217] In 1998, The MTV animated show Celebrity Deathmatch had a clay-animated fight to the death between Dean Martin and Lewis. In a 1975 re-issue of MAD Magazine the contents of Lewis' wallet is satirized in their on-going feature "Celebrities' Wallets".

Lewis, and Martin & Lewis, as himself or his films, have been referenced by directors and performers of differing genres spanning decades, including, Blake Edwards's Breakfast at Tiffany's (1960), Andy Warhol's Soap Opera (1964), John Frankenheimer's I Walk the Line (1970), Francis Ford Coppola's The Godfather (1972), Randal Kleiser's Grease (1978), Rainer Werner Fassbinder's In a Year of 13 Moons (1978), Quentin Tarantino's Four Rooms (1995), Martin Scorsese's Gangs of New York (2002), Hitchcock (2012), Ben Stiller's The Secret Life of Walter Mitty (2013), Jay Roach's Trumbo (2015), The Comedians (2015), Baskets (2016) and The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel (2017, 2018).

Similarly, varied musicians have mentioned Lewis in song lyrics including, Ice Cube, The Dead Milkmen, Queen Latifah, and Frank Zappa.[218] The hip hop music band Beastie Boys have an unreleased single "The Jerry Lewis", which they mention, and danced to, on stage in Asheville, North Carolina in 2009.[219] In their film Paul's Boutique — A Visual Companion, clips from The Nutty Professor play to "The Sounds of Science".[220] In 1986, the comedy radio show Dr. Demento aired a parody of "Rock Me Amadeus", "Rock Me Jerry Lewis".

Apple iOS 10 includes an auto-text emoji for 'professor' with a Lewis lookalike portrayal from The Nutty Professor.[221] The word "flaaaven!", with its many variations and rhymes, is a Lewis-ism often used as a misspoken word or a person's mis-pronounced name.[222] In a 2016 episode of the podcast West Wing Weekly, Joshua Malina is heard saying "flaven" when trying to remember a character's correct last name. Lewis' signature catchphrase "Hey, Laaady!" is ubiquitously used by comedians and laypersons alike.[223]

Sammy Petrillo bore a coincidental resemblance to Lewis,[224][225] so much so that Lewis at first tried to catch and kill Petrillo's career by signing him to a talent contract and then not giving him any work. When that failed (as Petrillo was under 18 at the time), Lewis tried to blackball Petrillo by pressuring television outlets and then nightclubs,[226] also threatening legal action after Petrillo used his Lewis impersonation in the film Bela Lugosi Meets a Brooklyn Gorilla.[227]

Awards and other honors[edit]

Lewis' motion picture star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6821 Hollywood Blvd.

Filmography[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Lewis, Jerry (1962). Instruction Book For ..."Being a Person" or (Just Feeling Better). Self-published. ISBN 978-0-937-539743. (ISBN is for the 2004 Mass Market Edition)
  • Lewis, Jerry (1971). The Total Film-Maker. New York City: Random House. ISBN 978-0-394-46757-3.
  • Lewis, Jerry; Gluck, Herb (1982). Jerry Lewis: In Person. New York: Atheneum. ISBN 978-0-689-11290-4.
  • Lewis, Jerry; Kaplan, James (2005). Dean & Me (A Love Story). New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-7679-2086-5.

Documentary[edit]

  • Annett Wolf (Director) (1972) The World of Jerry Lewis (unreleased)
  • Robert Benayoun (Director) (1982) Bonjour Monsieur Lewis (Hello Mr. Lewis)
  • Burt Kearns (Director) (1989) Telethon (Released in US, 2014)
  • Carole Langer (Director) (1996) Jerry Lewis: The Last American Clown
  • Eckhart Schmidt (Director) (2006) König der Komödianten (King of Comedy)*
  • Gregg Barson (Director) (2011). Jerry Lewis: Method to the Maddness
  • Gregory Monro (Director) (2016). Jerry Lewis: The Man Behind the Clown (Motion picture).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ While the majority of sources state "Joseph" as Levitch's given name, one birth record lists it as "Jerome".[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hirschberg, Lynn; Hirschberg, Lynn (October 28, 1982). "What's So Funny About Jerry Lewis?".
  2. ^ Kehr, Dave (August 20, 2017). "Jerry Lewis, Mercurial Comedian and Filmmaker, Dies at 91". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2017. Most sources, including his 1982 autobiography, Jerry Lewis: In Person, give his birth name as Joseph Levitch. But Shawn Levy, author of the exhaustive 1996 biography King of Comedy: The Life and Art of Jerry Lewis, unearthed a birth record that gave his first name as Jerome.
  3. ^ "Jerry Lewis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  4. ^ "United States Census, 1940," database with images, FamilySearch(https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K45B-Q2Y : 15 March 2018), Rae Lewis in household of Daniel Lewis, Ward 2, Irvington, Irvington Town, Essex, New Jersey, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 7-174B, sheet 4B, line 49, family 95, Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, NARA digital publication T627. Records of the Bureau of the Census, 1790 - 2007, RG 29. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 2012, roll 2334.
  5. ^ "Jerry Lewis Biography". futurenowfilms.com. Retrieved January 2, 2017.[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ "Jerry Lewis on Dean Martin: 'A Love Story'". NPR. October 25, 2005. Retrieved June 16, 2009. (online excerpt from book, with link to Fresh Air radio show interview of Lewis by Terry Gross)
  7. ^ "Jerry Lewis". Biography.com. Archived from the original on December 28, 2017. Retrieved December 17, 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d e Lewis, Jerry; Gluck, Herb (1982). Jerry Lewis: In Person. New York: Atheneum. ISBN 978-0-689-11290-4.
  9. ^ "Jerry Lewis Film Reference bio". Filmreference.com. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  10. ^ Jerry Lewis ... The Last American Clown. 90-minute documentary, 1996, narrated by Alan King
  11. ^ Sragow, Michael (June 9, 1996). "Funny Bones". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
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Further reading[edit]

Film criticism links[edit]

External links[edit]