Kudan, Rajasthan

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Kudan
कूदन
Koodan,कूदण
Village
Kudan is located in Rajasthan
Kudan
Kudan
Kudan is located in India
Kudan
Kudan
Location in Rajasthan, India
Coordinates: 27°45′N 75°10′E / 27.75°N 75.16°E / 27.75; 75.16Coordinates: 27°45′N 75°10′E / 27.75°N 75.16°E / 27.75; 75.16
Country  India
State Rajasthan
District Sikar
Population (2011)
 • Total 3,929[1]
Languages
 • Official Hindi
 • Spoken(Colloquial) Shekhawati[2]
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 332031[3]
Telephone code 91-1572
ISO 3166 code RJ-IN
Vehicle registration RJ-23
Nearest city Sikar
Avg. summer temperature 35–40 °C (95–104 °F)[4]
Avg. winter temperature 15–18 °C (59–64 °F)[4]

Kudan is a village in Sikar district in Rajasthan, India. It is relatively a well-developed village which is connected by roads and with all forms of modern communication facilities. The majority population of the village belongs to Jat community with Sunda and Maharia representing largest and second largest gotras respectively in terms of numbers. Moreover, other castes are Harijans and Nayaks(Dalits), Rajputs(Shekhawat), Brahmins, Khati(Jangir), Sunar(Soni (caste)), Daroga, Nai (caste). There is also a marginal population of Muslims as well. The village came into prominence during British Raj for its role in freedom movement and abolition of Jagirs.

History[edit]

Kunwar Bagh Singh son of Rao Samrath Singh of Torawati, Patan (1748–1754) was thakur of Koodan under Sikar thikana and his brother Kunwar Guman Singh of Magloona village.[citation needed]

Role in Shekhawati farmers’ movement[edit]

Before independence the conditions of the farmers were worst. The farmers of the Shekhawati region were exploited and oppressed by the Jagirdars during British Raj. They were deprived of fundamental rights. They were given inhuman treatment when the Jagirdars did not get cesses known as “lag” (tax) or “begar” (unpaid work) in time, they were given hard punishments and their crop used to be destroyed. Every thing that the farmers had, never treated as his own. In Jagir areas all cultivators were really landless. There was no tenancy law and one could be thrown away from the land one cultivated at the pleasure of Jagirdar, his "malik" (owner). In most of the Jagirs a Jagirdar would in the first instance be taking fifty percent of the produce. This would be taken by actual division of the produce on the thrashing floor or by appraisal of the standing crop (kunta). Then over and above the share of the produce the farmers had to pay numerous "lags" or cesses. There were 37 kinds of ‘lags” prevalent in the Shekhawati area. Together with the share of the produce known as "Hasil" (share) these cesses meant that the farmers had to part with more than eighty percent of their produce. The findings of the Sukhdeonarain Committee in the years 1940-42 bear this out. If a farmer had to marry his daughter he had to pay "Chavri Lag" (marriage tax), if he held a dinner then a "Kansa Lag"; if members of the family separated then "Dhunwa Lag" (house tax) and so on. If the Jagirdar had a guest then fodder for his mount had to be supplied. Then there was "begar" that is forced labour, for tilling the personal lands of the Jagirdar. The homestead in which the farmers lived in the habitation had to be vacated in case he ceased cultivating the land. He could not alienate the plot to anyone.

Farmers of the Shekhawati, mainly the Jats, united against oppression of Jagirdars by forming ‘Sikar Jat-Kisan-Panchayat’ and stopped giving "lags" or cesses to the Jagirdards. The ‘Jaipur Praja-Mandal’ also supported the Shekhawati farmers’ movement against abolition of Jagirdari system. The leaders of ‘Bijoria-Kisan-Movement’ of 1922, 1931, and 1932 supported the movement of Shekhawati farmers. The Jagirdars tried to suppress the movement in many ways. Many farmers were killed and a large number were sent to jail. A Jat farmer was beaten to death in the market of Sikar town; his dead body was thrown and insulted.

The Jat Prajapati Maha-Yajna 1934[edit]

In 1934, to spread the principles of Arya Samaj and create awakening in Shekhawati, it was decided to hold the Prajapati Yajna (Prayer ceremony for the Lord of Universe). The Jat Prajapati Maha-Yajna took place at Sikar from 20–29 January 1934. Kunwar Hukam Singh Rahees Angai (Mathura) was made Yajnapati or Chairman of the Yajna. Chaudhary Kaluram of village Kudan was the Yajnaman. Acharya Shri Jagdev Sidhanthi received an invitation for this Yajna at his Gurukul at Kirttal, In that invitation was he requested to attend the Yajna and bring twenty Bhramcharis and disciples with him. Volunteers went to all the households in all the villages in the region and collected material that would be needed. They collected Ghee, Flour, Gur, and invited all the householders to participate. Hundreds of cans of Ghee and hundreds of sacks of flour were collected.

During the Yajna 3000 men and women adopted the Yogyopavit (initiation), which was a symbol Kisan sangathan. Sheetal Kumari, daughter of Kunwar Netram Singh, adopted yagyopavit. Chaudhary Chimana Ram of Sangasi brought his wife wearing salwar-kurta. The unity of Jat farmers in this Yajna had terrified the Jagirdars of Sikar. The role played by Har Lal Singh and Thakur Deshraj was significant in its success.

In December 1934, ‘All India Jat Students Federation Conference’ was organized at Pilani; the coordinator of it was Master Ratan Singh. Sir Chhotu Ram, Kunwar Netram Singh, Chaudhary Ram Singh, Thakur Jhumman Singh, Thakur Deshraj and Sardar Har Lal Singh, along with large number of farmers from various states, attended it. This conference gave a great strength to the Jat youth.

Kudan in Princely States Report[edit]

The main agricultural caste in Rajasthan is the Jats: they comprise the largest single caste in the state (9 per cent), and were, in the 1930s and even earlier, the most self-conscious and prosperous among the peasant castes. In 1935 their claims to certain privileges led to a series of clashes between them and the Rajputs, who resisted their attempts to revise accepted signs of status. The clash of 1935 is reminiscent of similar ones in other areas between lower castes on the rise and higher established castes. [5]

The Jat demonstrations broke out in Sikar, the largest thikana in Jaipur State, and involved both economic and social issues. The Jats in the area had formed two associations, the Sikarwati Jat Panchayat and the Jat Kisan Sabha, and had received some help and encouragement from the British Indian province of Uttar Pradesh. Some of these "outsiders" were organizers for the socialist-oriented Kisan Sabha which attempted to mobilise the peasantry in the 1930s in response to radical pressures in the Congress.[5]

The initial demonstration in Khuri village on March 27, 1935, was occasioned by a social issue, whether a Jat bridegroom should be allowed to ride to his bride's house on a horse, a ceremonial act asserting higher station than Rajputs were prepared to concede. The Rajputs objected, the Jats insisted, fighting broke out, and an old Jat was killed. The incident led to further clashes, and the thikana police, the Sikar Lancers, under command of the English chief of the Sikar police, charged the Jat crowds with lathis (quarter-staffs), injuring many. This incident was followed by others as Jats in the area protested against the revenue collections and resisted and attacked Sikar revenue officials on April 22 at Bhaironpura and at Kudan village on April 25. The Sikar police killed four Jats while putting down this last demonstration and arrested 104 persons. The anti-rent agitation eventually involved some twenty-one villages, and local headmen were as active as any outsiders. A school where, according to the Jaipur durbar, unlawful doctrines were being preached by a Jat teacher from outside the state, was knocked down. The agitation had some effects. The Rao Raja of Sikar remitted all arrears of revenue previous to 1934 and promised to open schools, provide loans where needed, and embark on a permanent land settlement that would introduce some certainty into the vagaries of the thikana's revenue demand.[5][6]

Education[edit]

Kudan has several educational institutions. There is a Govt. Higher Secondary School, Shaheed Major Surendra Badsara Aadarsh Rajkiya Uchch Madhyamik Vidyalaya(named after the proud son of the village who laid down his life for the nation Saheed Maj Surendra Badsara, Sena Medal) where Science(Mathematics), Arts and Commerce subjects are available at 11th and 12th standards. The school was established in 1951 and was a major centre of high school education for decades for the nearby villages. Also, there is a Govt. Secondary Girls School and a very old Govt. Primary School(which has been upgraded into an Upper Primary School a few years ago). There are a couple of Private Schools also which provide education in both Hindi and English mediums.Along with a graduate college exclusively for girls, the village has three Teacher Training Colleges(B.Ed colleges as there are popularly called) All the schools in the village are affiliated to Board of Secondary Education, Rajasthan.

Kudan is among the most educated villages in Sikar district, a significant credit for this may be given to the village elders who owing to their foresightedness recognised the value of education and the impact that it could bring to the socio-economic dynamics of the village.[citation needed]

Kudan is also first among equals for serving the nation. Saheed Maj Surendra Badsara, SM(Sena Medal) and Shaheed Subhas Sunda belong to this same village along with other people in uniform who are serving the Nation in Indian Army, Indian Navy, Indian Air Force, Paramilitary forces of India and Police Service on various ranks, positions and designations. A notable credit for same goes to elders for spreading awareness among youth and motivating them to join the services.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://censusindia.gov.in/PopulationFinder/View_Village_Population.aspx?pcaid=871134&category=VILLAGE
  2. ^ Shekhawati language
  3. ^ "Pin code search option, India Post". indiapost.gov.in. Archived from the original on May 20, 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  4. ^ a b Sikar#Climate
  5. ^ a b c Princely States Report
  6. ^ Amrit Bazar Patrika, April 4, 1935; Statesmen, April 4 and 18, Mayj2 and 16, June 6, 1935; Times (London), April 30 and July 5, 1935. Barnett R. Rubin, Feudal Revolt