Laguna Lake Development Authority

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Laguna Lake Development Authority
LLDA
Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA).svg
Agency overview
FormedOctober 1, 1969; 49 years ago (1969-10-01)
HeadquartersLLDA Green Building, National Ecology Center, East Avenue, Diliman Quezon City 1101 Philippines
Agency executive
  • Jaime "Joey" C. Medina, General Manager
Parent departmentDepartment of Environment and Natural Resources
Websitewww.llda.gov.ph

The Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA), one of the attached agencies of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), is responsible for the preservation, development, and sustainability of the Laguna de Bay and its 21 major tributary rivers.

The Laguna Lake Development Authority was created by virtue of Republic Act No. 4850 (as amended by Presidential Decree 813), entitled: AN ACT CREATING THE LAGUNA LAKE DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY, PRESCRIBING ITS POWERS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES, PROVIDING FUNDS THEREOF, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.

Since 1993, LLDA is attached to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) pursuant to EO 149, for administrative supervision and policy alignment.


History[edit]

The Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) was created by the virtue of Republic Act No. 4850 (as amended by Presidential Decree 813), entitled AN ACT CREATING THE LAGUNA LAKE DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY, PRESCRIBING ITS POWERS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES, PROVIDING FUNDS THEREOF, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES, on 1969.

The Authority leads, promotes, and accelerates sustainable development in the Laguna de Bay Region through the enforcement of laws and provisions on environmental management, with provisions on water quality monitoring, conservation of natural resources, and community-based natural resources management.

Showcasing the symbiosis of man and nature through the utilization of the Integrated Water Resource Management in Laguna Lake Region, LLDA aims to preserve the ecological integrity and to promote economic growth with equitable access to resources.

As stated in the Chapter 1 of Section 1 in the RA 4850: "It is hereby declared to be the national policy to promote, and accelerate the development and balanced growth of the Laguna Lake area and the surrounding provinces, cities and towns hereinafter referred to as the region, within the context of the national and regional plans and policies for social and economic development and to carry out the development of the Laguna Lake region with due regard and adequate provisions for environmental management and control, preservation of the quality of human life and ecological systems, and the prevention of undue ecological disturbances, deterioration and pollution."

The Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) was established in 1966 as a quasi-government agency that leads, promotes, and accelerates sustainable development in the Laguna de Bay Region.[1] Regulatory and law-enforcement functions are carried out with provisions on environmental management, particularly on water quality monitoring, conservation of natural resources, and community-based natural resource management.[2]

Its mission is to catalyze Integrated Water Resource Management in the Laguna de Bay Region, showcasing the symbiosis of man and nature for sustainability, with focus on preserving ecological integrity and promoting economic growth with equitable access to resources.

While water levels in Angat and La Mesa reservoirs remain at alert level, Laguna de Bay boasts of its abundant water that is now tapped by Maynilad Water Services, Inc. to supply the water needs of the communities in Muntinlupa, Las Pinas and nearby areas.

The LLDA, as early as August 7, 2009, approved the water permit application of Maynilad to allow the West Zone concessionaire to abstract 100 million liters per day of lake water to be made available for domestic consumption. Maynilad started the production of 50 MLD last June 2010 and expects to produce 100 MLD in September this year using surface raw water from Laguna de Bay.[3]


LLDA’s Vision, Mission, Values, Goals, and Policy[edit]

Vision[edit]

By 2040, the Laguna de Bay Basin is an ecologically balanced resource that fosters vibrant economic development and sustains the needs of the present and future generations through the participation of empowered and responsible stakeholders.


Mission[edit]

To manage, develop and transform the Laguna de Bay Region into a vibrant economic zone through conservation of lake basin resources and good governance with the participation of empowered and responsible stakeholders.


Core Values[edit]

Love of the Environment[edit]

"We, together with the participation of the empowered and responsible stakeholders, are foremost advocates of environmental protection and sustainable development in this day and age of climate change.”

Leadership/Professionalism[edit]

“We adhere to the highest standards of civil service and professional meritocracy.”

Disciplined/Science-Driven[edit]

"We believe in empirically-driven and science-based environmental governance and management.”

Adaptability/Innovativeness[edit]

“We believe in change management and the value of innovation and creativity.”


Quality Policy[edit]

As the only lake basin Authority in the country, member of the International Living Lakes Network and one of the founding members of Network of Asian River Basin Organizations (NARBO), we commit to:

Lead the sustainable development in the Laguna de Bay Region through effective and strict enforcement of water resources management laws;

Lead and continually improve our service delivery systems based on a certified quality management system for the satisfaction and trust of our stakeholders;

Develop and implement empirically-driven and science-based processes and decisions;

Adhere to legal requirements and other policies that serve to maintain the highest standards of the civil service.


LLDA Jurisdiction[edit]

Administrative Region[edit]

Laguna de Bay Region as defined by R.A. 4850 as amended describes the administrative boundaries or the mandated jurisdiction of the LLDA with 3,880 km2, based on administrative boundaries of cities and municipalities. The administrative region is substantially larger than the basin.


Laguna Lake Development Authority's Administrative Jurisdiction.png

Geographical Mandate[edit]

1. Rizal

  • All Local Government Units
  • 1 City
  • 13 Municipalities


2. Laguna

  • All Local Government Units
  • 6 Cities
  • 24 Municipalities


3. Cavite:

  • Municipality of Silang
  • Municipality of Carmona
  • Municipality of General Mariano Alvarez (GMA)
  • Tagaytay City


4. Batangas

  • Tanauan City
  • Municipality of Malvar
  • Municipality of Santo Tomas


5. Quezon

  • Municipality of Lucban


6. Metro Manila

  • Taguig City
  • Caloocan City
  • Pasay City
  • Muntinlupa City
  • City of Manila
  • Pasig City
  • Marikina City
  • Quezon City
  • Municipality of Pateros


Hydrological Boundary[edit]

Hydrological Boundary of Laguna Lake Development Authority.png

Laguna de Bay basin is sub-divided into 24 hydrological sub-basins from which over 100 rivers and streams drain toward the lake. Twenty-two (22) of these are major river systems including one (1) outlet, the Pasig River through the Napindan Channel. These tributary rivers are the Pagsanjan River, the Sta. Cruz River, the Balanak River, the Marikina River, the Mangangate River, the Tunasan River, the San Pedro River, the Cabuyao River, the San Cristobal River, the San Juan River, the Bay, Calo and Maitem rivers in Bay, the Molawin, Dampalit and Pele Rivers in Los Baños, the Pangil River, the Tanay River, the Morong River, the Siniloan River, and the Sapang Baho River.






List of LLDA General Managers[edit]

No. Portrait Name Took Office Left Office
21
Medina-jaime.jpg
Mr. Jaime C. Medina February 01, 2017 Present
20
Acosta-nereus.jpg
Dr. J R Nereus O. Acosta September 20, 2011 January 16, 2017
19
Cabrera-rodrigo.jpg
Mr. Rodrigo E. Cabrera September 09, 2010 August 11, 2011
18
Manda-edgardo.jpg
Mr. Edgardo C. Manda September 18, 2007 September 08, 2010
17
Ynares-jun.jpg
Dr. Casimiro A. Ynares July 26, 2005 April 17, 2007
16
Manda-edgardo.jpg
Mr. Edgardo C. Manda January 06, 2005 July 25, 2005
15
Ynares-jun.jpg
Dr. Casimiro A. Ynares January 30, 2004 January 05, 2005
14
Valdez-fatima.jpg
Usec. Ma. Fatima A.S. Valdez December 04, 2003 January 27, 2004
13
Cataquiz-calixto.jpg
Mr. Calixto R. Cataquiz May 01, 2001 December 03, 2003
12
Mendoza-joaquin.jpg
Atty. Joaquin G. Mendoza July 17, 1998 April 30, 2001
11
Tomboc-carlos.jpg
Dr. Carlos C. Tomboc March 11, 1996 July 16, 1998
10
Santiago-alejandro.jpg
Mr. Alejandro E. Santiago July 01, 1996 March 10, 1996 (resigned)
09
Almendral-ariel-2.jpg
Mr. Ariel R. Almendral December 15, 1992 June 30, 1994
08
Lavidez-vicente-jr.jpg
Dr. Vicente C. Lavides Jr. March 16, 1992 December 14, 1992
07
Lopez-miguel.jpg
Mr. Miguel D. Lopez December 03, 1987 March 15, 1992 (resigned)
06
Limcaoco-conrado-1.jpg
Mr. Conrado A. Limcaoco July 08, 1986 December 02, 1987
05
Teodoro-rey-jr-2.jpg
Mr. Teodoro C. Rey April 05, 1983 July 07, 1986
04
Lopez-deleon-pacifico-bw.jpg
Brig. Gen. Pacifico M. Lopez De Leon March 08, 1982 April 04, 1983
03
Baguilar-teodoro.jpg
Mr. Teodoro B. Baguilat December 22, 1978 February 25, 1982
02
Santiago-amado.jpg
Brig. Gen. Amado M. Santiago February 24, 1975 December 20, 1978
01
Lavidez-vicente-jr.jpg
Dr. Vicente C. Lavides Jr. October 22, 1969 December 09, 1974

Programs[edit]

  • Environmental User's Fee[4]
  • Shoreland Management
  • Implementation of the Zoning and Management Plan (ZOMAP)
  • River Rehabilitation


Environmental Management Program[edit]

LLDA puts into action systems and programs such as Environmental User Fee System (EUFS), Public Disclosure Program (PDP), the Appropriation and Utilization of Surface Waters (Surface Waters) for the management of the lake waters and tributaries that flow into the Lake, to ensure their proper use and maintenance for the sustainability of the ecosystem.


The Environmental User Fee System[edit]

To realize the objectives of the creation of LLDA, the agency implemented policies to curb the possibility of stressing the lake’s assimilative capacity. The most recent policy was the Environmental User Fee System (EUFS). The EUFS was implemented by virtue of LLDA Board Resolution 22 in 1996. The objective of the policy was to “…(reduce) the pollution loading in to the Laguna de Bay by enjoining all discharges of liquid wastes to internalize the cost of environmental degradation…”. Formally, the said board resolution aptly defined the EUFS as a “market–based” policy instrument aimed at reducing the pollution loading in the lake. As such, companies found to have unusually high concentration of pollutants in their emissions, need to pay fines or lake “user–fees”.

The system encourages companies to invest in and operate pollution prevention and/or abatement systems in their establishment. Applying the "polluter pays principle", the system effects direct accountability for damage inflicted on the integrity of the Laguna de Bay region thereby encouraging individuals and business establishments to internalize into their decision-making process the environmental impacts of their day-to-day activities. The EUFS covers all enterprises in the administrative jurisdiction of LLDA that discharge wastewater in the Laguna de Bay system. These include commercial and industrial establishments; agro-based industries and establishments (such as swine farms and slaughterhouses); clustered dwellings (i.e., residential subdivisions); and domestic households[5]

Under the EUFS, a firm is required to secure a discharge permit which is renewed annually at the LLDA. The discharge permit effectively allows the firm to discharge its wastewater to the lake or through its main tributaries. The discharge permit gives the establishment a legal right to dispose their waste water in the Laguna de Bay region. Wastewater is basically sewage, storm water, and water used around the community, including firms.

Domestic wastewater includes black water, or wastewater from toilets, and gray water, which is wastewater from all sources except toilets. Black water and gray water have different characteristics, but both contain pollutants and disease-causing agents that require monitoring. Nondomestic wastewater is generated by offices, businesses, department stores, restaurants, schools, hospitals, farms, manufacturers, and other commercial, industrial, and institutional entities. Storm water is a nonresidential source and carries trash and other pollutants from streets, as well as pesticides and fertilizers from yards and fields.[6]

The EUF is paid for the amount of pollution that is discharged into the tributary rivers in the Laguna de Bay region. It is composed of a fixed fee and a variable fee. The fixed fee covers the administrative cost implementing the Environmental Users Fee System and is based on the volume of wastewater that is discharged.

According to LLDA Board Resolution 33, as amended, the fixed fee is different for those firms that discharge wastewater without or with heavy metals.

Wastewater without heavy metals:

Fee Volume of Wastewater Discharge
PhP 24,000 More than 150 m3 per day
PhP 16,000 Between 30 and 150 m3 per day
PhP 8,000 Less than 30 m3 per day

Wastewater with heavy metals:

Fee Volume of Wastewater Discharge
PhP 12,000 Less than 150 m3 per day
PhP 24,000 More than 150 m3 per day

The fixed fee also depends on the volume of wastewater discharged. For a firm that discharges wastewater without heavy metals, the fee is PhP 24,000 if the discharge is more than 150 m3 per day, PhP 16,000 if the discharge is between 30 and 150 m3 per day, and PhP 8,000 if the discharge volume is less than 30 m3 per day. Those firms that discharge wastewater with heavy metals pay higher fixed fees. The fee is PhP 12,000 for a firm that discharge less than 150 m3 of wastewater with heavy metals per day and PhP 24,000 if the discharge is more than 150 m3 per day.

The variable fee is calculated with the reference to the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) loading as well as to the volume and concentration of the wastewater being discharged. According to the same policy, the variable fees is PhP 30 per kilogram of total BOD5 when the BOD5 concentration is less than 50 milligrams per liter and PhP 30 per kilogram of total BOD5 when the BOD5 concentration is greater than 50 milligrams per liter.


Public Disclosure Program (PDP)[edit]

In addition to the EUFS, the LLDA under the PDP assesses the environmental performance of regulated establishments and Local Government Units (LGUs), and discloses the results thereof to the public. This mechanism is intended to motivate the industrial sector and LGUs to reduce their pollution.

Surface Waters Program[edit]

Under the Surface Waters program, Water Permitting, Registration, and Monitoring programs are established and operated for the extraction of waters that are naturally open to the atmospheres, such as rivers, lakes, and streams within the Laguna de Bay Region.


Watershed Management Program[edit]

To abate the further degradation of the Laguna de Bay Watershed, the LLDA instituted various programs and strategies for reforestation of the denuded watersheds. Part of these programs and strategies are the River Rehabilitation Program, and the Shoreland Management Program.

Laguna de bay Watershed Greening Program[edit]

The LLDA contributes to the NGP objectives, which include planting 1.5 billion seedlings in 1.5 million hectares of public lands nationwide, from 2011 to 2016. The NGP also aims to improve water quality in rivers and irrigation of farm lands, reduce flooding, absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and as support for the expansion of a wood-products economy. Using its own resources, the LLDA produces tree seedlings for distribution to LGUs and other beneficiaries for planting in their respective areas. Further, the Authority undertakes reforestation activities in denuded/designated areas in critical sub-watersheds. Rapid economic growth, continuing industrialization and unabated influx of informal settlers have resulted in a variety of social and environmental impacts in the area, which brings significant changes in the Laguna de Bay and its watershed. Deforestation and soil erosion are known to be the main contributors to siltation in the Laguna Lake. Apparently, heavy siltation has reduced the lake’s present depth to an average of about 2.5 meters from 12 meters decades ago. Study revealed that an estimated of some four (4) million tons of suspended sediments enter the lake annually, leading to an average net accretion of 0.50 cm per year (SDLBE-Nauta, 2002). The heavy siltation of the lake has detrimental effects to ecology and economy. In a rapid valuation of the Lake’s benefits to society if returned to its pristine state, PHP 3.6 billion in annual benefits is lost due to the deterioration of the Lake’s quality (Arcenas, 2012).

Realizing the urgency to reduce the impact of global warming, the Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) has spearheaded various watershed rehabilitation in Laguna de Bay Region through reforestation. As early as the 1990’s, a permanent agro-forestry nursery was established within its premises in Calauan, Laguna, which provides seedling requirements for its own tree planting activities as well as for other stakeholders like LGUs, industries, river councils and other organizations which were conducting similar activities. Taking the lead, LLDA has reforested a number of areas within its jurisdiction including the road stretching along the boundary of Baras and Tanay in the province of Rizal. The Pangil Bamboo Farm in Laguna was also conceived giving its locals livelihood.

The National Greening Program[edit]

Executive Order No. 26 is President Benigno Simeon C. Aquino’s response to worldwide concern on global warming. Issued on February 24, 2011, it aims to plant 1.5 billion trees in 1.5 million hectares within 2011 to 2016 to areas covering forestlands, mangrove and protected areas, ancestral domains, civil and military reservations, urban areas under greening plan of LGUs, inactive and abandoned mine sites, and other suitable lands within public domain. The NGP also seeks to improve quality of various waterways including irrigation for farmlands, reduce potential for flooding, soak up carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere, and lay the foundation for an expanded wood products economy. All government agencies, GOCCs and institutions, including local government units, will provide full support to the program.

Commitment of LLDA to the National Greening Program Even before the issuance of E. O. 26, LLDA has been doing watershed rehabilitation within the Laguna de Bay Region.

In 2011, additional nursery was established on LLDA property in Lumban, Laguna to augment the growing demand for forestry.

From 2011-2014, the authority produced a total of 503,683 seedlings wherein 345,191 seedlings were planted and/or dispersed to different stakeholders within the Laguna de Bay region. In 2013, seedlings production in both nurseries reached to a total of 111,248 seedlings wherein a total of 51,211 seedlings were planted and/or dispersed to various stakeholders within the Laguna de Bay region. By 2014, a total of 200,511 seedlings were produced and with a total of 229,934 seedlings planted and/or dispersed to LGUs, industries and various civic organizations.

Aside from the production of planting stocks and field planting, the LLDA supports the NGP by means of providing technical and extension assistance to stakeholders such as species selections, site identifications and land preparations. In addition, the LLDA recognizes the significance of the involvement of the community in the success of the project. Therefore, the agency is mobilizing the sectors in the private and public areas to become part of the program.

In order to sustain the impact and significance of NGP, LLDA is committed to create and implement supportive policies and utilize integrated methods to resource management and empower local people to ensure equitable sharing and responsibilities in caring for our environment.

River Rehabilitation Program[edit]

The River Rehabilitation Program takes into consideration the effects of water quality and quantity to the ecosystem. Under the program, the LLDA has organized River Basin Councils all over the Region. The “Environmental Army,” an aggrupation of community volunteers, has been established and mobilized to help LLDA in various river clean-up operations. The LLDA has transformed the River Councils and the Environmental Army into empowered partners in environmental governance throughout the lake region.

Shoreland Management Program[edit]

The Shoreland Management Program is designed to control pollution and nuisance through the elimination of incompatible elements and uses of the shoreland, through the LLDA Board Resolution No. 23, Series of 1996, which defines and regulates the use and/or occupancy of the Laguna de Bay Shoreland Areas.


Fisheries Development[edit]

Prior to 1996, the use of lake resources for aquaculture caused the uncontrolled increase in fish pens and fish cages, decline in lake productivity, and conflicts between marginalized fisher folks and fish pen operators. These socio-economic and environmental problems in Laguna de Bay prompted LLDA to formulate and approve the Zoning and Management Plan (ZOMAP) on January 1996.

Zoning and Management Plan (ZOMAP)[edit]

Through the ZOMAP, lake resources are equitably delineated and allocated to various users for aquaculture operations, navigation, and open fishing. At the national level, the aquaculture operations in Laguna de Bay contributes significantly to fishery production (Israel, 2008). Lake productivity is further improved through the maintenance of Rayap Fish Sanctuary in Talim Island, Rizal; Tabon Fish Sanctuary near Calamba, Laguna; and the Muntinlupa Fish Sanctuary in Muntinlupa City. With the assistance of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, regular lake seedings are conducted in these sanctuaries.

LLDA is assisted by the Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Councils, Philippine National Police, Coast Guard, and other groups in the enforcement of fishery laws, rules and regulations in Laguna de Bay.


Community Development[edit]

The LLDA serves to maintain and improve the ecosystem of the Lake and the Region for sustainability, while taking into consideration the importance of the development of the people and community surrounding Laguna de Bay through community-based projects.

LLDA continuously works not just to protect the environment, but also to help improve the economy and the lives of the residents within the Region through various livelihood projects.

In 2012, LLDA signed a Memorandum of Agreement with the Department of Trade and Industry, Region IV-A, and the Asian Social Institute to create a bamboo and water hyacinth livelihood program for identified groups, primarily the fisherfolk families of the Laguna Lake Region. This project also aims to promote women and youth empowerment, community development, and sound environmental management.


Bamboo for Life[edit]

The Bamboo Negosyo Village, a project of LLDA since 2008 under its Laguna de Bay Watershed Bamboo for Life Program, establishes bamboo plantations in Lumban, Bay, and the mountainous areas of Pangil and Paete in the province of Laguna, and around the shoreland area in Taguig City. This project provides an alternative livelihood to the project co-operators through various bamboo enterprises, and additional incentives are also given through the provision of bamboo houses for each beneficiary family.


Adopt-a-River[edit]

In partnership with various stakeholders, the LLDA established the river rehabilitation program “Adopt-A-River,” which is envisioned to protect and rehabilitate the various river systems through river segmentation, community participation and involvement, information, education and motivation campaigns, establishment of ecoparks, and development of a sustainable funding mechanism.


Research Programs[edit]

In support of LLDA’s mandate and various programs, the Decision Support System (DSS) and Water Quality Monitoring (WQM) Program are implemented to aid in monitoring and relevant policy decision-making.

The DSS, introduced by the Royal Government of the Netherlands through a funding for the Sustainable Development of Laguna de Bay Environment (SDLBE) Project in 2000, integrates state-of-the-art software tools to provide an adequate scientific description of the Laguna de Bay water system (catchment and lake).

As part of WQM, lake and river water quality are monitored continuously through thirty six (36) stations located in the rivers of Marikina, Bagumbayan, Mangangati, Tunasan, San Pedro, Biñan, Sta. Rosa, Cabuyao, San Cristobal, San Juan, Los Baños, Bay, Pila, Sta. Cruz, Pagsanjan, Pangil, Siniloan, Sta. Maria, Jala-jala, Pililla, Tanay, Baras, Taytay Barkadahan and Morong, and also in Sapang Baho and the Buli Creek.


Services[edit]

  • LLDA Clearance
  • LLDA Clearance Exemption
  • LLDA Clearance Expansion
  • LLDA Clearance Amendment
  • Discharge Permit (New Application)
  • Discharge Permit (Renewal)
  • Revalidation of Discharge Permit (Long-term Permit)
  • Accreditation of Pollution Control Officers (PCO)
  • PCO Trainings and Seminars (CEEP and CEES)
  • Fishpen/Fishcage Permit
  • Shoreland Development Clearance
  • Survey Services for Shoreland Areas
  • Laboratory Services
  • Surface Water Permit
  • Barging Clearance
  • Temporary Lake Occupancy Permit


Green Building[edit]

Inside of LLDA's Green Building.jpg
Front of LLDA's Green Building.jpg

Quezon City, is the first Philippine government structure to be accredited as a Green Building. LLDA is leading by example and is at the forefront of the green building revolution. The ‘Green Building’ is designed to be climate smart and energy efficient and services as inspiration for sustainable building practices.

The LLDA building, which enables at least 20 percent reduction in energy consumption, is the first-ever Philippine government structure to be accredited as a Green Building by the Building Ecologically Responsible Design and Excellence (BERDE) for the government and private sector.

The four-storey structure is designed with shallow building width to maximize natural daylight and with windows that allow natural ventilation, thus reducing the consumption of electricity. The rainwater catchment system provides water for flushing in water closets and urinals to conserve water.

Another feature of the building is a constructed wetland which would act as a small-scale representation of the processes that occur in the Laguna Lake. It provides for an on-site natural treatment of storm water and for cooling hot air. Pocket gardens on every floor and on the roof deck serve as ‘green spaces’ and natural filters.

The LLDA building is also home to a materials recovery facility to properly practice waste management within the complex.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "LLDA Mandate". Asian Environmental Compliance & Enforcement Network (AECEN). Retrieved 2007-03-02.[dead link]
  2. ^ "LLDA Permits and Guidelines". Philippine Economic Zone Authority. Archived from the original on 2007-02-22. Retrieved 2007-03-02.
  3. ^ "Maynilad allowed to draw water from Laguna Lake". Gma Network.
  4. ^ Canonoy, Francis (1997). "Lake Laguna's Environmental User Fee System". UN ESCAP. Archived from the original on 2007-08-11. Retrieved 2007-03-02.
  5. ^ Laguna Lake Development Authority (2001) Annual financial report CY 2001. Pasig City, Metro Manila: Author
  6. ^ "Wastewater, 2005". Taylor, C, Yahner J., & Jones, D. Archived from the original on 2007-03-16. Retrieved 2007-01-07.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]