When Caswell County was created in 1777, the area that would become Leasburg was named as the county seat; however a county courthouse was not built on the site until 1784 after the American Revolutionary War. When the area around the courthouse began to develop, the community decided to incorporate. The town of Leasburg was officially recognized by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1788. When the eastern section of Caswell County split and became Person County, a more geographically central location for the Caswell county seat was needed; so, in 1792 the courthouse was moved to an area which became known as "Caswell Court House", which later changed its name to Yanceyville. Leasburg continued to develop after the courthouse relocation and eventually became known as the regional center for education. Numerous mills, factories, and farms prospered in the town until competition nearby from Durham doomed the area's tobacco industry. The Civil War left Leasburg in ruin, although many antebellum residences still remain.