Levada Center

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Levada Center
Levada LOGO.jpg
Formation2003 (1987)
TypeResearch institute, independent nongovernmental organization
Purposeopinion polls, social research, marketing research
Key people
Lev Gudkov, director
Tatyana Zaslavskaya, honorary president
Alexei Grazhdankin, Boris Dubin, Marina Krasilnikova, Alexey Levinson and Yuri Poletayev, Lyudmila Khakhulina
Approximately 60

The Levada Center is a Russian independent, nongovernmental polling and sociological research organization. It is named after its founder, the first Russian professor of sociology Yuri Levada (1930–2006). The Center traces back its history to 1987 when the All-Union Public Opinion Research Center (VTsIOM) was founded under the leadership of academician Tatyana Zaslavskaya. Being one of the largest Russian research companies,[citation needed] the Levada Center regularly conducts its own and commissioned polling and marketing research. In 2016, it was labelled a foreign agent under the 2012 Russian foreign agent law.[1]


The Levada Center was formed in 1987–88 as the All-Union Public Opinion Research Center (VTsIOM, Russian: ВЦИОМ), under the direction of Tatyana Zaslavskaya, Boris Grushin, Valery Rutgajzer and Yuri Levada. VTsIOM was the first organization to carry out representative mass surveys within the Russian population. Tatyana Zaslavskaya, now the honorary president of Levada Center, headed VTsIOM in 1987–1992, followed by Yuri Levada from 1992–2003.[citation needed]

In August 2003 the Ministry for Property Relations attempted to take control of the Center by placing government officials on the VTsIOM board of directors. All the employees of VTsIOM quit in response and continued their work under a new name, VTsIOM-A.[2] After the Federal Antimonopoly Service forbid them to use this name, the new organization was renamed "Levada Analytical Center", (Levada Center).[3]

The Levada Center has continued the research programs started by its collective in the 1990s–2000s. One of the largest projects is the study "The Soviet Person" study, or Homo Soveticus, Russian: Советский человек, in which specialists used surveys to monitor and identify significant trends in the social development of Russia's society over the past 15 years.[citation needed]

Founding of VTsIOM[edit]

The founding and development of the agency was intertwined with the career of its founder, Yuri Levada — the first professor to teach sociology at Moscow State University.[citation needed] During the political thaw initiated by Nikita Khrushchev, Levada was allowed to carry out limited surveys of public opinion. In one lecture, Levada asserted that tanks could not change ideologies, a reference to the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.[citation needed] However, his first conflict with those in power came from a survey asserting that few actually read Pravda's notoriously longwinded editorials; and Pravda quickly and bitterly denounced the sociologist. In 1972, his institute was closed down during a Brezhnev-era purge of some 200 sociologists from research institutes and universities.[citation needed]

Levada was reinstated by reformist Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev as glasnost was under way. He went on to establish the All-Union Center for the Study of Public Opinion (VTsIOM) in 1987, which was renamed All-Russian Center for the Study of Public Opinion after the end of Soviet Union in 1991.[citation needed]

In an interview Yuri Levada[4] refers to Tatyana Zaslavskaya and Boris Grushin as the founders of VTsIOM in 1987. He states that he was invited by them to join VTsIOM.

Breakup and founding of Levada Center[edit]

VTsIOM became widely respected for its objectivity and professionalism among academics and journalists in both the Soviet Union and the West. In the 1990s, the agency's polls gained a reputation for being very reliable.[a 1]

Although VTsIOM received no budget money and funded itself with private-sector polling contracts from the breakdown of Soviet Union in 1992 to 2003, Levada had not addressed the fact that the polling agency remained a state-owned agency on paper.[citation needed]

This allowed the state to employ a legal technicality and appoint a new board of directors in September 2003, composed mainly of its officials, to oversee the work of VTsIOM. None of VTsIOM's sociologists were among these government appointments. Before that, VTsIOM had conducted over 1,000 polls.[5]

Levada stated that the Kremlin move was aimed in part at silencing growing public opposition to the Chechen war in the election season. (In recent years, the Kremlin has employed similar legal maneuvers to take over the independent NTV, TV-6 and TVS networks.)

After VTsIOM's management was forcibly changed, Levada and some of his colleagues quit their jobs (and, moreover, the equipment and resources that they had used for 15 years) to start up a new private polling agency, which they named Analytical Service VTsIOM (or VTsIOM-A). VTsIOM-A was renamed "Yuri Levada Analytical Center" (or "Levada Center") in March 2004. There is conflicting data about response from other Russian sociologists to the breakup of VTsIOM. Some sources report that every sociologist left with Levada.[6] Others claims they were silent, except for Grushin.[7]

The Property Ministry, which was reorganizing VTsIOM on behalf of the government, welcomed the researchers' departure. "Now they [VTsIOM-A] can really become independent, step into the market and live according to the laws of the market, which include paying taxes and competition", said a ministry spokesman.[citation needed]

The new director of VTsIOM is Valery Fedorov (Валерий Федоров), then a political scientist in his late twenties with no experience in public opinion polls, formerly a director of Center of Political Trends (Центр политической конъюнктуры). Many sources refer to him as a member of the presidential administration,[8] but this is not confirmed on his curriculum vitae.[9] He has assembled a new VTsIOM staff, most of whom are little-known.

Lilia Shevtsova, an analyst at the Carnegie Moscow Center (established by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace) who used VTsIOM statistics in her recent book Putin's Russia, said she was pleased Levada was trying to maintain the independence of his research.[a 2][clarification needed]

When asked about VTsIOM management change during his visit to Columbia University in the United States in September 2003, Russian president Vladimir Putin was supportive of the change in management.[10] Levada reportedly claimed that Putin disrupted at least three attempts to convince him that his approval rating is considerably lower than widely reported.[6]

Foreign agent law and prosecution[edit]

In 2013 the Levada Center reported it received from 1.5% to 3% of its total budget from abroad.[11] It was issued with a public warning that it would be eligible for listing as a 'foreign agent' under the recently passed Russian foreign agent law.[11] Levada said it suspended foreign funding in 2013.[12] After the Levada Center on 1 September 2016 published the results of a poll that had found a significant decline in support for the ruling United Russia party, the Russian Justice declared that the pollster was "performing the functions of a foreign agent".[13][14] This barred it from work on the upcoming election.[15][12][16] Levada's director stated that the designation may mean that Levada would be unable to continue its work as a pollster.[17] "This manifests the increase in internal repressions carried out by the country's leadership," the center’s director, Lev Gudkov, had told TV Dozhd, the New York Times reported, "If they won't cancel this decision, it will mean that the Levada Center will have to stop working, because you cannot conduct polls with such a stigma put on you."[14]

A pro-Kremlin group, Anti-Maidan, had been seeking the Levada Center's blacklisting, the Moscow Times had reported on 11 July 2016, adding that in a statement at its website, Anti-Maidan had claimed that "commissioned by the U.S. military, this Russian investigative service [Levada] gathered information in Moscow and Russia's regions. ... Wisconsin University acted as an intermediary between the Pentagon and the Levada-Center".[18]


The nongovernmental organization Levada Analytical Center was initially formed in 1987–1988 as the "All-Union Public Opinion Research Center" (VTsIOM). Due to some internal changes it was reestablished in 2003 as an independent nongovernmental organization.[citation needed]

The center carries out public opinion and research polls in fields such as sociology, economics, psychology and marketing. With approximately 50 people in the Moscow office, 80 fieldwork supervisors in regional branches and about 3000 trained interviewers, it is one of the largest full-service research agencies in Russia today.[citation needed]

The key personnel are the founders of the company who started their research programs at VTsIOM and continue in the Levada Center. From 2003 until 2006 the director was Yuri Levada, in December 2006 he was succeeded by Lev Dmitrievitsch Gudkov.[citation needed]

The basic research departments and their directors are:


The Levada Center has partner relationships with various regional research centers in Russia, the CIS and the Baltic states. Their partners and customers are nonprofit Russian and international companies.[19] The Center publishes the sociological journal The Russian Public Opinion Herald.

The Levada-Center is a member of the international associations ESOMAR[20] and ОIRОМ.[21] Experts of the Levada-Center are frequent members at conferences and round-table discussions, such as the Liberal Mission Foundation (Фонд «Либеральная миссия»), the Carnegie Moscow Center, The Gorbachev Foundation, Memorial, Public Lectures of the Polit.ru Project (Публичные лекции Полит.ру), the Moscow Higher School of Social and Economic Sciences (Московская высшая школа социальных и экономических наук), the Public Center of A.D. Sakharov (Общественный центр им. А. Д. Сахарова) and Khodorkovsky Readings (Ходорковские чтения).

Articles, interviews and expert opinions published by the Levada-Center appear regularly in domestic and foreign media, such as Kommersant, Vedomosti, The Economist, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, etc. Other publications in scientific and socially political press within Russia include Pro et Contra, Otechestvenie zapiski (Отечественные записки), Social Studies and the Present (Общественные науки и современность), The New Times, Ogoniok and Novaya Gazeta.

The Center continues to carry out research programs, they have developed in the framework of VTsIOM. The Center publishes the Journal of Public Opinion (from 1993 to 2003, the editorial staff of The Messenger created and published the journal "Monitoring of public opinion: the economic and social change" - named after one of the major research programs, developed under the supervision of the academician Tatyana Zaslavskaya).

The Levada-Center is included in the list of independent analytical centers of Europe published by Freedom House.[22] Data published by the Levada-Center has been used for The Economist Special Report on Russia.[23] In collaboration with the Levada-Center, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty weekly broadcasts the show Public Opinion (Общественное мнение: граждане России у микрофона Радио Свобода).[24]

In 1988, the research team at what later became the Levada-Center conducted the first study of consumer preferences in the USSR. At present, the Center conducts a wide range of marketing and sociological research using a variety of research techniques.


The research of Levada-Center is based on regular Russia-wide public opinion surveys. Some of the completed studies:[citation needed]

  • Homo Sovieticus (Russian: Советский человек). 5 waves of Russia-wide public opinion surveys in 1989, 1994, 1999, 2003 and 2008.
  • Monitoring of Electoral Preferences in Russia, in 1993, 1995–1996, 1999–2000, 2003–2004, 2007–2008.
  • Education program in workplaces on HIV / AIDS in Russia, commissioned by the International Labor Organization and the U.S. Department of Labor, 2005
  • "Youth of Russia", 2005-2007
  • "Western values and democracy", 2006
  • "The relation of population to the police reforms", 2007
  • "The European project on school studies on alcohol and drugs. ESPAD-2007
  • "Opinion of HIV-positive mothers on the experience of receiving health and social care", commissioned by UNICEF, 2008
  • "Reading in Russia - 2008. Trends and Issues. ", 2008
  • "Russian Myths", 2008
  • "Awareness of Russian citizens on the activities of law enforcement", 2008
  • "The problem of quality education and the installation of permanent education in contemporary Russia"
  • "Monitoring of elections to the Moscow City Duma in October 2009"
  • Voices from Russia: Society, Democracy, Europe, 2006.[25]
  • "The Problem of "Elites" in Contemporary Russia". 2005–2006.
  • Voices from Russia: What the Russian Middle Class Think about Their Own Country and about Europe, 2008.[26]
  • International Social Survey Program (ISSP), since 1991.[27]
  • New Russia Barometer, in collaboration with Centre for the Study of Public Policy (University of Strathclyde, University of Aberdeen), since 1991.[28]
  • World Public Opinion international surveys.

Most important current studies:[citation needed]

  • International Program for the Social Studies International Social Survey Program "(ISSP), since 1991
  • International research Inra Hooper / RSW / NOP-World / GfKNOP, since 1991
  • Monitoring social and economic changes, bi-monthly, starting February 1993
  • Regular participation in international studies World Public Opinion
  • Index of consumer sentiment
  • Index of social attitudes
  • The index of financial sentiment (IFS, in collaboration with the Center of Macroeconomic Research of Sberbank, Russia)

Foreign agent classification[edit]

In 2016 Levada Center was classified as a 'foreign agent' by the Russian justice ministry.[12]


In 2022 an LSE blog said "The most reputable public opinion data available in Russia are from the Levada Center, a non-governmental research organisation conducting regular surveys since 1988."[29]


Many respondents in Russia do not want to answer pollsters' questions for fear of negative consequences.[30][31] Sam Greene, director of the Russia program at King's College London, criticized Levada Center, saying that Levada should have published what percentage of respondents refused to participate.[32]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ A free-access, English-language assessment of the accuracy of poll ratings published by VTsIOM throughout the 1996 presidential and parliamentary election year is offered by an Indiana University site at "Opinion Poll Data". www.cs.indiana.edu. Archived from the original on 21 September 2006. Retrieved 5 June 2009..
  2. ^ Oksana Yablokova, "Levada Leaves VTsIOM for VTsIOM", The Moscow Times, 10 September 2003. This article is cached by a Yabloko website at Oksana Yablokova. "Levada Leaves VTsIOM for VTsIOM-A". Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011..


  1. ^ ""Леваду-центр" оставили "иностранным агентом"" [Levada Center was left a 'foreign agent']. dw.com (in Russian). Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  2. ^ "Журнальный зал" [Coffee room]. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  3. ^ "ВЦИОМ/Левада-центр: 20 лет в первопроходцах" [VTsIOM / Levada Center: 20 years as a pioneer]. Радио Свобода. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  4. ^ "Юрий Левада" [Yuri Levada]. Радио Свобода.
  5. ^ "ВЦИОМ готовят к выборам" [VTsIOM is preparing for elections]. www.ng.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Страницы Алексея Левинсона" [Alexey Levinson Pages]. Неприкосновенный запас. 5 (31). 17 April 2018 – via Журнальный зал.
  7. ^ "Московские новости" [Moscow news]. 10 September 2004. Archived from the original on 10 September 2004.
  8. ^ Социофобия (tr. Sociophobia) 21 September 2003 weblite.imbg.ru, accessed 17 November 2020
  9. ^ "Валерий Фёдоров: "ВЦИОМ всегда был очень закрытой структурой. Я надеюсь поменять эту ситуацию" - ВЦИОМ - Росбалт" [Valery Fedorov: "VTsIOM has always been a very closed structure. I hope to change this situation" - VTsIOM - Rosbalt]. www.rosbalt.ru. 29 September 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
  10. ^ Кондрашов, Андрей. "Заокеанское турне Путина Россия - США: не партнеры, а союзники" ["Putin's overseas tour Russia - USA: not partners, but allies"]. www.vesti7.ru. Archived from the original on 17 October 2004. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  11. ^ a b "Russia pollster 'is foreign agent'". BBC. 20 May 2013. Archived from the original on 8 June 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  12. ^ a b c "Russia's Levada Center polling group named foreign agent - BBC News". BBC News. 5 September 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  13. ^ "Autonomous Nonprofit Organization 'Levada Center' is included in the register of nonprofit organizations that perform functions of a foreign agent" (in Russian), Russian Ministry of Justice, Moscow, 5 September 2016. Retrieved: 8 September 2016.
  14. ^ a b "Russian Polling Center Is Declared a ‘Foreign Agent’ Before Elections", Ivan Nechepurenko, Moscow, The New York Times, New York, 5 September 2016. Retrieved: 8 September 2016.
  15. ^ "Russian Justice Ministry source explains recognizing Levada-Center NGO a "foreign agent"". TASS. Moscow. 6 September 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  16. ^ Рустамова, Фарида; Макутина, Мария (5 September 2016). Минюст включил Левада-центр в список иностранных агентов [The Ministry of Justice included the Levada Center in the list of foreign agents]. rbc.ru (in Russian). RBC. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  17. ^ RFE/RL (5 September 2016). "Russia Declares Respected Pollster 'Foreign Agent'". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  18. ^ "Pro-Kremlin Group Want Levada Pollster Investigated as 'Foreign Agent'", The Moscow Times, Moscow, 11 July 2016. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
  19. ^ Some partners of the Center on the official website Archived 28 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ ESOMAR. "Levada-Center – Market Research Company in Russian Federation - ESOMAR Directory". Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  21. ^ "ОИРОМ - объединение исследователей рынка и общественного мнения" [OIROM - an association of market and public opinion researchers]. www.oirom.ru.
  22. ^ "Freedom House". Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  23. ^ "Handle with care". The Economist. 29 November 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  24. ^ "Радио Свобода" [Radio Liberty]. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  25. ^ EU-Russia. "EU-RussiaCentre.org". Archived from the original on 8 September 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  26. ^ EU-Russia. "EU-RussiaCentre.org". Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  27. ^ ISSP—Russia Archived 5 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ New Russia Barometer Archived 26 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ what do ordinary russians really think about the war in ukraine blogs.lse.ac.uk, accessed 25 April 2022
  30. ^ "In Russia, opinion polls are a political weapon". openDemocracy. 9 March 2022.
  31. ^ Yaffa, Joshua (29 March 2022). "Why Do So Many Russians Say They Support the War in Ukraine?". The New Yorker.
  32. ^ "Polls Show Russians Support Putin And The War On Ukraine. Really?". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 7 April 2022.

External links[edit]