Lifestyle disease

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Lifestyle diseases are defined as diseases linked with, and often caused by the way people live their life. These are non-communicable diseases. Lifestyle diseases are commonly caused by lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating, alcohol, drugs and smoking, which lead to heart disease, stroke, obesity, type II diabetes and Lung cancer.[1][2] The diseases that appear to increase in frequency as countries become more industrialized and people live longer can include Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, atherosclerosis, asthma, cancer, chronic liver disease or cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney failure, osteoporosis, PCOD, stroke, depression, obesity and vascular dementia.

Some commenters maintain a distinction between diseases of longevity and diseases of civilization or diseases of affluence.[3] Certain diseases, such as diabetes, dental caries and asthma, appear at greater rates in young populations living in the "western" way; their increased incidence is not related to age, so the terms cannot accurately be used interchangeably for all diseases.[4]

Causes of the disease[edit]

Diet and lifestyle are major factors thought to influence susceptibility to many diseases. Drug abuse, tobacco smoking, and alcohol drinking, as well as a lack of or too much exercise may also increase the risk of developing certain diseases, especially later in life.[5][6][7]

In many Western countries, people began to consume more meat, dairy products, vegetable oils, tobacco, sugary foods, sugary beverages, and alcoholic beverages during the latter half of the 20th century. People also developed sedentary lifestyles and greater rates of obesity.[8] Rates of colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, endometrial cancer and lung cancer started increasing after this dietary change. People in developing countries, whose diets still depend largely on low-sugar starchy foods with little meat or fat have lower rates of these cancers.[9] Causes are not just from smoking and alcohol abuse. Adults can develop lifestyle diseases through behavioural factors that impact on them. These can be unemployment, unsafe life, poor social environment, working conditions, stress and home life can change a person’s lifestyle to increase their risk of developing one of these diseases.[10]

Death statistics in Australia[edit]

Between 1995 and 2005 813,000 Australians were hospitalized due to alcohol.[11] In 2014 11.2 million Australians were overweight or obese.

In 2013 there were 147,678 deaths within Australia mostly from lifestyle diseases including smoking of tobacco, alcohol use and other drugs, violence and unhealthy weight have impacted on Australians' death rate. The leading cause of death of Australian males was heart disease with 11,016 deaths, followed by lung cancer with 4,995 deaths, and chronic pulmonary disease killing 3,572. All these conditions were mainly attributed to smoking, alcohol abuse or unhealthy lifestyle.[12] In 2013 coronary heart disease was the leading cause of death in 8,750 women, mainly as a result of their lifestyle. Dementia and Alzheimer disease came second, affecting 7,277 females and thirdly, cerebrovascular disease, killing 6,368. These top three causes of deaths could be minimized through lifestyle changes within the Australian population.[13]

The table shows that ages of people dying and the top five diseases of which they are dying.[13]

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
Age 45-64 Circulatory

Coronary

Heart

Disease

Cancer

Lung

Cancer

Cancer

Breast

Cancer

Cancer

Colorectal

Cancer

External

Suicide

Age 65-74 Circulatory

Coronary

Heart

Disease

Cancer

Lung

Cancer

Respiratory

COPD

Circulatory

Cerebro

vascular

Disease

Cancer

Colorectal

Cancer

Age 75-84 Circulatory

Coronary

Heart

Disease

Circulatory

Cerebro

vascular

Disease

Other

Dementia

&

Alzheimer

Disease

Cancer

Lung

Cancer

Respiratory

COPD

Age 85-94 Circulatory

Coronary

Heart

Disease

Other

Dementia

&

Alzheimer

Disease

Circulatory

Cerebro

vascular

Disease

Respiratory

COPD

Respiratory

Influenza

&

Pneumonia

Death statistics in the United States[edit]

In 1900, the top three causes of death in the United States were pneumonia/influenza, tuberculosis, and diarrhea/enteritis. Communicable diseases accounted for about 60 percent of all deaths. In 1900, heart disease and cancer were ranked number four and eight respectively. Since the 1940s, the majority of deaths in the United States have resulted from heart disease, cancer, and other degenerative diseases. And, by the late 1990s, degenerative diseases accounted for more than 60 percent of all deaths.[14]

Lifestyle diseases have their onset later in an individual's life; they appear to increase in frequency as countries become more industrialized and people live longer.[15] This suggests that the life expectancy at birth of 49.24 years in 1900[16] was too short for degenerative diseases to occur, compared to a life expectancy at birth of 77.8 years in 2004. Also, survivorship to the age of 50 was 58.5% in 1900, and 93.7% in 2007.[17]

Death statistics in India[edit]

According to a report[18] published by ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) in 2017, 3 of the 5 leading individual causes of disease burden in India were non-communicable, with ischaemic heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as the top two causes and stroke as the fifth leading cause. The range of disease burden or DALY rate among the states in 2016 was 9-fold for ischaemic heart disease, 4-fold for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 6-fold for stroke, and 4-fold for diabetes across India. Of the total death from major disease groups, 62% of all deaths were caused by non-communicable diseases.

Distribution of deaths from major disease groups, by age (2016)
Death rate per 1,000,000

[percent of total deaths in that age group]

Age group Communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional diseases Non-communicable diseases Injuries
0–14 years 22.6 [80.8] 3.4 [12.0] 2.0 [7.2]
15–39 years 5.9 [29.1] 6.9 [34.4] 7.3 [36.5]
40–69 years 19.6 [17.4] 82.4 [73.2] 10.5 [9.4]
70+ years 186.7 [23.0] 580.5 [71.6] 43.5 [5.4]
All ages 20.5 [27.5] 46 [61.8] 8.0 [10.7]

Prevention[edit]

Prevention is remedies or activities that aim to reduce the likelihood of a disease or disorder affecting people. Lifestyle diseases are preventable for children if parents set them on the correct path, as early life decisions and influences can impact people later on in life.[10] Lifestyle diseases can be prevented through reduction in smoking of tobacco [19] the Australian Government has started this by introducing plain packaging for all tobacco products and increasing the prices of tobacco production.[20] Overweightness and obesity can be prevented through a well balanced lifestyle through healthy eating and exercise. Prevention can come about by a person undertaking 30 minutes of moderate exercise daily or by doing 150 minutes of moderate intensity exercise a week.[21] Examples of moderate exercise includes a brisk walk, swim, bike ride or it can also be everyday life activities like mowing the lawn or house cleaning.[22] In addition, animals studies have suggested that early life exercise can reduce the risk of developing metabolic diseases in adulthood.[23] All causes of lifestyle disease can be prevented through giving up smoking and other drugs, reducing ones intake of alcohol, processed meats (like bacon and sausages), red meats (like pork, beef and lamb), fatty foods and by engaging in daily exercise. However, new studies also show preventive effects on recurrent respiratory tract infections in children through the intake of unprocessed food. Beef, green vegetables and whole dairy can then have a beneficial effect because they are unprocessed compared to processed foods. Beef, unlike other types of red meat, can contribute to the health-promoting effects.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Lifestyle disease". MedicineNet. Retrieved 2016-05-12.
  2. ^ Mathur, Prashant; Mascarenhas, Leena (January 2019). "LIFESTYLE DISEASES: Keeping fit for a better tomorrow". The Indian Journal of Medical Research. 149 (Suppl 1): S129–S135. doi:10.4103/0971-5916.251669. ISSN 0971-5916. PMC 6515727. PMID 31070189.
  3. ^ Bitar, Adrienne Rose (January 2018). Diet and the Disease of Civilization. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-8964-0.
  4. ^ Pollan, Michael (2008). In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto. Penguin Press HC, The. ISBN 978-1-59420-145-5.
  5. ^ Vaillant, GE; Mukamal, K (June 2001). "Successful aging". Am J Psychiatry. 158: 839–47. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.6.839. PMID 11384887.
  6. ^ Fraser, GE; Shavlik, DJ (July 2001). "Ten years of life: Is it a matter of choice?". Arch. Intern. Med. 161: 1645–52. doi:10.1001/archinte.161.13.1645. PMID 11434797.
  7. ^ Steyn, K; Fourie, J; Bradshaw, D (1992). "The impact of chronic diseases of lifestyle and their major risk factors on mortality in South Africa". S Afr Med J. 82 (4): 227–31. PMID 1411817.
  8. ^ Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Main Features - Key findings". www.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12.
  9. ^ Key, TJ; Allen, NE; Spencer, EA (Sep 2002). "The effect of diet on risk of cancer". The Lancet. 360 (9336): 861–8. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09958-0. PMID 12243933.
  10. ^ a b Vallgårda, Signild (2011-11-01). "Why the concept lifestyle diseases should be avoided". Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 39 (7): 773–775. doi:10.1177/1403494811421978. ISSN 1403-4948. PMID 21948978.
  11. ^ Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Main Features - Smoking, risky drinking and obesity". www.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12.
  12. ^ "Health status (AIHW)". www.aihw.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12.
  13. ^ a b "Leading causes of death (AIHW)". www.aihw.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12.
  14. ^ National Center for Health Statistics, National Office of Vital Statistics, 1947 for the year 1900 (page 67), for the year 1938 (page 55).
  15. ^ Olshansky, S. Jay; Carnes, Bruce A. (2002). The Quest for Immortality: Science at the Frontiers of Aging. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 191. ISBN 978-0393323276.
  16. ^ Life expectancy by age, race, and sex, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, FastStats, 2007, retrieved 2009-06-11
  17. ^ Survivorship by age, race, and sex, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, FastStats, 2007, retrieved 2009-06-11
  18. ^ India: Health of the Nation’s States 2017 Published by ICMR. Retrieved: Jan 2020
  19. ^ "Preventing and treating ill health (AIHW)". www.aihw.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12.
  20. ^ Ageing, Australian Government Department of Health and. "Tobacco product regulation and disclosure". health.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12.
  21. ^ "Lifestyle factors (AIHW)". aihw.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12.
  22. ^ "WHO | What is Moderate-intensity and Vigorous-intensity Physical Activity?". www.who.int. Retrieved 2016-05-12.
  23. ^ Falcão-Tebas, Filippe; Kuang, Jujiao; Arceri, Chelsea; Kerris, Jarrod P.; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Marin, Evelyn C.; McConell, Glenn K. (2018-11-08). "Four weeks of exercise early in life reprograms adult skeletal muscle insulin resistance caused by paternal high fat diet". The Journal of Physiology. 597 (1): 121–136. doi:10.1113/jp276386. ISSN 0022-3751. PMC 6312425. PMID 30406963.
  24. ^ Influence of Dietary Advice Including Green Vegetables, Beef, and Whole Dairy Products on Recurrent Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial. van der Gaag E, et al. Nutrients. 2020. PMID: 31968697. https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/1/272

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