Light Attack/Armed Reconnaissance
|Light Attack/Armed Reconnaissance program|
|The A-29 Super Tucano won the Light Air Support (LAS) contract and is used by the Afghan Air Force|
The Light Attack/Armed Reconnaissance (LAAR) or Light Air Support (LAS) program has been established to enable the United States Air Force to buy a light counter-insurgency, ground attack and reconnaissance aircraft. The aircraft should be capable of finding, tracking, and attacking targets either on its own or in support of ground forces. The program formally began in July 2009 with a request for information. No request for proposal has yet been issued. Approximately 100 aircraft were expected to be ordered, but USAF has reduced the number of aircraft sought to 15 aircraft. The new, 15 aircraft program is focused at training pilots, not a combat mission. This program has also been called the OA-X program or the AT-X program, although the reduced scope of the LAAR program has forced the USAF to push an "OA-X" program indefinitely into the future.
The 2009 Light Attack/Armed Reconnaissance program was born out of the need for a new close air support aircraft that was suited to the type of combat the United States was facing in post 2003-invasion Iraq and Afghanistan. The close air support role was carried out by several different aircraft, including the A-10 Thunderbolt II, the B-1B Lancer, the F-16 Fighting Falcon, and the F-15E Strike Eagle. While all of these aircraft are capable of close air support, only the A-10 was purpose built for the type of support needed by ground troops in a "low intensity conflict," or COIN (COunterINsurgency), operation.
For example, these aircraft often do not have the loiter time needed for these missions and require aerial refueling support, making their missions more expensive. Additionally, long loiter missions use up an airframe's service life faster than expected, requiring replacement. This may cause issues in the future as some aircraft, such as the A-10, are out of production and cannot be replaced.
To solve this problem, the United States Air Force released a Request for Information (RFI) on July 27, 2009 requesting details of a possible Light Attack/Armed Reconnaissance aircraft that could be outfitted to specific requirements (see Requirements below) and enter into service in 2013.
The Air Force planned to acquire approximately 100 aircraft in the RFI, but has since reduced the initial requirement to 15 aircraft. A more detailed Request for Proposals (RFP) has not been released as of September 2010.
In November 2011 it was revealed that the Beechcraft AT-6B had been excluded from the competition by the USAF, leaving the Embraer A-29 the probable winner, with a contract expected to be awarded in December 2011. According to GAO: “the Air Force concluded that HBDC [Hawker Beechcraft Defense Company] had not adequately corrected deficiencies in its proposal. In this regard, the agency concluded that multiple deficiencies and significant weaknesses found in HBDC’s proposal make it technically unacceptable and results in unacceptable mission capability risk”. Hawker Beechcraft's protest against its exclusion was dismissed.
On December 30, 2011, the USAF announced that the A-29 had been awarded the contract. But the contract award was disputed and a stop-work was issued the following January. All motions will be due to U.S. Court of Federal Claim by March 6, 2012.
A reawarding of the contract was expected in January 2013, but was delayed a few months. The A-29 was reawarded the contract on February 27, 2013. And Beechcraft again challenged the contract. But the USAF ordered that the construction start anyway. Beechcraft's allies in the Kansas Republican congressional delegation then called for the work to be stopped, while Embraer's Floridan congressional allies praised the USAF's move. The USAF has instructed for work to continue unless a federal court orders otherwise. The United States Court of Federal Claims upheld the USAF's decision to proceed with the contract work.
In summer 2017, the U.S. Air Force will conduct flight demonstrations at Holloman AFB, New Mexico for the OA-X capability assessment for light attack and armed reconnaissance missions from austere locations : it will choose up to four industrials to bring one or two off-the-shelf low-cost, light-attack aircraft for a 300-aircraft need. It is required to have a 90% availability day and night, fly 900 hours per year for 10 years, take off on 6,000 ft runways, burn a maximum of 1,500 lb./hr of fuel over 2.5-hr. and its survivability should be evaluated by its infrared and visual signature.
Current competitors include Embraer and Sierra Nevada's A-29 Super Tucano as well as the Textron Aviation Defense AT-6 Wolverine turboprop and the American-made Textron Aviation Defense Scorpion light jet.  Other possibilities includes the Leonardo M-346F, the BAE Systems Hawk, the Boeing OV-10X, a Boeing/Saab T-X variant, a Lockheed Martin/KAI T-50 variant, the Iomax Archangel, the L3 Technologies OA-8 Longsword, the Northrop Grumman/Scaled Composites ARES, the KAI KA-1, the TAI Hürkuş-C, and the FMA IA 58 Pucará,
The South African high-wing, twin-boom pusher turboprop Paramount Mwari developed with Boeing could be evaluated too, but Boeing won't take part of the flight demonstration. Lockheed neither, as the T-50A may not meet runway and fuel burn requirements, but this isn't ruling out one or the other participating in OA-X later.
Four contenders were displayed on Aug. 9 : the Textron Scorpion jet, Embraer/Sierra Nevada A-29 Super Tucano, Textron AT-6B and L3 Longsword turboprops, graded on basic surface attack and close air support, both including at night, daytime ground assault and rescue escort; but also austere environment performance, rapid turn rate, weapons qualifications, sensors and communication systems, low field operating costs and affordable upfront procurement cost.
In February 2018, after selecting the two finalists, the US Air Force decided against holding a planned combat demonstration to aid in selecting an aircraft type on combat performance, and opted instead to work closely together with the manufacturers of the two selected finalist aircraft to determine the best aircraft and proceed with rapid acquisition.
In April 2018, after deciding to forgo a combat demonstration, the US Air Force decided to advance with a second phase of the LAAR program. The second phase involves examining sustainment requirements, the ability to network with friendly aircraft, and operating costs.
The selected LAAR aircraft was intended to meet several key requirements, including:
- Rough field operations. The RFI requires that the aircraft be capable of operating from semi-prepared runways such as grass or dirt surfaces.
- Defensive package. The aircraft will have to include several defensive measures, including a Missile Approach Warning System (MAWS), a Radar warning receiver (RWR), and chaff and flare dispensers.
- Armored cockpit and engine.
- Long loiter time. The aircraft must be able to fly 5 hour sorties (with 30 minute fuel reserves).
- Range. The aircraft must have a 900 nautical mile (1600 km) ferry range.
- Data link capability. The aircraft is required to have a line-of-sight data link (with beyond line-of-sight desired) capability of transmitting and receiving still and video images.
- Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities. The aircraft will have to laser track and designate targets, as well as track targets using electro-optical and infrared video/still images.
- Weaponry. The LAAR aircraft will need at least 4 weapons stores capable of carrying a variety of weapons, including 500 lb bombs, 2.75-inch rockets, rail-launched missiles, and illumination flares. The aircraft will also be capable of aerial gunnery, either with an integrated or pylon mounted gun.
Desired traits (but not requirements) included:
- Infrared signature suppression for the engine(s).
- 30,000 ft (9000 m) operational ceiling.
- 6,000 ft (1800 m) takeoff and landing distance.
- Aerobatic capabilities capable of maneuvers such as the Immelmann turn, Cuban eight, and Split S.
The AT-6B is a light attack variant of the T-6 Texan II trainer aircraft used by the United States Air Force, and as such, it was considered to be a favorite for LAAR program, until it was eliminated in November 2011. But the USAF later found a mistake in its paperwork. A second contest was initiated and concluded with selection of the A-29 in 2013, to be provided to the Afghan Air Force, with pilots trained in the United States.
The Embraer Super Tucano is a light attack and reconnaissance aircraft that is already in use by several nations. In fact, the United States Navy has already leased several of the aircraft to evaluate their suitability in support of special operations missions.
In addition to the AT-6, Textron will demonstrate the capabilities of their Scorpion twin-engine two-seat attack jet, expected to easily outperform the propeller planes. Textron secretly put together the Scorpion with off-the-shelf aircraft parts in just two year’s time, and presumably would require more time and money to put it into production than the AT-6 or A-29.
The A-67 Dragon is a Counter-insurgency (COIN) Aircraft currently in development and is slated to begin low rate initial production in the 4th quarter of 2010. The A-67 can achieve 11 hours of loiter on target on internal fuel and can achieve air speeds ranging from 85 to 370 knots.
The militarized version of this crop-duster will include up to 11 hardpoints under the wing and body for bombs, rockets, and machine guns. The Air Tractor aircraft is not planned to include an ejection seat or pressurization systems, both of which are mentioned in the Air Force RFI, but the company predicts that their proposal will cost half as much as other competitors.
The M-346 Master was the first jet-powered aircraft proposed for the competition, developed by the Italian Alenia Aermacchi company, and is powered by a pair of Honeywell F124 turbofan engines. The effective range of the aircraft currently is reported to be 1,890 km (1,170 mi) while its armament configuration is centered around nine hardpoints.
- "Light Air Support (LAS) Aircraft - Solicitation Number: FA8637-10-R-6000." Air Force Materiel Command, 12 August 2010.
- Air Combat Command (ACC) Light Attack/Armed Reconnaissance (LAAR) (2009). Request for Information. July 27, 2009. Accessed February 18, 2010.
- Trimble, Stephen (2010). "Rivals not deterred by USAF shift on turboprop fighters". Flight International. 15 September 2010. Retrieved: 16 September 2010.
- Trimble, Stephen (2010). Irregular warfare offers new role for propeller driven aircraft. Flight International. 26 October 2010. Retrieved: 28 October 2010.
- Tittel, Steven J. (Major, USAF) (2009). Cost, Capability, and the Hunt for a Lightweight Ground Attack Aircraft. Master's Thesis, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. June 12, 2009.
- DiMascio, Jen. "Congress Threatens To Withhold LAAR Funding." Aviation Week, 18 May 2011.
- "Hawker: Air Force Barred Us From Jet Bid". Manufacturing.net. November 21, 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-25.
- "B-406170, Hawker Beechcraft Defense Company, LLC, December 22, 2011" US U.S. Government Accountability Office," 22 December 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2012.
- Hodge, Nathan (December 30, 2011). "Air Force Awards Afghan Plane Contract". The Wall Street Journal. New York. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
- McCoy, Daniel. "USAF puts hold on LAS contract amid Hawker protest." Wichita Business Journal, 5 January 2012.
- "USAF Background paper on the light Air Support Decision". Second Line Defense, 25 January 2012. Retrieved: 28 January 2012
- "Afghan Light Air Support saga continues: Chuck Wald flies the Tucano."
- "USAF delays Afghan Light Air Support source selection."
- Super Tucano beats out AT-6 for Afghan Light Air Support tender
- Super Tucano wins Afghan light air support bid
- "Beechcraft To Again Challenge USAF LAS Decision."
- "USAF Overrides Stop Work on Afghan LAS Contract."
- "Kansas congressmen want work stopped on USAF contract Beechcraft lost."
- "Beechcraft Moves LAS Fight to Courts, Congress."
- "USAF tells Sierra Nevada/Embraer to keep working on LAS contract."
- Butler, Amy (22 April 2013). "Federal Claims Court Clears Way For Continued Light Air Support Work". Av Week. The McGraw-Hill Companies. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- Insinna, Valerie (Mar 15, 2017). "US Air Force selects Textron's Scorpion jet and AT-6 for light attack aircraft demo". Defense News. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- Lara Seligman (Mar 29, 2017). "Boeing Opts Out Of USAF's Light Attack Demo". Aerospace Daily & Defense Report. Aviation Week.
- Lara Seligman (Apr 8, 2017). "Lockheed Passes On USAF's Light Attack Demo". Aerospace Daily & Defense Report. Aviation Week.
- Lara Seligman (Aug 9, 2017). "Light Attack Contenders Square Off For USAF Demo". Aviation Week Network.
- Majumdar, Dave (8 August 2017). "The U.S. Air Force's OA-X Program Remains a Big Mystery". The National Interest. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
…while the contractors prepare the planes for flight and perform all of the logistical functions, they have no insight into the nature of the OA-X experiment whatsoever.
- Trimble, Stephen (2 February 2018). "USAF rejects Scorpion for OA-X, names A-29 and AT-6 finalists". Flight Global. Washington, DC. Archived from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
- Insinna, Valerie (2 February 2018). "US Air Force kills combat demo for light attack aircraft". Defense News. Washington, DC. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
- Jennings, Gareth (4 February 2018). "USAF axes planned light attack combat demo". IHS Jane's 360. London. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
- Reim, Garrett (24 April 2018). "USAF sets evaluation criteria for second phase of light attack experiment". Flight Global. Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 24 April 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- Sweetman, Bill (2010). Light Airplanes Boost Close Air Support. Aviation Week. February 4, 2010. Accessed February 22, 2010.
- Malenic, Marina. "Hawker Beechcraft questions LAS exclusion." Janes, 23 November 2011.
- Shalal-Esa, Andrea. "U.S. Air Force sees Afghan plane issue as 'isolated'." Reuters. March 9, 2012.
- Colombia Finalizes Deal for Super Tucano COIN Aircraft (2005). Defense Industry Daily. December 12, 2005. Accessed February 22, 2010.
- Majumdar, Dave (12 July 2017). "U.S. Air Force Now Training with A-29 Super Tucano". The National Interest. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Scutro, Andrew (2009). U.S. Eyes Super Tucano for SpecOps Work. Defense News. March 13, 2009. Accessed February 22, 2010.
- Majumdar, Dave (10 July 2017). "Duel of the Light Attack Planes: Tucano vs. Texan vs. Scorpion". The National Interest. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Majumdar, Dave (21 April 2017). "The U.S. Air Force's OA-X: An Opportunity For Textron's Scorpion Jet". The National Interest. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Jennings, Gareth (2010). Singapore Air Show 2010: Boeing pins hopes on revived Bronco. Jane's Defence Weekly. February 5, 2010. Accessed February 22, 2010.
- "Boeing considers restarting OV-10 production after 23-year hiatus". FlightGlobal. Accessed 2010-11-08.
- A-67 Counterinsurgency Aircraft. Retrieved: 7 October 2010.
- Garvey, William (2010). Killer Apps. Aviation Week & Space Technology. 17 May 2010, pp. 53.
- Barrie, Allison (16 August 2017). "Meet the combat crop duster, armed and armored to join the fight". Fox News. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "The Light Attack Aircraft". Air Force Magazine. Accessed 2010-11-08.