Lin Hsin Hsin

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Lin Hsin Hsin
林欣欣
Born Singapore
Nationality  Singapore
Known for Mathematics, Computer Science, Information Technology, Color Science, Digital Art, Digital Music, Digital Media, poetry
Website www.lhham.com.sg

Lin Hsin Hsin (Chinese: 林欣欣; pinyin: Lín Xīn Xīn) is an IT inventor, artist, poet and composer from Singapore, deeply rooted in mathematics and information technology.[1] She established the first virtual museum website, the Lin Hsin Hsin Art Museum, in 1994.[2]

Background[edit]

Lin was born in Singapore. She graduated in mathematics from the University of Singapore and received a postgraduate degree in computer science from Newcastle University, England. She studied music and art in Singapore,[3] printmaking at the University of Ulster, papermaking in Ogawamachi, Japan and paper conservation at the University of Melbourne Conservation Services.

IT Invention & IT Visionary[edit]

Lin Hsin Hsin is a digital native. Lin builds paradigm shift & patent-grade inventions. She is an IT visionary some 20 years ahead of time, who pens her IT vision in computing, poems, and paintings.

IT Visionary[edit]

  • 1999 February 16, poem titled "entrepreneur" on entrepreneur, p. 21, "Between the Lines"
  • 1999 February 16, poem titled "e-commerce" on e-commerce, p. 21, "In Bytes We Travel"
  • 1999 February 1, poem titled "Mobility" on mobility, p. 20, "Between the Lines"
  • 1996 October, predicted Twitter, tweeting as a way of life. in a diptych titled "twigee-tweedee", digital art in private collection, Paris, France
  • 1996 October 1, poem titled "e-money" on digital currency & Cryptocurrency p. 58, "In Bytes We Travel"
  • 1995 September 9, poem titled "The Day Will Come..." on SMS, using fingers to type on screen, p. 181, "In Bytes We Travel"
  • 1995 September 9, poem titled "Virtual Offices" predicted virtual office as the concept of businesses, p. 20, "In Bytes We Travel"
  • 1995 September 5, poem titled "take a walk thru' the cyber mall", on e-commerce, p. 54, "In Bytes WeTravel"
  • 1994 Designed and built first virtual museum in the world,[4][5][6][7][8]
  • 1994 May, painted "Voices of the Future" – oil painting depicted the wireless and mobile entertainment future lifestyle, p. 32, "Lin Hsin Hsin: Works from Art, Science & Technology Series"
  • 1993 August 23, poem titled "Till Bankrupt Do Us Part", on online shopping & e-commerce, p. 241, "Sunny Side Up"
  • 1993 August 21, poem title "Online Intimacy" on Online dating service, p. 235, "Sunny Side Up"
  • 1993 February, predicted the Y2K bug while building a ten-year forecasting model on an IBM i486 PC, Journal of the Asia Pacific Economic Conference (APEC), 1999
  • 1992 May, use the @ symbol in a book title, book front cover & title page, "Love @ 1st Byte"
  • 1992 wanted to build a multimedia museum (letter to National Computer Board, Singapore)
  • 1991 February 1 poem titled "Cellular Phone Galore" predicted mobile phone, & cellular network BEFORE 2G GSM launch, March 27, 1991, p.  54,55, "from time to time"
  • 1988 March organized 1st Artificial Intelligence conference in Singapore
  • 1977 painted "The Computer as Architect" – oil painting depicted the vision of the power of computer in architecture. Ten years before Hsin Hsin created the 1st 3D digital art in Singapore, she has never seen nor used a CAD system. However, she has envisaged the use of computer for architecture, hence the title of the painting.
  • 1976 painted "Distillation of an Apple" – oil painting visualising the construction and usage of Apple computer 7 days before the birth of Apple computer.

IT Inventions[edit]

  • 2018 May 19 Next Generation 100% Directed Acyclic Graph DAG-based blockchain protocol
  • 2017 Nov 11 Encryption Algorithm
  • 2017 FACT Finger on Android Circling Techniques—A Finger Intelligence Technology (FIT 3.0) on Android
  • 2016 <PugScript>-- A Visual Language on Android
  • 2016 4 new mathematical theorems, launched in London, June 2016
  • 2016 STEP Sustainable Time-motion Enabled Power—A Finger Intelligence Technology (FIT 3.0) on Android
  • 2015 FAME Finger/Fist Accelerated Mathematical Engine—A Finger Intelligence Technology (FIT 3.0) on Android
  • 2013 TANGO Touch ANd GO—A Finger Intelligence Technology (FIT 3.0) on Android
  • 2007 MedTECH 20/20 visions for all ages—POC done
  • 2007 Super Image File Shrinkage for jpeg files

Startup[edit]

Contemporary Art[edit]

Paintings and sculptures[edit]

Lin Hsin Hsin specialises in oil painting, she has transformed the opaque properties of oil paint to make it translucent in 1988.[14][15] As such, she has made oil paint to look like watercolor, Chinese ink as well as pastel, pencil or charcoal, as demonstrated in the Aqua Series[16][17][18] of paintings. Besides oil paintings, she makes acrylic sculptures.

Art Exhibitions[edit]

Lin Hsin Hsin has held 15 solo exhibitions in Singapore, Amsterdam,[19][20][21] and San Jose, California, United States. She has participated in more than 220 exhibitions in 60 cities, 26 countries across Asia, Europe,[22][23][24][25][26][27] North America and South America.[28]

Art Collectors[edit]

Lin's art can be seen in private, public and museum collections in 32 cities across Asia, Europe, North America and Australia. In 1985, she was awarded a silver medal by the Société des Artistes Français, Paris. In 1987, Lin received the IBM Singapore Art Award, she has received Visiting Fellowship to Germany in 1988 and Japan Foundation Fellowship in 1991 Her artworks are in private, public and museum collections in Asia, Europe and North America.

Paper[edit]

Besides paper sculptures, papier collé, collograph and monoprints, Lin handmade acid-free paper.[29] She has pioneered acid-free papaya paper[30] and umbrella plant paper in 1992[31] .

Digital Media[edit]

Digital Media Pioneer[edit]

Lin is a digital media pioneer,[32] She has created digital music in 1985, 3D digital art in 1987, and digital animation in 1989 in Singapore. Since 1993 todate, Lin has pioneered the use of a two-button mechanical PC Mouse to draw and paint Western and Chinese paintings.[33] She has created digital oil paintings, watercolors, Chinese ink paintings and calligraphy. She also digitally sketches with this mouse. Hsin Hsin has never and does not use any tablet PC and stylus in such creation. More than 250 digitally created artworks were exhibited in 1997 in her 15th solo exhibition in Singapore.[34][35]

Virtual Museum[edit]

In 1994, Lin set up the first virtual museum[36] in the world, the Lin Hsin Hsin Art Museum[37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49]

Digital Art[edit]

Lin Hsin Hsin Started from the real-world, in 1985, she moved into the digital world.

However, Lin has, since 1994, began with the digital, and fabricated the digital into the real

Lin Hsin Hsin created Web art[50] and Net art in 1995, HTML art in 1996 and she has developed interactive Web art[51] since 1997. Lin pioneered virtual sculpting in 1999 in Singapore; it was exhibited in Paris, France in 1999, 2001, and 2003.

ISM[edit]

Lin believes in Mathematical & Computing fundamentals, she anchors on science to create art. She

  • forbids drag & drop, scan & morph, cut & paste processes to create digital art.
  • established Eco-computing[52] initiatives for digital media in 2007.
  • algorithm driven & equation-based
  • Linux platform

Genres[edit]

Lin initiates, establishes and creates different genres of digital art:

  • Non-Photorealistic Rendering Images (NPR) by a hand held device (mouse)[53][54][55][56][57]
    • Images include digital oil paintings, digital watercolor, digital cartoons, digital Chinese ink, digital crayons, digital pencils, etc.
  • Photorealistic Images by a hand held device (mouse)
    • Images include digital oil paintings, digital watercolor, digital Chinese ink, digital crayons, digital pencils, etc.
  • Mathematical art
    • 2D – still images include: 253 categories of digital fabrics, digital coin[58]
    • 3D – still and animated. Computation-based digital voyages; 3D modelling digital sculptures,[59][60] 3D modelling digital objects
  • Grid Geometry art
    • 2D Grid Geometry art[61][62]
    • 2D Interactive Grid Geometry Art[63][64]
    • 2D Perception-Based Art
    • 3D Perception-Based Art
  • Equation-based art
    • 2D – still and animated. Images include digital oil and digital watercolor.
    • 3D – still and animated digital sculptures, digital jewelry[66] digital objects. digital furnitures,[67][68]
    • All 2D and 3D equation-based art can be realised and fabricated into real-world entities.
  • Web-based art
    • 2D – still, animated and interactive.
    • 3D – still, animated and interactive.
  • ICP (In-Camera Painting)[69][70]
  • Literary Art
  • Android Smartphone Platform—FIT (Finger Intelligence Technologies)
    • 2D: finger digital painting without image editing software
      • animated and/performance, interactive
      • abstract
      • calligraphic
      • photorealistic
    • 3D: finger digital sculptures
    • 4D: finger gestures and finger choreography enabled live 3D performance
    • 4D: live 3D performance

EMOJI CITY[edit]

Lin initiates and creates different genres of emoji, still and animated. She built and launched an Emoji City, September 12, 2016.

BLOCKMOJI[edit]

Lin initiates and creates different genres of blockmoji -- An emoji genre for blockchain, both still and animated. She launched Blockmoji, August 8, 2018.

Music[edit]

Digital music[edit]

From conceptualisation to composing, from sound calibration to mastering, Lin has produced music on a PC without a sound card and midi instruments. Lin creates virtual instruments including a virtual didgeridoo, a berimbau used by the Brazilian aborigines. In 2006, Lin has realised the sonification of nature, including a rainforest, waterfalls and wind by an interactive virtual sound board she has created. Hsin Hsin's music has been performed in Vienna, Austria in 2002, Bourges, France in 2003, 2004 and Pisa, Italy, 2005.

Music visualisation[edit]

Lin has composed music and painted music as an artist. The 45 paintings in the "Abstraction in Music" Series (1986–1987) is her interpretation of music on canvas, as she is moved by the music of great composers such as Handel (Water Music), Mozart (Jupiter Symphony), Franz Liszt (Rhapsodies dan l'espace), Vivaldi (The Four Seasons), Debussy (La Mer). In addition to the canvases, there are the paperworks subtitled "La Petite Séries" created with different techniques, an abstraction of audio visualisation—perceived images of the sound in music such as Musical Ornaments: Trill, Appoggiatura and Turn (Staccato) and sound in the universe like Woodpecker.

Lin has conceptualised and written about the art in music and music in art. Since 2002, Hsin Hsin has digitally created visual music, or animated music, as she puts it.

2005, Lin built wearables and lights that response to music.

2006, Lin built paradigm shift interactive digital real-world musical instruments—I-Musika[71][72]

Interactive music[edit]

Lin developed an interactive Music Sound Board in 2006. The creation of this soft sound board enables real time creation of the sound of nature. Examples are elements of sound audible in nature, such as rain forest, insects, water, and wind.

Intermedia[edit]

Combining mathematics, technology, art and music, Hsin Hsin pursues interdisciplinary studies.

Poetry[edit]

Lin speaks, reads and writes in Chinese, English, Japanese and French. She writes poems in these languages

  • Poetry Books
    • "iWrite", 2011, ISBN 978-981-08-9367-5, Dewey Decimal Class 821
    • "To The Point", 2010
    • "Between The Lines", 2004, Pro-Literature Verlag, ISBN 978-3-937034-51-5[73][74]
    • "Between The Lines", 2004, ISBN 978-981-04-9512-1, Dewey Decimal Class 821[75][76]
    • "In Bytes We Travel", 1997, ISBN 978-981-02-3359-4, Dewey Decimal Class 828, Library of Congress PR9570.S53 L5644 1997[77][78]
    • "Sunny Side Up", 1994, ISBN 978-981-00-5840-1, Library of Congress PR9570.S53 L797 1994[79]
    • "Love @ 1st Byte", 1992, ISBN 978-981-02-1026-7, Dewey Decimal Class 821, Library of Congress PR9570.S53 L565 1992[80][81]
    • "From Time to Time", 1991, ISBN 978-981-00-2705-6, Library of Congress PR9570.S53 L794 1991[82][83][84]
    • "Take a Word for a Walk", 1989, ISBN 978-981-00-1085-0, Dewey Decimal Class 821, Library of Congress PR9570.S53 L57 1989[85]

Her poetry books have been catalogued in major libraries in the world:

    • National Library of Canada, Canada
    • The British Library, England
    • Deutsche Bibliothek, Germany
    • Deutsche Bücherei, Germany
    • Library of Congress, USA
    • Libraries in Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia
    • University libraries in USA, Canada, England, Australia and Hong Kong
    • Museum libraries in Germany and Canada

Publications[edit]

Lin is an author of 75 books, including ten poetry books.

Contemporary art books[edit]

Selected articles[edit]

Digital media[edit]

Digital music[edit]

  • "Rudiments Mapping – An Axiomatic Approach to Music Composition", International Computer Music Conference, 2003,[101][102]
  • "I1)-Musika:Mobile Interface Musical Expression (MIME)", IV '07 Proceedings of the 11th International Conference Information Visualization, ISBN 0-7695-2900-3[103]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nor-Afidah Abd, Lin Hsin Hsin Archived 12 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Infopedia, Singapore, 27 May 2003.
  2. ^ Lin Hsin Hsin — Speaker biography Archived 27 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Museums and the Web, 1997.
  3. ^ An Essay, 2010 Archived 9 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ "Virtual Museum Tour – from Reality to Fantasy and Back", p.32, Mishkafayim Art Magazine No.28, Israel Museum, Jerulsalem, Israel, April 1996
  5. ^ 24 Hours in Cyberspace, p.150, Simon & Schuster, U.S.A., November 1996
  6. ^ "Lin Hsin Hsin Art Museum", Sightings!, Art, NetVoice October 1997, p.51
  7. ^ Museums Re-Examine Sites, With Frames, and Without, New York Times, U.S.A., 13 March 1997
  8. ^ "Museums of the Future Symposium", Co-ordinated and edited by Morten Hertzum, Interaction Design Centre, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland, 2 June 1998
  9. ^ https://spacegraph.app
  10. ^ https://techgenius.space
  11. ^ http://wimlworkshop.org/directory-of-women-in-machine-learning/
  12. ^ https://lhham.com.sg/IoT/index.html
  13. ^ https://lhham.com.sg/AI/Lin-Hsin-Hsin-AI-SG.html
  14. ^ "Modern Art in Singapore", Actuell DB, Deutsche Bank AG, Frankfurt, August 1989
  15. ^ "Kunst-Sponsoring durch Banken – Das Beispiel des Kunstkonzepts der Deutsche Bank AG", Prof Dr. Hans E. Büschgen, Vortrag beim 11. Churburger Wirtschaftsgespräch am 12 Oct 1996
  16. ^ "The awesome power of water", Straits Times, 30 June 1989
  17. ^ "Water, water, everywhere", Business Times, 3 July 1989
  18. ^ "Using Oil to convey a message", Straits Times, 4 July 1989
  19. ^ Adformatie, 18de jaargang No. 16, 1990
  20. ^ Uitkrant, jaargang 24 No. 8, April 1990
  21. ^ Alert, 6e jaargang No. 5, 1990
  22. ^ "Feinsinning und Züruckhaltend", Mannheimer Morgen, 16 July 1990
  23. ^ "Jedem eine Chance und eine Roje", Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Dezember 15, 1990
  24. ^ "Ein Hauch Fernost in der Bank", Neue Rheine Zeitung, März 6, 1990
  25. ^ "Die Kunst der Assimilation", Handelsblatt, März 9/10, 1990
  26. ^ "Am Schnittpunkt zwischen West und Ost", Rheinische Post, März 13, 1990
  27. ^ "Kunst aus dem Fernen Osten", Forum, Deutsche Bank AG, Frankfurt, No. 2, April 1990
  28. ^ "Hsin Hsin's work for Chile", Straits Times, 8 September 1989, p.4 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  29. ^ "Washi Paper", Japan Topic, Japan Information & Culture Center, Embassy of Japan, December 1991
  30. ^ "Artist fashions artwork made from papaya tree", The Straits Times, 8 June 1993 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  31. ^ "Beauty in Fiber", p. 77, Sali'ng Lahat Saling Tanggap—A Report on the ASEAN Conference and Workshop, Manila Philippines, 24 May 1993
  32. ^ "Lin Hsin Hsin – A Multimedia Artist in the Garden City", p. 146, Digital Boy (with CD-ROM), Tokyo, Japan, May 1996
  33. ^ “She paints with a mouse”, Straits Times, 28 November 1997, p.3 Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ "@rt: a Cyberart Show by Lin Hsin Hsin" Introduction by Dr Susan Hazan
  35. ^ “Painting a cyberscape”, The Straits Times, December 3, 1997, p.46 Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  36. ^ Pioneering a digital media art museum on the Web
  37. ^ "Editorial" Museum International, Museum and the Internet, Special Edition, UNESCO, Paris, France, and Blacknell, Oxford, United Kingdom, January – March 2000
  38. ^ "Museum International, Volume LII,1:2000"
  39. ^ ""N°205: Sector de Cultura de la UNESCO"". Archived from the original on 15 August 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
  40. ^ "Un musée d'art numérique : une première sur le Web / Lin Hsin Hsin"
  41. ^ "Musei in rete" Archived 25 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  42. ^ "Singapore artist's UN exposure", Straits Times, 18 February 2000, p.3 Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  43. ^ "Comments on Lin Hsin Hsin Art Museum", Dr Susan Hazan, Web design for the Cultural sector, Goldsmith, University of London, 6 January 2003
  44. ^ "Museum participation in a Network Society: A Reflection”, Olga van Oost, Program for Policy Research Centres, Gent, 2003
  45. ^ "Museos, Tecnología e Innovación Educativa: Aprendizaje de Patrimonio y Arqueología en Territorio Menosca”, José Miguel Correa Gorospe, Didáctica y Organización Escolar, Alex Ibáñez Etxeberria, Didáctica de las Ciencias Sociales, Laboratorio de Innovación Educativa y Nuevas Tecnologías, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea-Universidad del País Vasco, Madrid, Spain, 2003
  46. ^ "Museo Multimedia con Sistema de Gestión de Exposiciones Virtuales", Miguel Jesús Otero López, Lenguajes y Ciencias de la Computación, 2003, Spain
  47. ^ "As transformações da relação museu e público: a influência das tecnologias da informação e comunicação no desenvlvimento de um público virtual”, Rosane Maria Rocha de Carvalho, Doutorado em Ciência da Informação, Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia – IBICT, Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciência da Informação, Convênio CNPq/IBICT – UFRJ/ECO, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ, Escola de Comunicação – ECO, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Março 2005 [1]
  48. ^ "Comunicação e informação de museus na Internet e o visitante virtual", Rosane Maria Rocha de Carvalho, Revista Eletrônica do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Museologia e Patrimônio – PPG-PMUS Unirio | MAST, MUSEOLOGIA E PATRIMÔNIO – vol.I no 1 – jul/dez de 2008 [2]
  49. ^ "Churer Schriften zur Informationswissenschaft Herausgegeben von Josef Herget und Sonja Hierl Schrift 14, Verlag Arbeitsbereich Informationswissenschaft, ISSN 1660-945X, Chur, Februar 2009"
  50. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  51. ^ "CyberKunst aus Singapur" Wirtschafts Woche, 24 Februar, 2000
  52. ^ "eco-computing" – FacetedDBLP"
  53. ^ A Non-Photorealistic Rendering Images by a Handheld Device [3], July 2007
  54. ^ A Non-Photorealistic Rendering Images by a Handheld Device [4], July 2007
  55. ^ A Non-Photorealistic Rendering Images By A Handheld Device
  56. ^ Non-Photorealistic Rendering Images By A Handheld Device Archived 10 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  57. ^ “Let the mouse replace brush”, Straits Times, December 17, 1999, p.13 Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  58. ^ The Automorphism of Amalgamation of Polytopes and Tessellation, July 2007, Bridges Conference, San Sebastian, Spain
  59. ^ IS 1999, Paris, France
  60. ^ “Novel approach to 3D sculpting”, Straits Times, October 6, 1999, p.10 Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  61. ^ A New Paradigm for Visualization and Generating Grid Geometry Art and Beyond [5], July 2010
  62. ^ A New Paradigm for Visualization and Generating Grid Geometry Art and Beyond [6], July 2010
  63. ^ Interactive Web based Grid Geometry Construction [7], July 2006
  64. ^ Interactive Web based Grid Geometry Construction [8], July 2006
  65. ^ Paradigm Shift: An Eco-friendly Approach to Create and Display Stereoscopic Geometric Designs [9], July 2012
  66. ^ "The Art of i,j,k", Astronomie et Darwin, IS 2009, Metz, France
  67. ^ The Art of Equations, July 2008, Bridges Conference, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands.
  68. ^ Astronomie et Darwin, IS 2009, Metz, France
  69. ^ Using The Camera As A Paintbrush for Non-Photorealistic Renderings (NPR), Conference Proceedings, AIC 2011, July 2011
  70. ^ In-Camera Painting [10], 9 January 2013
  71. ^ I1)-Musika:Mobile Interface Musical Expression (MIME)
  72. ^ IV '07 Proceedings of the 11th International Conference Information Visualization, ISBN 0-7695-2900-3 [11]
  73. ^ Between the Lines Archived 27 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  74. ^ Between the Lines
  75. ^ Between the Lines Archived 27 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  76. ^ Between the Lines
  77. ^ In Bytes We Travel
  78. ^ In Bytes We Travel, review
  79. ^ Sunny Side Up
  80. ^ Love @ 1st Byte
  81. ^ Love @ 1st Byte, review
  82. ^ From Time to Time Archived 27 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  83. ^ From Time to Time
  84. ^ From Time to Time
  85. ^ Take A Word for a Walk Archived 27 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  86. ^ [12]
  87. ^ Lin Hsin Hsin : Work from Art, Science & Technology Series, 1994 Archived 27 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  88. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  89. ^ Lin Hsin Hsin : Memoirs of Deutschland Series II, 1993 Archived 27 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  90. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  91. ^ Lin Hsin Hsin : Work from Nature Series, 1992 Archived 27 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  92. ^ Lin Hsin Hsin : Work from Time Series, 1991 Archived 27 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  93. ^ "7th solo exhibition", Straits Times, April 26, 1990, p.4 Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  94. ^ "The artist who has 5000 books", Sunday Times, April 8, 1990, p.6 Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  95. ^ Lin Hsin Hsin : Memoirs of Frankfurter Buchmesse Series, 1990 Archived 27 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  96. ^ Lin Hsin Hsin : work from abstraction in music series, 1989[permanent dead link]
  97. ^ The man who made sculpture move"Straits Times, December 7, 1986, p.8 Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  98. ^ "Picasso: painting life into objects", Straits Times, 3 April 1988, p.58 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  99. ^ "Come aboard the 19th century", Straits Times, May 22, 1988, p.5 Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  100. ^ DBLP
  101. ^ Ann Arbor, MI: MPublishing, University of Michigan Library
  102. ^ International Computer Music Conference Proceedings, 2003
  103. ^ I1)-Musika:Mobile Interface Musical Expression (MIME)

External links[edit]