|Online goods and services|
E-commerce (electronic commerce) is the activity of electronically buying or selling products on online services or over the Internet. E-commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. E-commerce is the largest sector of the electronics industry and is in turn driven by the technological advances of the semiconductor industry.
The term was coined and first employed by Robert Jacobson, Principal Consultant to the California State Assembly's Utilities & Commerce Committee, in the title and text of California's Electronic Commerce Act, carried by the late Committee Chairwoman Gwen Moore (D-L.A.) and enacted in 1984.
E-commerce typically uses the web for at least a part of a transaction's life cycle although it may also use other technologies such as e-mail. Typical e-commerce transactions include the purchase of products (such as books from Amazon) or services (such as music downloads in the form of digital distribution such as the iTunes Store). There are three areas of e-commerce: online retailing, electronic markets, and online auctions. E-commerce is supported by electronic business. The existence value of e-commerce is to allow consumers to shop online and pay online through the Internet, saving the time and space of customers and enterprises, greatly improving transaction efficiency, especially for busy office workers, and also saving a lot of valuable time.
E-commerce businesses may also employ some or all of the following:
- Online shopping for retail sales direct to consumers via web sites and mobile apps, conversational commerce via live chat, chatbots, and voice assistants.
- Providing or participating in online marketplaces, which process third-party business-to-consumer (B2C) or consumer-to-consumer (C2C) sales;
- Business-to-business (B2B) buying and selling.
- Gathering and using demographic data through web contacts and social media.
- B2B electronic data interchange.
- Marketing to prospective and established customers by e-mail or fax (for example, with newsletters).
- Engaging in pretail for launching new products and services.
- Online financial exchanges for currency exchanges or trading purposes.
There are five essential categories of E-commerce:
- Business to Business
- Business to Consumer
- Business to Government
- Consumer to Business
- Consumer to Consumer
Contemporary electronic commerce can be classified into two categories. The first category is business based on types of goods sold (involves everything from ordering "digital" content for immediate online consumption, to ordering conventional goods and services, to "meta" services to facilitate other types of electronic commerce). The second category is based on the nature of the participant (B2B, B2C, C2B and C2C).
On the institutional level, big corporations and financial institutions use the internet to exchange financial data to facilitate domestic and international business. Data integrity and security are pressing issues for electronic commerce.
Conflict of laws in cyberspace is a major hurdle for harmonization of legal framework for e-commerce around the world. In order to give a uniformity to e-commerce law around the world, many countries adopted the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce (1996).
Internationally there is the International Consumer Protection and Enforcement Network (ICPEN), which was formed in 1991 from an informal network of government customer fair trade organisations. The purpose was stated as being to find ways of co-operating on tackling consumer problems connected with cross-border transactions in both goods and services, and to help ensure exchanges of information among the participants for mutual benefit and understanding. From this came Econsumer.gov, an ICPEN initiative since April 2001. It is a portal to report complaints about online and related transactions with foreign companies.
There is also Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation. APEC was established in 1989 with the vision of achieving stability, security and prosperity for the region through free and open trade and investment. APEC has an Electronic Commerce Steering Group as well as working on common privacy regulations throughout the APEC region.
In Australia, trade is covered under Australian Treasury Guidelines for electronic commerce and the Australian Competition & Consumer Commission regulates and offers advice on how to deal with businesses online, and offers specific advice on what happens if things go wrong.
The European Union undertook an extensive enquiry into e-commerce in 2015-16 which observed significant growth in the development of e-commerce, along with some developments which raised concerns, such as increased use of selective distribution systems, which allow manufacturers to control routes to market, and "increased use of contractual restrictions to better control product distribution". The European Commission felt that some emerging practices might be justified if they could improve the quality of product distribution, but "others may unduly prevent consumers from benefiting from greater product choice and lower prices in e-commerce and therefore warrant Commission action" in order to promote compliance with EU competition rules.
In the United Kingdom, the Financial Services Authority (FSA) was formerly the regulating authority for most aspects of the EU's Payment Services Directive (PSD), until its replacement in 2013 by the Prudential Regulation Authority and the Financial Conduct Authority. The UK implemented the PSD through the Payment Services Regulations 2009 (PSRs), which came into effect on 1 November 2009. The PSR affects firms providing payment services and their customers. These firms include banks, non-bank credit card issuers and non-bank merchant acquirers, e-money issuers, etc. The PSRs created a new class of regulated firms known as payment institutions (PIs), who are subject to prudential requirements. Article 87 of the PSD requires the European Commission to report on the implementation and impact of the PSD by 1 November 2012.
In China, the Telecommunications Regulations of the People's Republic of China (promulgated on 25 September 2000), stipulated the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) as the government department regulating all telecommunications related activities, including electronic commerce. On the same day, the Administrative Measures on Internet Information Services were released, the first administrative regulations to address profit-generating activities conducted through the Internet, and lay the foundation for future regulations governing e-commerce in China. On 28 August 2004, the eleventh session of the tenth NPC Standing Committee adopted an Electronic Signature Law, which regulates data message, electronic signature authentication and legal liability issues. It is considered the first law in China's e-commerce legislation. It was a milestone in the course of improving China's electronic commerce legislation, and also marks the entering of China's rapid development stage for electronic commerce legislation.
In 2010, the United Kingdom had the highest per capita e-commerce spending in the world. As of 2013, the Czech Republic was the European country where e-commerce delivers the biggest contribution to the enterprises' total revenue. Almost a quarter (24%) of the country's total turnover is generated via the online channel.
Among emerging economies, China's e-commerce presence continues to expand every year. With 668 million Internet users, China's online shopping sales reached $253 billion in the first half of 2015, accounting for 10% of total Chinese consumer retail sales in that period. The Chinese retailers have been able to help consumers feel more comfortable shopping online. e-commerce transactions between China and other countries increased 32% to 2.3 trillion yuan ($375.8 billion) in 2012 and accounted for 9.6% of China's total international trade. In 2013, Alibaba had an e-commerce market share of 80% in China. In 2014, Alibaba still dominated the B2B marketplace in China with a market share of 44.82%, followed by several other companies including Made-in-China.com at 3.21%, and GlobalSources.com at 2.98%, with the total transaction value of China's B2B market exceeding 4.5 billion yuan.In 2014, there were 600 million Internet users in China (twice as many as in the US), making it the world's biggest online market. China is also the largest e-commerce market in the world by value of sales, with an estimated US$899 billion in 2016. Research shows that Chinese consumer motivations are different enough from Western audiences to require unique e-commerce app designs instead of simply porting Western apps into the Chinese market.
Recent research indicates that electronic commerce, commonly referred to as e-commerce, presently shapes the manner in which people shop for products. The GCC countries have a rapidly growing market and are characterized by a population that becomes wealthier (Yuldashev). As such, retailers have launched Arabic-language websites as a means to target this population. Secondly, there are predictions of increased mobile purchases and an expanding internet audience (Yuldashev). The growth and development of the two aspects make the GCC countries become larger players in the electronic commerce market with time progress. Specifically, research shows that the e-commerce market is expected to grow to over $20 billion by 2020 among these GCC countries (Yuldashev). The e-commerce market has also gained much popularity among western countries, and in particular Europe and the U.S. These countries have been highly characterized by consumer-packaged goods (CPG) (Geisler, 34). However, trends show that there are future signs of a reverse. Similar to the GCC countries, there has been increased purchase of goods and services in online channels rather than offline channels. Activist investors are trying hard to consolidate and slash their overall cost and the governments in western countries continue to impose more regulation on CPG manufacturers (Geisler, 36). In these senses, CPG investors are being forced to adapt to e-commerce as it is effective as well as a means for them to thrive.
In 2013, Brazil's e-commerce was growing quickly with retail e-commerce sales expected to grow at a double-digit pace through 2014. By 2016, eMarketer expected retail e-commerce sales in Brazil to reach $17.3 billion. India has an Internet user base of about 460 million as of December 2017. Despite being the third largest user base in the world, the penetration of the Internet is low compared to markets like the United States, United Kingdom or France but is growing at a much faster rate, adding around 6 million new entrants every month. In India, cash on delivery is the most preferred payment method, accumulating 75% of the e-retail activities. The India retail market is expected to rise from 2.5% in 2016 to 5% in 2020.
The future trends in the GCC countries will be similar to that of the western countries. Despite the forces that push business to adapt e-commerce as a means to sell goods and products, the manner in which customers make purchases is similar in countries from these two regions. For instance, there has been an increased usage of smartphones which comes in conjunction with an increase in the overall internet audience from the regions. Yuldashev writes that consumers are scaling up to more modern technology that allows for mobile marketing. However, the percentage of smartphone and internet users who make online purchases is expected to vary in the first few years. It will be independent on the willingness of the people to adopt this new trend (The Statistics Portal). For example, UAE has the greatest smartphone penetration of 73.8 per cent and has 91.9 per cent of its population has access to the internet. On the other hand, smartphone penetration in Europe has been reported to be at 64.7 per cent (The Statistics Portal). Regardless, the disparity in percentage between these regions is expected to level out in future because e-commerce technology is expected to grow to allow for more users.
The e-commerce business within these two regions will result in competition. Government bodies at the country level will enhance their measures and strategies to ensure sustainability and consumer protection (Krings, et al.). These increased measures will raise the environmental and social standards in the countries, factors that will determine the success of the e-commerce market in these countries. For example, an adoption of tough sanctions will make it difficult for companies to enter the e-commerce market while lenient sanctions will allow ease of companies. As such, the future trends between GCC countries and the Western countries will be independent of these sanctions (Krings, et al.). These countries need to make rational conclusions in coming up with effective sanctions.
The rate of growth of the number of internet users in the Arab countries has been rapid – 13.1% in 2015. A significant portion of the e-commerce market in the Middle East comprises people in the 30–34 year age group. Egypt has the largest number of internet users in the region, followed by Saudi Arabia and Morocco; these constitute 3/4th of the region's share. Yet, internet penetration is low: 35% in Egypt and 65% in Saudi Arabia.
Cross-border e-Commerce is also an essential field for e-Commerce businesses. It has responded to the trend of globalization. It shows that numerous firms have opened up new businesses, expanded new markets, and overcome trade barriers; more and more enterprises have started exploring the cross-border cooperation field. In addition, compared with traditional cross-border trade, the information on cross-border e-commerce is more concealed. In the era of globalization, cross-border e-commerce for inter-firm companies means the activities, interactions, or social relations of two or more e-commerce enterprises. However, the success of cross-border e-commerce promotes the development of small and medium-sized firms, and it has finally become a new transaction mode. It has helped the companies solve financial problems and realize the reasonable allocation of resources field. SMEs ( small and medium enterprises) can also precisely match the demand and supply in the market, having the industrial chain majorization and creating more revenues for companies.
In 2012, e-commerce sales topped $1 trillion for the first time in history.
Mobile devices are playing an increasing role in the mix of e-commerce, this is also commonly called mobile commerce, or m-commerce. In 2014, one estimate saw purchases made on mobile devices making up 25% of the market by 2017.
For traditional businesses, one research stated that information technology and cross-border e-commerce is a good opportunity for the rapid development and growth of enterprises. Many companies have invested an enormous volume of investment in mobile applications. The DeLone and McLean Model stated that three perspectives contribute to a successful e-business: information system quality, service quality and users' satisfaction. There is no limit of time and space, there are more opportunities to reach out to customers around the world, and to cut down unnecessary intermediate links, thereby reducing the cost price, and can benefit from one on one large customer data analysis, to achieve a high degree of personal customization strategic plan, in order to fully enhance the core competitiveness of the products in the company.
Modern 3D graphics technologies, such as Facebook 3D Posts, are considered by some social media marketers and advertisers as a preferable way to promote consumer goods than static photos, and some brands like Sony are already paving the way for augmented reality commerce. Wayfair now lets you inspect a 3D version of its furniture in a home setting before buying.
Logistics in e-commerce mainly concerns fulfillment. Online markets and retailers have to find the best possible way to fill orders and deliver products. Small companies usually control their own logistic operation because they do not have the ability to hire an outside company. Most large companies hire a fulfillment service that takes care of a company's logistic needs.
Impact on markets and retailers
E-commerce markets are growing at noticeable rates. The online market is expected to grow by 56% in 2015–2020. In 2017, retail e-commerce sales worldwide amounted to 2.3 trillion US dollars and e-retail revenues are projected to grow to 4.891 trillion US dollars in 2021. Traditional markets are only expected 2% growth during the same time. Brick and mortar retailers are struggling because of online retailer's ability to offer lower prices and higher efficiency. Many larger retailers are able to maintain a presence offline and online by linking physical and online offerings.
E-commerce allows customers to overcome geographical barriers and allows them to purchase products anytime and from anywhere. Online and traditional markets have different strategies for conducting business. Traditional retailers offer fewer assortment of products because of shelf space where, online retailers often hold no inventory but send customer orders directly to the manufacture. The pricing strategies are also different for traditional and online retailers. Traditional retailers base their prices on store traffic and the cost to keep inventory. Online retailers base prices on the speed of delivery.
There are two ways for marketers to conduct business through e-commerce: fully online or online along with a brick and mortar store. Online marketers can offer lower prices, greater product selection, and high efficiency rates. Many customers prefer online markets if the products can be delivered quickly at relatively low price. However, online retailers cannot offer the physical experience that traditional retailers can. It can be difficult to judge the quality of a product without the physical experience, which may cause customers to experience product or seller uncertainty. Another issue regarding the online market is concerns about the security of online transactions. Many customers remain loyal to well-known retailers because of this issue.
Security is a primary problem for e-commerce in developed and developing countries. E-commerce security is protecting businesses' websites and customers from unauthorized access, use, alteration, or destruction. The type of threats include: malicious codes, unwanted programs (ad ware, spyware), phishing, hacking, and cyber vandalism. E-commerce websites use different tools to avert security threats. These tools include firewalls, encryption software, digital certificates, and passwords.
Impact on supply chain management
For a long time, companies had been troubled by the gap between the benefits which supply chain technology has and the solutions to deliver those benefits. However, the emergence of e-commerce has provided a more practical and effective way of delivering the benefits of the new supply chain technologies.
E-commerce has the capability to integrate all inter-company and intra-company functions, meaning that the three flows (physical flow, financial flow and information flow) of the supply chain could be also affected by e-commerce. The affections on physical flows improved the way of product and inventory movement level for companies. For the information flows, e-commerce optimized the capacity of information processing than companies used to have, and for the financial flows, e-commerce allows companies to have more efficient payment and settlement solutions.
In addition, e-commerce has a more sophisticated level of impact on supply chains: Firstly, the performance gap will be eliminated since companies can identify gaps between different levels of supply chains by electronic means of solutions; Secondly, as a result of e-commerce emergence, new capabilities such implementing ERP systems, like SAP ERP, Xero, or Megaventory, have helped companies to manage operations with customers and suppliers. Yet these new capabilities are still not fully exploited. Thirdly, technology companies would keep investing on new e-commerce software solutions as they are expecting investment return. Fourthly, e-commerce would help to solve many aspects of issues that companies may feel difficult to cope with, such as political barriers or cross-country changes. Finally, e-commerce provides companies a more efficient and effective way to collaborate with each other within the supply chain.
Impact on employment
E-commerce helps create new job opportunities due to information related services, software app and digital products. It also causes job losses. The areas with the greatest predicted job-loss are retail, postal, and travel agencies. The development of e-commerce will create jobs that require highly skilled workers to manage large amounts of information, customer demands, and production processes. In contrast, people with poor technical skills cannot enjoy the wages welfare. On the other hand, because e-commerce requires sufficient stocks that could be delivered to customers in time, the warehouse becomes an important element. Warehouse needs more staff to manage, supervise and organize, thus the condition of warehouse environment will be concerned by employees.
Impact on customers
E-commerce brings convenience for customers as they do not have to leave home and only need to browse websites online, especially for buying products which are not sold in nearby shops. It could help customers buy a wider range of products and save customers' time. Consumers also gain power through online shopping. They are able to research products and compare prices among retailers. Thanks to the practice of user-generated ratings and reviews from companies like Bazaarvoice, Trustpilot, and Yelp, customers can also see what other people think of a product, and decide before buying if they want to spend money on it. Also, online shopping often provides sales promotion or discounts code, thus it is more price effective for customers. Moreover, e-commerce provides products' detailed information; even the in-store staff cannot offer such detailed explanation. Customers can also review and track the order history online.
E-commerce technologies cut transaction costs by allowing both manufactures and consumers to skip through the intermediaries. This is achieved through by extending the search area best price deals and by group purchase. The success of e-commerce in urban and regional levels depend on how the local firms and consumers have adopted to e-commerce.
However, e-commerce lacks human interaction for customers, especially who prefer face-to-face connection. Customers are also concerned with the security of online transactions and tend to remain loyal to well-known retailers. In recent years, clothing retailers such as Tommy Hilfiger have started adding Virtual Fit platforms to their e-commerce sites to reduce the risk of customers buying the wrong sized clothes, although these vary greatly in their fit for purpose. When the customer regret the purchase of a product, it involves returning goods and refunding process. This process is inconvenient as customers need to pack and post the goods. If the products are expensive, large or fragile, it refers to safety issues.
Impact on the environment
In 2018, E-commerce generated 1.3 million short tons (1.2 megatonnes) of container cardboard in North America, an increase from 1.1 million (1.00)) in 2017. Only 35 percent of North American cardboard manufacturing capacity is from recycled content. The recycling rate in Europe is 80 percent and Asia is 93 percent. Amazon, the largest user of boxes, has a strategy to cut back on packing material and has reduced packaging material used by 19 percent by weight since 2016. Amazon is requiring retailers to manufacture their product packaging in a way that does not require additional shipping packaging. Amazon also has an 85-person team researching ways to reduce and improve their packaging and shipping materials.
Accelerated movement of packages around the world includes accelerated movement of living things, with all its attendant risks. Weeds, pests, and diseases all sometimes travel in packages of seeds. Some of these packages are part of brushing manipulation of e-commerce reviews.
Impact on traditional retail
E-commerce has been cited as a major force for the failure of major U.S. retailers in a trend frequently referred to as a "retail apocalypse." The rise of e-commerce outlets like Amazon has made it harder for traditional retailers to attract customers to their stores and forced companies to change their sales strategies. Many companies have turned to sales promotions and increased digital efforts to lure shoppers while shutting down brick-and-mortar locations. The trend has forced some traditional retailers to shutter its brick and mortar operations.
E-commerce during COVID-19
In March 2020, global retail website traffic hit 14.3 billion visits signifying an unprecedented growth of e-commerce during the lockdown of 2020. Later studies show that online sales increased by 25% and online grocery shopping increased by over 100% during the crisis in the United States. Meanwhile, as many as 29% of surveyed shoppers state that they will never go back to shopping in person again; in the UK, 43% of consumers state that they expect to keep on shopping the same way even after the lockdown is over.
Retail sales of e-commerce shows that COVID-19 has a significant impact on e-commerce and its sales are expected to reach $6.5 trillion by 2023.
Some common applications related to electronic commerce are:
- B2B e-commerce (business-to-business)
- B2C e-commerce (business-to-consumer)
- Conversational commerce: e-commerce via chat
- Digital Wallet
- Document automation in supply chain and logistics
- Electronic tickets
- Enterprise content management
- Group buying
- Instant messaging
- Internet security
- Online auction
- Online banking
- Online office suites
- Online shopping and order tracking
- Online transaction processing
- Print on demand
- Shopping cart software
- Social networking
- Usenet newsgroup
- Virtual assistant
- Domestic and international payment systems
A timeline for the development of e-commerce:
- 1971 or 1972: The ARPANET is used to arrange a cannabis sale between students at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, later described as "the seminal act of e-commerce" in John Markoff's book What the Dormouse Said.
- 1979: Michael Aldrich demonstrates the first online shopping system.
- 1981: Thomson Holidays UK is the first business-to-business (B2B) online shopping system to be installed.
- 1982: Minitel was introduced nationwide in France by France Télécom and used for online ordering.
- 1983: California State Assembly holds first hearing on "electronic commerce" in Volcano, California. Testifying are CPUC, MCI Mail, Prodigy, CompuServe, Volcano Telephone, and Pacific Telesis. (Not permitted to testify is Quantum Technology, later to become AOL.) California's Electronic Commerce Act was passed in 1984.
- 1983: Karen Earle Lile (AKA Karen Bean) and Kendall Ross Bean create e-commerce service in San Francisco Bay Area. Buyers and sellers of pianos connect through a database created by Piano Finders on a Kaypro personal computer using DOS interface. Pianos for sale are listed on a Bulletin board system. Buyers print list of pianos for sale by a dot matrix printer. Customer service happened through a Piano Advice Hotline listed in the San Francisco Chronicle classified ads and money transferred by a bank wire transfer when a sale was completed.
- 1984: Gateshead SIS/Tesco is first B2C online shopping system and Mrs Snowball, 72, is the first online home shopper
- 1984: In April 1984, CompuServe launches the Electronic Mall in the US and Canada. It is the first comprehensive electronic commerce service.
- 1989: In May 1989, Sequoia Data Corp. introduced Compumarket, the first internet based system for e-commerce. Sellers and buyers could post items for sale and buyers could search the database and make purchases with a credit card.
- 1990: Tim Berners-Lee writes the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, using a NeXT computer.
- 1992: Book Stacks Unlimited in Cleveland opens a commercial sales website (www.books.com) selling books online with credit card processing.
- 1993: Paget Press releases edition No. 3 of the first app store, The Electronic AppWrapper
- 1994: Netscape releases the Navigator browser in October under the code name Mozilla. Netscape 1.0 is introduced in late 1994 with SSL encryption that made transactions secure.
- 1994: Ipswitch IMail Server becomes the first software available online for sale and immediate download via a partnership between Ipswitch, Inc. and OpenMarket.
- 1994: "Ten Summoner's Tales" by Sting becomes the first secure online purchase through NetMarket.
- 1995: The US National Science Foundation lifts its former strict prohibition of commercial enterprise on the Internet.
- 1995: Thursday 27 April 1995, the purchase of a book by Paul Stanfield, product manager for CompuServe UK, from W H Smith's shop within CompuServe's UK Shopping Centre is the UK's first national online shopping service secure transaction. The shopping service at launch featured W H Smith, Tesco, Virgin Megastores/Our Price, Great Universal Stores (GUS), Interflora, Dixons Retail, Past Times, PC World (retailer) and Innovations.
- 1995: Amazon is launched by Jeff Bezos.
- 1995: eBay is founded by computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as AuctionWeb. It is the first online auction site supporting person-to-person transactions.
- 1995: The first commercial-free 24-hour, internet-only radio stations, Radio HK and NetRadio start broadcasting.
- 1996: The use of Excalibur BBS with replicated "storefronts" was an early implementation of electronic commerce started by a group of SysOps in Australia and replicated to global partner sites.
- 1998: Electronic postal stamps can be purchased and downloaded for printing from the Web.
- 1999: Alibaba Group is established in China. Business.com sold for US$7.5 million to eCompanies, which was purchased in 1997 for US$149,000. The peer-to-peer filesharing software Napster launches. ATG Stores launches to sell decorative items for the home online.
- 1999: Global e-commerce reaches $150 billion
- 2000: The dot-com bust.
- 2001: eBay has the largest userbase of any e-commerce site.
- 2001: Alibaba.com achieved profitability in December 2001.
- 2002: eBay acquires PayPal for $1.5 billion. Niche retail companies Wayfair and NetShops are founded with the concept of selling products through several targeted domains, rather than a central portal.
- 2003: Amazon posts first yearly profit.
- 2004: DHgate.com, China's first online B2B transaction platform, is established, forcing other B2B sites to move away from the "yellow pages" model.
- 2007: Business.com acquired by R.H. Donnelley for $345 million.
- 2014: US e-commerce and online retail sales projected to reach $294 billion, an increase of 12 percent over 2013 and 9% of all retail sales. Alibaba Group has the largest Initial public offering ever, worth $25 billion.
- 2015: Amazon accounts for more than half of all e-commerce growth, selling almost 500 Million SKU's in the US.
- 2017: Retail e-commerce sales across the world reaches $2.304 trillion, which was a 24.8 percent increase than previous year.
- 2017: Global e-commerce transactions generate $29.267 trillion, including $25.516 trillion for business-to-business (B2B) transactions and $3.851 trillion for business-to-consumer (B2C) sales.
- 2020: Government of India launched BHIM UPI digital payment interface in 2016. In the year 2020 it had 2 billion digital payment transactions.
- Comparison of free software e-commerce web application frameworks
- Comparison of shopping cart software
- Customer intelligence
- Digital economy
- E-commerce credit card payment system
- Electronic bill payment
- Electronic money
- Non-store retailing
- Online shopping
- Payments as a service
- South Dakota v. Wayfair, Inc.
- Types of e-commerce
- Timeline of e-commerce
- "Retail e-commerce sales CAGR forecast in selected countries from 2016 to 2021". Statista. October 2016. Archived from the original on 26 November 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Wienclaw, Ruth A. (2013). "B2B Business Models" (PDF). Research Starters: Business. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Subramani, Mani; Walden, Eric (June 2001). "The Impact of E-Commerce Announcements on the Market Value of Firms". Information Systems Research. 12 (2): 135–154. doi:10.1287/isre.188.8.131.5298. ISSN 1047-7047. Archived from the original on 15 June 2022. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
- Bussey, Ed (6 March 2018). "How to prepare your products and brand for conversational commerce". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "The Ultimate Guide to eCommerce Marketing". Mayple. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Simjanović, Dušan J.; Zdravković, Nemanja; Vesić, Nenad O. (March 2022). "On the Factors of Successful e-Commerce Platform Design during and after COVID-19 Pandemic Using Extended Fuzzy AHP Method". Axioms. 11 (3): 105. doi:10.3390/axioms11030105. ISSN 2075-1680.
- Khurana, Ajeet (25 November 2019). "Did You Know That There Are 4 Types of Ecommerce?". The Balance Small Business. Dotdash. Archived from the original on 22 January 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Hacon, Tom (4 March 2013). "T-Commerce – What the tablet can do for brands and their consumers". Governor Technology. Archived from the original on 7 June 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "Advertising and Marketing on the Internet: Rules of the Road". Federal Trade Commission. September 2000. Archived from the original on 8 March 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "Privacy and Security". Federal Trade Commission. Archived from the original on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "H.R. 6353 (110th): Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act of 2008". GovTrack. 2 October 2008. Archived from the original on 19 March 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce (PDF). New York: United Nations Commission on International Trade Law. 1999. ISBN 92-1-133607-4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "Australian Competition and Consumer Commission". Australian Competition & Consumer Commission. Government of Australia. Archived from the original on 3 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "Dealing with other businesses online". Australian Competition & Consumer Commission. Government of Australia. Archived from the original on 19 January 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "What to do if thing go wrong in Australia". Australian Competition & Consumer Commission. Australian Federal Government. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- European Commission, Sector inquiry into e-commerce Archived 6 February 2023 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 6 February 2023
- "Financial Services Authority". Financial Services Authority. Archived from the original on 28 December 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Parker, George; Masters, Brooke (16 June 2010). "Osborne abolishes FSA and boosts Bank". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "The Payment Services Regulations 2009". legislation.gov.uk. 9 February 2009. Archived from the original on 12 March 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "Telecommunications Regulations of the People's Republic of China". China Internet Information Center. 25 September 2000. Archived from the original on 5 April 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "Administrative Measures on Internet Information Services". China Internet Information Center. 20 September 2000. Archived from the original on 16 July 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Swan, Erin (30 October 2015). "The PRC Electronic Signature Law". eFileCabinet. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Robinson, James (28 October 2010). "UK's internet industry worth £100bn". The Guardian (report). London. Archived from the original on 19 February 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "Ecommerce contribution in Europe". Ecommerce News (infographic). 18 June 2013. Archived from the original on 25 January 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Millward, Steven (18 August 2015). "China is making a huge shift to mobile". Tech in Asia (Infographic). Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Olsen, Robert (18 January 2010). "China's Migration To E-Commerce". Forbes. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Tong, Frank (16 September 2013). "China's cross‑border e‑commerce tops $375 billion in 2012". Digital Commerce 360. Vertical Web Media LLC. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Millward, Steven (17 September 2014). "Here are all the must-see numbers on Alibaba ahead of record-breaking IPO". Tech in Asia. Archived from the original on 20 September 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- PYMNTS.com (22 October 2014). "China B2B Passes 4.5B Yuan". PYMNTS.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2023. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
- Gracie, Carrie (8 September 2014). "Alibaba IPO: Chairman Ma's China". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Millward, Steven (18 August 2016). "Asia's ecommerce spending to hit record $1 trillion this year – but most of that is China". Tech in Asia. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Parker, Christopher J.; Wenyu, Lu (13 May 2019). "What influences Chinese fashion retail? Shopping motivations, demographics and spending". Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management. 23 (2): 158–175. doi:10.1108/jfmm-09-2017-0093. ISSN 1361-2026. S2CID 170031856. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
- "More Buyers Join Brazil's Robust Ecommerce Market". eMarketer. 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Keelery, Sandhya (7 July 2020). "Internet usage in India – statistics & facts". Statista. Archived from the original on 30 December 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Pasumarthy, Phani Bhaskar (December 2016). "AFFECT OF DEMONETIZATION ON E-COMMERCE". ResearchGate. Archived from the original on 26 October 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "Fulfilled!:India's e-commerce retail logistics growth story" (PDF). KPMG. August 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "Ecommerce in the Middle East – What are the demographics?". Embitel. 17 June 2016. Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Eisingerich, Andreas B.; Kretschmer, Tobias (March 2008). "In E-Commerce, More is More". Harvard Business Review. 86: 20–21. Archived from the original on 3 December 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Burgess, Stephen; Sellitto, Carmine; Karanasios, Stan (28 February 2009). Effective Web Presence Solutions for Small Businesses: Strategies for Successful Implementation: Strategies for Successful Implementation. IGI Global. ISBN 9781605662251. Archived from the original on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Chen, Si-Hua; Xiao, Hua; Huang, Wen-de; He, Wei (2 January 2022). "Cooperation of Cross-border E-commerce: A reputation and trust perspective". Journal of Global Information Technology Management. 25 (1): 7–25. doi:10.1080/1097198X.2021.2022396. ISSN 1097-198X. S2CID 246867732.
- "Ecommerce Sales Topped $1 Trillion for First Time in 2012". eMarketer. 5 February 2013. Archived from the original on 30 March 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Enright, Allison (25 April 2013). "U.S. e-commerce sales could top $434 billion in 2017". Digital Commerce 360. Archived from the original on 2 December 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- DeLone, William H.; McLean, Ephraim R. (8 December 2014). "Measuring e-Commerce Success: Applying the DeLone & McLean Information Systems Success Model". International Journal of Electronic Commerce. 9 (1): 31–47. doi:10.1080/10864415.2004.11044317. S2CID 205751936. Archived from the original on 23 March 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021 – via Taylor & Francis.
- Bakos, Yannis (2001). "The Emerging Landscape for Retail E-Commerce". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 15 (1): 69–80. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.4.9128. doi:10.1257/jep.15.1.69. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Constine, Josh (20 February 2018). "Facebook's plan to unite AR, VR and News Feed with 3D posts". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 4 May 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Kawa, Arkadiusz (2017). "Fulfillment Service in E-Commerce Logistics" (PDF). LogForum. 13 (4): 429–438. doi:10.17270/J.LOG.2017.4.4. eISSN 1734-459X. ISSN 1895-2038. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Sabanoglu, Tugba (26 March 2021). "Retail e-commerce sales worldwide from 2014 to 2024". Statista. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "Electronic money and electronic commerce". BBC News. Archived from the original on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Dimoka, Angelika; Hong, Yili; Pavlou, Paul A. (June 2012). "On Product Uncertainty in Online Markets: Theory and Evidence" (PDF). Management Information Systems Quarterly. 36 (2): 395–426. doi:10.2307/41703461. JSTOR 41703461. S2CID 8963257. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2021 – via JSTOR.
- Marincas, Delia Adriana (2008). "Information system for the supply chain management". The AMFITEATRU ECONOMIC Journal. 10 (24): 236–253. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- Terzi, Nuray (2011). "The impact of e-commerce on international trade and employment". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 24: 745–753. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.09.010.
- "Consumers trump marketers in battle for purchasing influence". Home Textiles Today. 13 May 2022. Archived from the original on 7 November 2022. Retrieved 7 November 2022.
- "Ecommerce Rating and Review Tools Market – A Comprehensive Study by Key Players". The Daily Vale. 22 May 2022. Archived from the original on 3 November 2022. Retrieved 7 November 2022.
- Evans, Richard (1 May 2002). "E-commerce, Competitiveness and Local and Regional Governance in Greater Manchester and Merseyside: A Preliminary Assessment". Urban Studies. SAGE Publishing. 39 (5–6): 947–975. doi:10.1080/00420980220128390. JSTOR 43084757. S2CID 154155858.
- Januszkiewicz, Monika (October 2017). "Online Virtual Fit Is Not Yet Fit For Purpose: An Analysis of Fashion e-Commerce Interfaces" (PDF). Proceedings of 3DBODY.TECH 2017: 210–217. doi:10.15221/17.210. ISBN 9783033064362. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- DePillis, Lynda (16 July 2019). "Amazon's incredible, vanishing cardboard box". CNN Business. Archived from the original on 16 July 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Newman, Jesse; Bunge, Jacob (2020). "U.S. Postal Service Is Urged to Stop Delivering Mysterious Seeds". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 20 September 2022. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
- Barrabi, Thomas; Carter, Shawn M. (14 July 2017). "Retail Apocalypse: Pier 1 and the other retailers closing, filing for bankruptcy". Fox Business. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Forte, Daniela (11 March 2019). "Store Closures, Failures Continue to Mount as Retailers Seek to Pivot Faster". Multichannel Merchant. Access Intelligence, LLC. Archived from the original on 13 August 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "The retail apocalypse is shutting down flagship stores". USA Today. 1 August 2019. Archived from the original on 13 August 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
- Clement, J. (12 February 2021). "Most popular online retail websites worldwide in 2020, by average monthly traffic". Statista. Archived from the original on 21 May 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Song, Zhouying (January 2022). "The geography of online shopping in China and its key drivers". Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science. 49 (1): 259–274. doi:10.1177/23998083211002189. ISSN 2399-8083. S2CID 233623855. Archived from the original on 10 February 2023. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
- Kuhuk, Jane (19 May 2020). "COVID-19 shopping behavior: what products would customers rather buy online?". Competera (Infographic). Archived from the original on 21 May 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Anam, Bhatti; Akram, Hamza; Basit, Hafiz Muhammad; Khan, Ahmed Usman; Naqvi, Syeda Mahwish Raza; Bilal, Muhammad (2020). "E-commerce trends during COVID-19 Pandemic" (PDF). International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking. 13 (2): 1449–1452. ISSN 2233-7857. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 December 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Power, Michael 'Mike' (19 April 2013). "Online highs are old as the net: the first e-commerce was a drugs deal". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Tkacz, Ewaryst; Kapczynski, Adrian (2009). Internet – Technical Development and Applications. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 255. ISBN 9783642050190. Archived from the original on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
The first pilot system was installing in Tesco in the UK (first demonstrated in 1979 by Michael Aldrich).
- Palmer, Colin (December 1988). "Using IT for competitive advantage at Thomson holidays". Long Range Planning. 21 (6): 26–29. doi:10.1016/0024-6301(88)90155-0. Archived from the original on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021 – via Elsevier Science Direct.
- "E Commerce". StudyMode. 31 March 2013. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "Piano Entrepreneurs". Newspaper. Contra Costa Newspapers. Contra Costa Times. 11 February 1985.
- "In Tune With The Times - Piano Business Thrives in Slump". Newspaper. Contra Costa Newspapers. The Daily Review. 26 June 1986.
- "Online shopping: The pensioner who pioneered a home shopping revolution". BBC News. 16 September 2013. Archived from the original on 17 July 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- Aldrich, Michael (March 2009). "Finding Mrs Snowball". Michael Aldrich Archive. Archived from the original on 7 December 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "The Electronic Mall". GS Brown. 30 April 2010. Archived from the original on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Berners-Lee, Tim. "The WorldWideWeb browser". World Wide Web Consortium. Archived from the original on 1 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Geiger, Conrad (15 September 1992). "NeXT Nugget News Digest". NeXT. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Tayler, Jesse (11 April 2016). "Jesse Tayler talks App Store and NeXTSTEP with AppStorey". AppStorey. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "PRESS RELEASE: AppWrapper Volume1 Issue 3 Ships". Google Groups (Press Release). 28 September 1993. Archived from the original on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Lewis, Peter H. (12 August 1994). "Attention Shoppers: Internet Is Open". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Kelly, Kevin (August 2005). "We Are the Web". Wired. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Bunnell, David (16 May 2001). "The eBay Business Model". The ebay Phenomenon: Business Secrets Behind the World's Hottest Internet Company. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 71–81. ISBN 9780471436799. Archived from the original on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "First Electronic Stamps Being Put to Test". Sunday Business. 6 April 1998. p. 16. Archived from the original on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "eBay acquires PayPal". eBay. 8 July 2002. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "Diane Wang: Rounding up the "Ant" Heroes". Sino Foreign Management. Archived from the original on 23 February 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Allemann, Andrew (26 July 2007). "R.H. Donnelley Acquires Business.com for $345M". Domain Name Wire. Brainstorm Labs, LLC. Archived from the original on 8 April 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Kodali, Sucharita (12 May 2014). "US eCommerce Forecast: 2013 to 2018". Forrester Research. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Garcia, Tonya (22 December 2015). "Amazon will account for more than half of 2015 e-commerce growth, says Macquarie". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Mcnair, Corey (29 January 2018). "Worldwide Retail and Ecommerce Sales: eMarketer's Updated Forecast and New Mcommerce Estimates for 2016—2021". eMarketer. Insider Intelligence Inc. Archived from the original on 27 November 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "Global e-Commerce sales surged to $29 trillion" (Press Release). United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. 29 March 2019. Archived from the original on 2 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- "UPI crosses 2 billion transactions milestone in October, up 80% from year-ago; value nears Rs 4 lakh cr". Financialexpress. Archived from the original on 26 September 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
- "India: number of BHIM transactions 2022". Statista. Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
- Laudon, Kenneth C.; Traver, Carol Guercio (2014). E-commerce: Business, Technology, Society (10th ed.). Pearson plc. ISBN 9781292009094. Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
- Chaudhury, Abijit; Kuilboer, Jean-Pierre (2002). E-business and E-commerce Infrastructure: Technologies Supporting the E-business Initiative. McGraw Hill Education. ISBN 9780071123136. Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
- Frieden, Jonathan D.; Roche, Sean Patrick (2006). "E-Commerce: Legal Issues of the Online Retailer in Virginia" (PDF). Richmond Journal of Law and Technology. 13 (2). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
- Graham, Mark (2008). "Warped Geographies of Development: The Internet and Theories of Economic Development" (PDF). Geography Compass. Blackwell publishing. 2 (3): 771–789. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8198.2008.00093.x. S2CID 16190907. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2021 – via Wiley Online Library.
- Humeau, Philippe; Jung, Matthieu (21 June 2013). In depth benchmark of 12 ecommerce solutions (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
- Kessler, Michelle (22 December 2003), More shoppers proceed to checkout online, archived from the original on 31 December 2020, retrieved 5 May 2021
- Lowry, Paul Benjamin; Wells, Taylor Michael; Moody, Greg; Humpherys, Sean; Kettles, Degan (3 February 2006), Online Payment Gateways Used to Facilitate E-Commerce Transactions and Improve Risk Management, vol. 17 (published January 2006), pp. 1–48, SSRN 879797, archived from the original on 5 May 2021, retrieved 5 May 2021
- Kotler, Philip (2009). Marketing Management (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 9780136026600. OCLC 1149204899. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
- Miller, Roger LeRoy; Cross, Frank B. (2002). The Legal and E-Commerce Environment Today: Business in Its Ethical, Regulatory, and International Setting (3rd ed.). South-Western. ISBN 9780324061888. Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
- Nissanoff, Daniel (2006). FutureShop: How the New Auction Culture Will Revolutionize the Way We Buy, Sell and Get the Things We Really Want. New York City: The Penguin Press. ISBN 978-1-59420-077-9. OCLC 1149173925. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
- Seybold, Patricia B. (2001). The Customer Revolution (1st ed.). New York City: Crown Business. ISBN 978-0-609-60772-5. OCLC 1148801120. Retrieved 5 May 2021.